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Gowd Konkallu Hanumae - - 2008
The conantokins are a family of Conus venom peptides (17-27AA) that are N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. Conantokins lack disulfide bridges (six out of seven previously characterized peptides are linear), but contain multiple residues of gamma-carboxyglutamate. These post-translationally modified amino acids confer the largely helical structure of conantokins by coordinating divalent ...
Bhat Rajeev - - 2008
Effects of gamma irradiation on Mucuna pruriens seeds at various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) on the proximate composition, mineral constituents, amino acids, fatty acids and functional properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation resulted in a significant increase of crude protein at all doses, while the ...
Kurihara Shin - - 2008
Glutamate-putrescine ligase (gamma-glutamylputrescine synthetase, PuuA, EC 6.3.1.11) catalyzes the gamma-glutamylation of putrescine, the first step in a novel putrescine utilization pathway involving gamma-glutamylated intermediates, the Puu pathway, in Escherichia coli. In this report, the character and physiological importance of PuuA are described. Purified non-tagged PuuA catalyzed the ATP-dependent gamma-glutamylation of ...
Chou Yu-Cheng - - 2008
This study isolated agonists of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) from the green algae Chlorella sorokiniana, using a bioassay-guided purification strategy. PPARs are widely recognized as the molecular drug targets for many diseases including hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity and cancer. Two independent bioassays were developed. The first is the scintillation proximity ...
Li Changhong - - 2008
Pancreatic beta cells are hyper-responsive to amino acids but have decreased glucose sensitivity after deletion of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) both in man and mouse. It was hypothesized that these defects are the consequence of impaired integration of amino acid, glucose, and energy metabolism in beta cells. We used ...
Tong Man-Hua - - 2008
This study investigated the processing tolerances of two mushroom proteins with immunomodulatory activities, including FVE from Enoki ( Flammulia velutipes ) and LZ8 from Reishi ( Ganoderma lucidum ) mushrooms, under food processing treatments such as heating, sterilization, frozen storage, extraction in acid/alkaline conditions, and dehydration. Results showed that the ...
Chotimarkorn Chatchawan - - 2008
The effects of the oral administration of trans-ferulic acid and gamma-oryzanol (mixture of steryl ferulates) with ethanol (5.0gperkg) for 30 days to c57BL mice on ethanol-induced liver injury were investigated. Preventions of ethanol-induced liver injury by trans-ferulic acid and gamma-oryzanol were reflected by markedly decreased serum activities of plasma aspartate ...
Mustakhimov Ildar I - - 2008
Diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase (EctA) catalyzes the acetylation of diaminobutyric acid to gamma-N-acetyl-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyrate with acetyl coenzyme A. This is the second reaction in the ectoine biosynthetic pathway. The recombinant EctA proteins were purified from two moderately halophilic methylotrophic bacteria: Methylophaga thalassica ATCC 33146T and Methylophaga alcalica ATCC 35842T. EctA found in ...
Matsui Osamu - - 2008
A microorganism capable of liquefying cross-linked poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (C-L PGA) was isolated and identified to be an Acremonium sp. The fungus produced an enzyme that can disrupt the cross-linkages of C-L PGA generated by gamma-ray irradiation. The enzyme can also liquefy C-L PGA prepared by chemical cross-linkage, suggesting the involvement ...
Sha Di - - 2008
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the rate-limiting enzyme for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis. Previously, we reported the presence of truncated forms of GAD in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an unidentified endogenous protease responsible for proteolytic cleavage of full-length GAD (fGAD) to its truncated form (tGAD) was also observed. ...
Nagao Manabu - - 2008
To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms and subsequent evolutionary aspects of plant cold acclimation, we examined the effect of cold acclimation on freezing tolerance in Klebsormidium flaccidum, a green alga belonging to Charophyceae, a sister group of land plants. Freezing tolerance of K. flaccidum was significantly enhanced by cold treatment: survival ...
Chakraborty Sudipta - - 2008
(177)Lu is presently considered as an excellent radionuclide for developing bone pain palliation agents owing to its suitable nuclear decay characteristics [T(1/2)=6.73d, E(beta)((max))=497keV, E(gamma)=113keV (6.4%) and 208keV (11%)] and large-scale production feasibility with adequate specific activity using moderate flux research reactors. Multidentate polyaminophosphonic acids have already been proven as the ...
