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Results 451 - 500 of 1533
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Hemmati P - - 2001
Recent evidence demonstrates that two subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsolateral core and the ventromedial shell can be distinguished by morphological, immunohistochemical and chemoarchitectural differences. In the present study, we measured basal levels of amino acids in microdialysates from both the shell and core subterritories of the nucleus accumbens ...
Varju P - - 2001
In addition to being the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to play a morphogenetic role in embryonic development. During the last decade, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in GABA synthesis and biological action. The present review is an attempt to summarise ...
Hou X - - 2001
15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP), also termed 8-isoprostaglandin F(2alpha), is one of a series of prostanoids formed by free radical-mediated peroxidation of arachidonic acid and exerts potent biological actions such as vasoconstriction. We recently demonstrated that 15-F(2t)-IsoP is metabolized in humans to a major metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F(2t)-IsoP (15-F(2t)-IsoP-M). 15-F(2t)-IsoP-M can also potentially be formed ...
Valiaeva N - - 2001
Several routes to a complex phosphinate phosphapeptide analogous to the gamma-glutamyl peptide Glu-gamma-Glu have been investigated. Formation of gamma-phosphono glutamate derivatives via addition of a phosphorus-based radical to protected vinylglycine was found to be of limited value because of the elevated temperatures required. Alkylation and conjugate addition reactions of trivalent ...
Fujiyama F - - 2001
Brain-specific Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter (BNPI) was recently reported to serve as a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT), and was renamed VGluT1 (Bellocchio et al. [ 2000] Science 289:957-960; Takamori et al. [2000] Nature 407:189-194). Ahead of these reports, cDNA encoding another brain-specific inorganic phosphate transporter, which showed 82% amino acid ...
Marianna P - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In addition to conventional therapy, current treatment of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia includes inducers of hemoglobin F synthesis (hydroxyurea, erythropoietin, azacytidine and butyrate). However, because of concerns about the dose-limiting myelotoxicity, potential carcinogenicity and high cost of the above agents, an intensive search for less toxic ...
Barrett-Jolley R - - 2001
The GABA-related compound nipecotic acid is commonly used to inhibit GABA uptake. This report shows that nipecotic acid can also directly activate GABA(A)-like chloride channels. When applied to outside-out patches of paraventricular neurones, nipecotic acid (1 mM) activated inward unitary currents (approximately 3 pA at a holding potential of -60 ...
Mitsushima D - - 2001
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are mainly located in the anterior preoptic area (aPOA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known as a potent regulator of the GnRH neurons. To examine the development of the GABAergic system in the aPOA, immunocytochemistry of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD(67)) was performed in immature (postnatal ...
Schaefer F - - 2001
Chronic renal failure is associated with delayed puberty and hypogonadism. To investigate the mechanisms subserving the reported reduced pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in chronic renal failure, this study examined the amino acid neurotransmitter milieu in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the hypothalamic region where the GnRH-secreting neurons reside, ...
Grün R - - 2001
In view of a decade of progress in ESR dating we have revised the ESR chronology of Border Cave. A detailed gamma ray survey in 1994 and newly calculated beta attenuation data led to total dose rate estimations that are between 0 and 30% smaller than previously estimated. Accordingly, the ...
Molnár-Perl I - - 2001
An overview is presented of HPLC methods currently in use to determine amino acids as their o-phthaldialdyde derivatives in the presence of various SH-group-containing additives. Crucial points that proved to influence the stability of the amino acid OPA derivatives have been discussed in detail: (i) the mol ratios of the ...
Subramanian P - - 2001
N-Phthaloyl gamma-aminobutyric acid (P-GABA) was administered to Wistar rats and 24 hr rhythms of glucose, cholesterol, total protein and lactic acid levels in blood were studied under semi-natural light dark conditions. P-GABA administration caused desynchronisation of the rhythms; while glucose and lactic acid rhythms were advanced, cholesterol and total protein ...
Liu L - - 2001
The putative hypolipidemic effect of garlic remains controversial. To gain further insight into the effect of garlic on lipid metabolism, the present study determined the inhibitory effects of water-soluble organosulfur compounds present in garlic on triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes. When incubated at 0.05 to ...