Wei Jianning - - 2008
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA is converted from glutamic acid by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). There are two forms of GAD in the brain, GAD65 and GAD67, referring to a molecular weight of 65 and 67 kDa, respectively. ...
Haffenden Luke J W - - 2008
By using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based methodologies, nonvolatile oxidation products of isotopically labeled glucose/glycine model systems were studied through a postpyrolytic in situ derivatization technique by using trimethylsilyldiethylamine. Analysis of the data indicated that the known reactive sugar intermediates such as glucosone and its deoxy derivatives can undergo in Maillard model ...
Komatsuzaki Noriko - - 2008
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has several physiological functions in humans. We have reported that Lactobacillus paracasei NFRI 7415 produces high levels of GABA. To gain insight into the higher GABA-producing ability of this strain, we analyzed glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to GABA. The molecular weight of ...
Kang, Su-Jin
A <TEX>$\gamma-butyrolactone$</TEX> autoregulator receptor has a common activity as DNA-binding transcriptional repressors controlling secondary metabolism and/or morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. A gene (scaR) encoding it was cloned from Streptomyces cravuligerus, a clavulanic acid producer, and was in vitro characterized in a previous report. In this study to clarify the in ...
Dhir Ashish - - 2008
Huntington's disease is an incurable, adult-onset, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease. The clinical symptoms of the disease are primarily related to the progressive death of medium spiny gamma-amino butyric acid (GABAergic) neurons in the striatum and the deep layers of the cortex. Further in the later stage of life, the degeneration ...
Chou Han Ting - - 2008
Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are major organic polycations essential for a wide spectrum of cellular processes. The cells require mechanisms to maintain homeostasis of intracellular polyamines to prevent otherwise severe adverse effects. We performed a detailed transcriptome profile analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to agmatine and putrescine with ...
Shaffer Christopher L - - 2008
The metabolism and disposition of N-[3-fluoro-4-[2-(propylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4-oxo-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (1), a potent subtype-selective partial agonist at the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor complex, were elucidated in humans following a p.o. dose of N-[3-fluoro-4-[2-(propylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4-oxo-1H-[3-(14)C]indole-3-carboxamide monomethane-sulfonate ([(14)C]1). Overall, 1 was well tolerated, with approximately twice as much radioactivity excreted in feces (64.8 +/- 13.3%) as ...
Rai Diwakar - - 2008
A number of curcumin bioconjugates with fatty acid, dipeptide and folic acid, viz. di-O-decanoyl curcumin (2), di-O-tryptophanylphenylalanine curcumin (3), di-O-bis-(gamma, gamma)folyl curcumin (4), C(4)-ehyl-O-gamma-folyl curcumin (5) and 4-O-ethyl-O-gamma-folyl curcumin (6) have been synthesized. Conjugates 2-6 have shown good antiviral property with EC(50) ranging between 0.019-0.105 microM against a wide range ...
Park Jin-Seong - - 2008
An efficient asymmetric synthesis of 6-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid as a novel gamma-turn mimic has been achieved. Structural analysis of the gamma-amino acid derivative was carried out using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and intramolecular hydrogen bonding between side chain amides confirmed the turn structure, which had been predicted by Ab initio computational study.
Coward James K - - 2008
Intracellular folate pools consist primarily of gamma-glutamyl isopeptide conjugates of reduced forms of the vitamin, folic acid. Biosynthesis of these oligomeric isopeptides is catalyzed by the enzyme folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase (FPGS). The highly anionic character of the oligomers renders them unable to cross the cell membrane and, therefore, these forms of ...
Gundersen V - - 2008
To review the understanding about co-localisation of amino acid transmitters in the brain. The idea that neurons release the same transmitter at all their synapses is associated with Henry Dale and formulated as Dale's principle by John Eccles. This idea has been modified during the last years based on several ...
Kanter Ines C - - 2008
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the enzyme which catalyzes the production of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). There is increasing evidence that severe GAD autoimmunity may be associated with refractory epilepsy. Immunomodulation and GABAergic drugs have been suggested as treatment options. ...
Trauner Gabriele - - 2008
Valeriana Officinalis L . is a traditionally used sleep remedy, however, the mechanism of action and the substances responsible for its sedative and sleep-enhancing properties are not fully understood. As we previously identified valerenic acid as a subunit-specific allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, we now investigated the relation between modulation ...
Deniau Gildas - - 2007
Gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA (1) is one of the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters of the central nervous system. This article describes the first synthesis of both the (R)- and (S)- enantiomers of 3-fluoro-GABA (2, 3F-GABA). DFT calculations were carried out in a continuum solvent model (PCM-B3LYP) to estimate the ...
Takahashi Tamotsu - - 2007
6,13-Dipropyl-5,14-dihydropentacene was aromatized by the combination of the formation of pentacene-DDQ adduct and abstraction of DDQ from the pentacene-DDQ adduct with 50 equiv of gamma-terpinene to give 6,13-dipropylpentacene cleanly. It was stable and isolable. In the presence of a catalytic amount of acid, 6,13-dipropylpentacene was isomerized to its tautomer.
Edden Richard A E - - 2007
The MEGA-PRESS-IVS method has been developed, which combines MEGA (a frequency-selective editing technique) editing with the point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) and inner volume saturation (IVS) localization, reducing the deleterious effects of spatial variation in coupling evolution. The IVS method has been previously described for improved efficiency of lactate detection. The ...
Okimura Keiko - - 2007
Improved strategies for the chemical conversion of natural polymyxin B and colistin to their N-terminal analogs are reported. First, the protection of the side chains of five L-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (Dab) residues in natural polymyxin B and colistin was achieved with trichloroethoxycarbonyl (Troc), then the resulting pentakis(N gamma-Troc)-polymyxin B and pentakis(N ...
Watanabe N - - 2007
Tempeh is a traditional fermented soyfood native to Central Java, Indonesia; tempeh is prepared by salt-free aerobic fermentation using Rhizopus. Similar to miso, tempeh is also reported to be antioxygenic. In this study, we used a tempeh-like fermented soybean. First, soybean was incubated aerobically and then successively incubated anaerobically. Because ...
Nakamura Tadahiro - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate the continuous and real-time influence of ophthalmic ingredients on rabbit cornea by monitoring electrophysiological characteristics. The tight junctional permeabilities of FITC-dextran 4,400 (FD-4) was also determined through the cornea in the presence of ophthalmic ingredients. Intact cornea showed approximately one k-ohmxcm(2) of ...
Davey Matthew P - - 2008
Plant populations growing at the margin of their range may exhibit traits that indicate genetic differentiation and adaptation to their local abiotic environment. Here, it was investigated whether geographically separated marginal populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea have distinct metabolic phenotypes within the plant foliage. Seeds of A. petraea were ...
Jaleel Cheruth Abdul - - 2007
Triadimefon (TDM), a systemic fungicide with non-traditional plant-growth regulator properties, was administered to Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. plants in order to determine its effects on oxidative injury in terms of H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation (LPO), electrolyte leakage (EL), protein and amino acid contents, as well as proline metabolism. The ...
Gao X - - 2008
The condensation reactions of sodium trimetaphosphate with single amino acids, namely glycine, L-alanine, beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid or pairs of these amino acids were reinvestigated by electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. It was found when mixtures were treated by sodium trimetaphosphate only in the presence of ...
Ramoino Paola - - 2007
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is believed to be the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, a function that has been extended to a number of invertebrate systems. The presence of GABA in the marine demosponge Chondrilla nucula was verified using immunofluorescence detection and high-pressure liquid chromatography. A ...
Palló Anna - - 2007
The inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) maintains low resting synaptic GABA level, and is a potential target for antiepileptic drugs. Here we report a high scored binding mode that associates GABA with gating in a homology model of the human GAT1. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations recognize the ...
Clift Michael D - - 2008
The design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inhibitors and inactivators can lead to the discovery of new GABA-related therapeutics. To this end, a series of aromatic amino acid compounds was synthesized to aid in the design of new inhibitors and inactivators of GABA-AT. All compounds were ...
Struve Melanie F - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Manganese neurotoxicity in humans is recognized as a form of parkinsonism with lesions occurring predominantly within the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, putamen, and caudate nucleus. METHODS: This study evaluated dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate concentrations in the globus pallidus, caudate, ...