Higashi Y - - 2001
We pharmacokinetically examined the effect of gamma-butyrobetaine, a precursor of L-carnitine, on the change of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which have systemic L-carnitine deficiency due to lack of L-carnitine transporter activity. The concentrations of total free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid and stearic acid in ...
Penrose D M - - 2001
It was previously proposed that plant growth-promoting bacteria that possess 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase could utilize ACC that is present in the exudate of germinating canola seeds. The uptake and cleavage of ACC by these bacteria would lower the level of ACC, and thus ethylene within the plant, and reduce ...
Delmas F - - 2001
The combination of localized 2D 1H MR correlation spectroscopy and Hadamard encoding allows the simultaneous acquisition of multiple volumes of interest without an increase in the experimental duration, compared to single-voxel acquisition. In the present study, 2D correlation spectra were acquired simultaneously within 20 to 40 min in two voxels ...
Abdulrazzaq Y M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of the teratogenicity of vigabatrin (VGB) is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the placental transfer of VGB and to evaluate the effect of VGB on maternal, placental, and fetal concentrations of amino acids. METHODS: A single dose of 400 mg/kg VGB in physiological ...
Hrelia S - - 2001
The clinical usefulness of doxorubicin is limited by cardiotoxicity. We have demonstrated that doxorubicin has a dual negative effect on myocardial lipids, acting against highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) directly and desaturating/elongating enzymes required for their biosynthesis, thus decreasing linoleic and alpha -linolenic conversion to higher metabolites. Primary cultures of ...
Schor D S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Several methods have been published for measuring gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activity, but these methods are either impracticable because of the use of radioisotopes or insufficiently sensitive to determine small enzyme activities in leukocyte extracts. We developed a direct and sensitive enzyme method. METHODS: We developed a stable-isotope dilution ...
Narita M - - 2001
A gamma-cyclodextrin dimer modified with two pyrene moieties, 6-(2-pyrenebutylate-aminoethyl)pyrenebutylate-amino-6-deoxy-bis-gamma-cyclodextrin, has been synthesized in the presence of N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide from gamma-cyciodextrin dimer linked with ethylenediamine at an upper rim. The sensing ability and binding property of the titled dimer were investigated for bile acids and endocrine disruptors. This cyclodextrin dimer showed both ...
Redecker P - - 2001
Prompted by previous studies suggesting a regulatory role for the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) within the mammalian pineal gland, we carried out a study of rat and gerbil pineal organs to elucidate whether there is evidence for a vesicular storage and release of GABA and/or glycine. Immunohistochemistry revealed ...
McCarty M F - - 2001
Synthetic ligands of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) have shown antidiabetic activity in mice, apparently owing to the fact that they stimulate the transcriptional activity of PPAR-gamma/RXR heterodimers, much like thiazolidinedione drugs. The chlorophyll metabolite phytanic acid has been shown to be a natural ligand for RXR, active in concentrations ...
Singh K - - 2001
The sum peak intensity I400 (279 + 121 keV) relative to its singles peak intensity I279 or I121 has been determined in various environments of 75Se by gamma-gamma summing technique in a single HPGe detector. The change in intensity has been used to determine nuclear quadrupole interaction frequencies and electric ...
Berger B - - 2001
The supramammillary (SUM)-hippocampal pathway plays a central role in the regulation of theta rhythm frequency. We followed its prenatal development in eight Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from embryonic day E88 to postnatal day 12 (term 165 days) and in eight human fetuses from 17.5 to 40 gestational weeks, relying on ...
London R E - - 2001
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) plays a central role in the metabolism of glutathione and is also a marker for neoplasia and cell transformation. We have investigated the compound L-2-amino-4-boronobutanoic acid (ABBA) as a structural analog of the putative ternary complex formed by the enzyme, L-serine, and borate, proposed to function as ...
Ramachandran P V - - 2001
[figure: see text] alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Keto acids are reduced with diisopinocampheylborane at room temperature to the corresponding hydroxy acids with predictable stereochemistry in very high ee. The gamma-hydroxy acids produced were conveniently cyclized to the corresponding lactones. This provides a simple synthesis of 4-hexanolide, a component of the pheromone ...