Zeng Jianying - - 2007
Exogenous pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate (EP), the key ingredient in a new Ringer's solution in clinical trials, are antioxidants as well as metabolic substrates. In vivo studies show both to be protective in oxidative stress, with EP being better. The authors used an acute rat brain slice preparation to compare ...
Gould Georgianna G - - 2007
Apterous populations of Chaitophorous populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae) appear to track Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) leaf development. Few aphids occur on mature leaves. Marked individual aphids on leaves of different developmental stages were observed through a period of new leaf initiation. Nymph and adult C. populicola frequently track leaf ...
Kaiser Lana G - - 2007
Unambiguous detection of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the human brain is hindered by low concentration and spectral overlap with other metabolites. The popular MEGA-PRESS (PRESS: point-resolved spectroscopic sequence) method allows spectral separation of GABA from other metabolites, but suffers from a significant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction due to the ...
Fustero Santos - - 2007
Functionalized gem-difluoro beta- and gamma-lactams were synthesized through a novel intramolecular hydroamination reaction of difluoropropargyl amides. beta-Lactams were obtained via a Baldwin disfavored 4-exo-digonal cyclization using palladium acetate as the catalyst, whereas gamma-lactams were produced under basic conditions. Acid hydration of gamma-lactams produced ketoamides or hemiaminals selectively.
Yamano Yumiko - - 2007
An improved synthesis of gamma-hydroxybutenolides 1a-d was achieved via crossed aldol condensation between aldehydes 2a-d and the protected gamma-hydroxy-beta-methylbutenolides 3 or 4 using the bulky Lewis acid, aluminum tris(2,6-diphenylphenoxide) (ATPH). Using this same methodology, the gamma-hydroxybutenolides 17a-d having various heteroaromatic rings were synthesized and their anti-tumor activities were evaluated.
Winkler Margit - - 2007
Five- and six-membered carbocyclic gamma-amino acids were prepared in high enantiomeric purity by nitrilase-mediated transformation of hitherto unreported gamma-amino nitriles. The nitrilases investigated reveal a strong enantiopreference for cis-isomers (up to 99% ee), whereas trans-isomers were available in up to 86% ee. The biocatalytic enantioselective syntheses of cis-3-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (3b), ...
Ok Taedong - - 2007
Chiral beta-substituted gamma-butyrolactones are known to be important intermediates for many biologically active compounds such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivatives and lignans. We have developed a general, convenient, and scalable synthetic method for enantiomerically pure beta-substituted gamma-butyrolactones, with either configuration, via nucleophilic cyclopropane ring opening of (1S,5R)- or (1R,5S)-bicyclic lactone ...
Wang Qijun - - 2008
A Bacillus subtilis strain B6-1, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of vegetable, selectively produced antibiotics or poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) in two kinds of liquid media and their co-productions were obtained when using soybean and sweet potato residues in solid-state fermentation. The antibiotics were purified and identified as fengycins. After these ...
Narlawar Rajeshwar - - 2007
TO-901317, a LXR agonist, is an inverse modulator of Alzheimer's disease associated gamma-secretase. We synthesized TO-901317 analogous compound but replaced the hexafluorocarbinol moiety by an oxyacetic acid functionality and hypothesized that the replacement would change the mode of action from an inverse modulation to normal modulation of gamma-secretase. As anticipated, ...
Nakamura Yuki - - 2007
Plastidic phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid to yield diacylglycerol, which is a precursor for galactolipids, a primary and indispensable component of photosynthetic membranes. Despite its functional importance, the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic origin of plastidic PAP were unknown because no potential homologs have been found. Here, we report ...
Seddik Riad - - 2007
Spinal-cord slices from neonatal rats were used to record lamina-X neurons using the patch-clamp technique under whole cell recording configuration. Lamina-X surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord and contains sympathetic preganglionic neurons of the central autonomic nucleus. Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents were recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin ...
Popescu Laura - - 2007
Pirinixic acid is known for its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonistic action. In a recent publication, we have shown that aliphatic alpha-substitution of pirinixic acid enhances both PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonism. The goal of this study was to evaluate, whether the PPAR agonism of pirinixic acid may be also maintained ...
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