Sohlberg K - - 2001
The surfaces of the gamma and eta forms of alumina are well known to differ significantly in Lewis acidity. Surface reconstructions observed on gamma- and eta-alumina are also qualitatively different, despite the close similarity of the bulk structures. Here we demonstrate through first-principles calculations that subtle differences in the bulk ...
McCabe B J - - 2001
The intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is a forebrain region in the domestic chick that is a site of information storage for the learning process of imprinting. We enquired whether imprinting is associated with learning-related increases in calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of neurotransmitter amino acids from the IMHV. Chicks were ...
Fedele E - - 2001
We performed a microdialysis investigation of extracellular amino acid (glutamate and GABA) concentrations during sterotaxic neurosurgery (the implantation of permanent electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) for deep brain stimulation in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, after prolonged therapy wash-out). Electrophysiological single unit recordings and ...
Muralidhar R V - - 2001
Baclofen is chemically (RS)-beta-(aminomethyl)-4-chlorobenzene propanoic acid. It is used in therapy of pain and as a muscle relaxant. Baclofen produces analgesia by increasing the concentration of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), the major rapid inhibitory transmitter. Both the isomers of baclofen have different therapeutic activity with respect to their interaction ...
Mertens P - - 2001
The aim of this study was to develop, for the first time in the human spinal dorsal horn (DH), an in vivo method for the study of amino acids (AAs). A microdialysis technique was used to sample AAs in the extracellular fluid of the DH apex in eight patients in ...
Sawai Y - - 2001
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a hypotensive compound, is formed from glutamic acid under anaerobic condition in tea shoots. Glutamic acid was exhausted in the first three hours of anaerobic incubation and the increase of GABA stopped. After that, when tea shoots were released under aerobic condition, glutamic acid reproduced rapidly. After ...
Ryll R - - 2001
Mycolic acids are characteristic fatty acids of Mycobacteria and are responsible for the wax-like consistence of these microorganisms. Decades of research revealed that mycolic acid-containing glycolipids, in particular trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM, cord factor) as their best-studied representative, exert a number of immunomodifying effects. They are able to stimulate innate, early adaptive ...
Yamamoto H - - 2000
A Chiralcel OJ column was used to determine the absolute configuration of naturally occurring alpha-ionylideneacetic acid from Cercospora rosicola and gamma-ionylideneacetic acid from C. cruenta as (R) enantiomers in accordance with their biosynthetic product, (S)-ABA. Both enantiomers of [1, 2-(13)C2]-alpha and gamma-ionylideneacetic acids were prepared and fed to C. rosicola ...
Vasiliou V - - 2000
Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules that are intermediates or products involved in a broad spectrum of physiologic, biologic and pharmacologic processes. Aldehydes are generated from chemically diverse endogenous and exogenous precursors and aldehyde-mediated effects vary from homeostatic and therapeutic to cytotoxic, and genotoxic. One of the most important pathways for ...
Zimmerli L - - 2000
The nonprotein amino acids gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) have known biological effects in animals and plants. Their mode of action has been the object of thorough research in animals but remains unclear in plants. Our objective was to study the mode of action of BABA in the ...
Gallardo W G - - 2000
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to increase the reproduction of the Brachionus plicatilis (NH3L strain). In the present study, the endogenous presence of GABA and 5-HT in the rotifers B. plicatilis (NH3L and Kamiura strains) and Brachionus rotundiformis (Langkawi strain) were confirmed by dot blot immunoassay ...
Kubica Z - - 2000
Three gamma-glutamyl alpha,beta-dehydroamino acids: L-gamma-glutamyl-dehydroalanine, L-gamma-glutamyl-(Z)-dehydrobutyrine and L-gamma-glutamyl-(E)-dehydrobutyrine have been prepared as potential ligands (inhibitors or substrates) for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Both isomers of gamma-glutamyl-dehydrobutyrines proved to be inhibitors of GGT, slightly better than the saturated analogue, L-gamma-glutamyl-L-butyrine. However, their solvolysis catalysed by the enzyme is slower than that of ...
Yamamoto H - - 2000
A new biosynthetic intermediate of ABA, (2Z,4E)-gamma-ionylideneacetaldehyde, was isolated from young mycelia of Cercospora cruenta. Under an (18)O2 atmosphere, an oxygen atom of this endogenous aldehyde was exclusively labeled. Similarly, three (18)O atoms were incorporated into the ABA molecule recovered after prolonged incubation; selectively labeled were one of the carboxyl ...
Haberek G - - 2000
The role of impaired mitochondrial function in processes leading to the generation of seizures was studied in mice. An inhibitor of mitochondrial complex III, 3-nitropropionic acid, which is known to evoke convulsions per se, and was used here in subthreshold dose, enhanced seizures generated by electric current and application of ...
Mossop J E - - 2000
Physiological and neurochemical experiments described here suggest that unilateral deafening causes a reduction in inhibition in the adult gerbil inferior colliculus (IC) contralateral to the deafened ear. Multiple-unit recordings were made from single electrode penetrations in the IC prior to and directly after contralateral cochlear ablation. These recordings showed up ...
Phan U T - - 2000
We recently identified a gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells, that catalyzes disulfide bond reduction both in vitro and in vivo and is optimally active at acidic pH. GILT is synthesized as a 35-kDa precursor, and following delivery to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-containing compartments ...
Musshoff U - - 2000
Human neocortical temporal lobe tissue resected for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy was investigated. In slices prepared from this tissue, epileptiform field potentials (EFP) were induced by omission of magnesium from the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). The effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase inhibitor vigabatrin on EFP were tested. Vigabatrin exerted ...
Uusi-Oukari M - - 2000
A deamination product of histidine, urocanic acid, accumulates in the skin of mammals as trans-urocanic acid. Ultraviolet (UV) irradition converts it to the cis-isomer that is an important mediator in UV-induced immunosuppression. We have recently shown that urocanic acid interferes with the agonist binding to GABA(A) receptors. We now report ...
Degteva M O - - 2000
The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. Significant worker and population exposures occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River ...
Miyazawa M - - 2000
gamma-Terpinene was mixed in artificial diet at a concentration of 1 mg/g of diet, and the diet was fed to the last instar larvae of common cutworm (Spodoptera litura). Metabolites were recovered from frass and analyzed spectroscopically. gamma-Terpinene was transformed mainly to p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-oic acid and p-cymen-7-oic acid (cumic acid). Similarly, ...
Swarbrick M E - - 2000
Investigating a general route for synthesizing pipecolic acid ) piperidine-2-carboxylic acid ( derivatives with substituents at the 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-position, we discovered a stereoconvergent process that provides an effective means for making 5, 6-dialkyl-epsilonpipecolate (Scheme 1, PhF = 9-phenylfluoren-9-yl). Hydrogenation of diastereomeric mixtures of gamma-oxo gamma-hydroxy and gamma-acetoxy ...
Estevez A Y - - 2000
Amino acid release from the rat cerebral cortex was analyzed using an in vivo cortical cup perfusion model. Topical applications of ouabain or high extracellular K(+) were used to mimic two dimensions of ischemic conditions which promote cell swelling and amino acid release. Ouabain (30 microM) induced significant releases of ...
Gerasimov M R - - 2000
Dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic system is associated with reinforcing properties of psychostimulant drugs. We previously demonstrated that increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic activity produced by gamma-vinyl GABA [D,L-4-amino-hex-5-enoic acid (Vigabatrin(R))], an irreversible inhibitor of GABA-transaminase, attenuated cocaine, nicotine, heroin, alcohol, and methamphetamine-induced increases in extracellular nucleus accumbens dopamine as well ...
Gallacci M - - 2000
The influence of temperature upon the effects of crotoxin (CTX), from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and gamma-irradiated (60Co, 2000 Gy) crotoxin (iCTX) was studied in rat neuromuscular transmission 'in vitro'. Indirect twitches were evoked in the phrenic-diaphragm preparation by supramaximal strength pulses with a duration of 0.5 ms and frequency ...
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