Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1071
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Vlahcevic Z R - - 1996
Cholesterol degradation to bile acids represents 50% of total elimination of cholesterol from the body each day. Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase catalyze initial steps in the neutral and acidic pathways, respectively. Both enzymes were recently cloned and sequenced, and hence the molecular basis of their regulation could be ...
Ayyad N - - 1996
We examined the effect of diet on gallstone incidence and the composition of biliary phosphatidylcholines in methyltestosterone-treated female hamsters. These hamsters were fed a nutritionally adequate purified lithogenic diet containing 2% corn oil, 4% butterfat, 0.3% cholesterol, and 0.05% methyltestosterone, resulting in a cholesterol gallstone incidence of 86%. This incidence ...
Uchida K - - 1996
The effects of cholesterol feeding on serum and liver cholesterol levels, fecal and biliary bile acid levels, bile acid pool size and bile acid composition were examined in 2-, 12- and 24-month-old male germ-free rats. The major bile acids in these animals were cholic and beta-muricholic acids. Cholesterol feeding increased ...
Ohrvall M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that low serum alpha tocopherol concentrations and a low proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the serum cholesterol esters may be associated with a high risk of developing coronary heart disease. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In this study the intraindividual reproducibility (biological 'tracking') of these variables ...
Bouwstra J A - - 1996
Ceramides were isolated from the pig stratum corneum (SC) and mixed in varying molar ratios with either cholesterol or with cholesterol and free fatty acids. The phase behavior of the mixtures was studied by small-(SAXD) and wide-angle (WAXD) X-ray diffraction. Ceramides alone did not exhibit a long range ordering. Upon ...
Masoom-Yasinzai M - - 1996
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease whose cause remains obscure. Blood from 15 RA patients and controls was taken and their ghosts separated. The ghosts were analysed for cholesterol content, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and eicosapentaenoic acid. The cholesterol content in the ghosts of RA patients was significantly lower ...
Gilliland F D - - 1996
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) produces marked hepatic effects, including hepatomegaly, focal hepatocyte necrosis, hypolipidemia, and alteration of hepatic lipid metabolism in a number of animal species. In rodents, PFOA is a peroxisome proliferator, an inducer of members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily and other enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, an uncoupler ...
Vlahcevic Z R - - 1996
The study objective was to determine whether and to what extent sterol 27-hydroxylase, the initial step in the "acidic" pathway of bile acid biosynthesis, is regulated by bile acids. Rats were fed diets supplemented with cholestyramine (CT, 5%), cholate (CA, 1%), chenodeoxycholate (CDCA, 1%), or deoxycholate (DCA, 0.25%). When compared ...
Ostlere L S - - 1996
BACKGROUND: In many studies, an increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides with isotretinoin therapy have been shown and investigators have commented on potential cardiovascular risk. A low intake of linoleic acid, the main essential fatty acid in man, may act as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. In ...
Lavallée B - - 1996
Pregnenolone- (PREG-), and dehydroepiandrosterone- (DHEA-) fatty acid esters (FA) are present in human plasma, where they are associated with lipoproteins. Because plasma has the ability to form PREG-FA and DHEA-FA in vitro from their unconjugated steroid counterparts, we postulated that the LCAT enzyme might be responsible for their formation. Here ...
Simon J A - - 1996
To examine the relation between serum fatty acids and blood pressure, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 156 men who were enrolled in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. After confirming the stability of the stored serum samples, we measured serum fatty acid levels by gas-liquid chromatography and examined their ...
Pai T - - 1996
Utilization of stearate as compared to various saturated fatty acids for cholesterol and lipid synthesis and beta-oxidation was determined in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. At 0.5 mmol/L in the medium, stearate (18:0) adequately solubilized by albumin was less inhibitory to cholesterol synthesis from [2-14C] acetate than myristate (14:0) and ...
Mizushima H - - 1996
The phase properties and structural characteristics of stratum corneum (SC) lipid lamellae have been a subject of considerable interest. To clarify the individual role of the stratum corneum constituent lipids, such as ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol, we investigated the thermotropic properties and aggregation structures of a pseudo-ceramide/stearic acid ...
Slyshenkov V S - - 1996
Preincubation of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells with millimolar concentrations of pantothenic acid, pantothenol or pantethine, but not with homopantothenic acid, at 22 degrees C or 32 degrees C, but not at 0 degrees C, makes the plasma membrane more resistant to the damaging effect of submillimolar concentrations of digitonin. It ...
Khan B A - - 1996
The influence of the two commonly used spices Murraya koenigii (curry leaf) leaf and Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds on the levels of lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterols was studied in rats administered 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (1,2 DMH). The levels of cholesterol and phospholipids decreased in the experimental groups when ...
Horrobin D F - - 1995
Although elevated levels of cholesterol are associated with increased risks of coronary and peripheral vascular disease, the association frequently fails to provide a causative explanation at the individual level. New hypotheses are required which, whether or not they are correct, will provide new lines of research. It is proposed here ...
Westerman P W - - 1995
2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained at 30.87 MHz for 8% (w/v) aqueous dispersions of mixtures of bile salts (MBS), mixed intestinal lipids (MIL; myristic acid, monomyristoylglycerol, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine = 5:1:1), and cholesterol, in which a single lipid component is selectively 2H-labeled. Using the observation that the time-averaged quadrupole ...
Shefer S - - 1995
We examined the effects of feeding deoxycholic acid (1% and 0.4% of diet), alone and in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid, on serum and biliary bile acid concentrations, hepatic morphology, and the activities and steady-state messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase in the rat. Feeding 1% ...
Guitaoui M - - 1995
Cholesterol and brown pigment stones found in the common bile duct are often radiolucent and therefore indistinguishable. The purpose of this study was to define contact solvent systems able to dissolve both stone types. The influence of mucolytic agents on in vitro pigment stone dissolution was first determined. It was ...
Bertolotti M - - 1995
Over the last few years important progress has been made on the quantitation of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylation, the rate-limiting step of bile acid synthesis. The use of a technique based on the determination of body water tritium enrichment after i.v. administration of [7 alpha-3H] cholesterol has allowed in vivo investigation ...
Favier M L - - 1995
The purpose of this work was to assess the respective role of bile acid excretion and of the end-products of cecal fermentations in the cholesterol-lowering effect of complex carbohydrates. The effects of two different fermentable carbohydrates (guar gum, beta-cyclodextrin), and sequestrant resin (cholestyramine) have been investigated in male Wistar rats. ...
Zhou G - - 1995
Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which catalyses cholesteryl ester formation from lecithin and cholesterol present in the surface of plasma lipoproteins. Sterol fatty acid acceptors have previously been shown to require the presence of a trans conformation of the A/B ring and a 3 beta-OH group. Our laboratory ...
Yamaguchi T - - 1995
PURPOSE: The stability of lipid emulsions (LE) containing various cosurfactants (oleic acid, cholesterol, Tween 80, or HCO-60) was evaluated using the maximum total interaction energy, Vtmax and the energy barrier for coalescence, W. METHODS: The Vtmax and W were calculated from the zeta potential and the rate of increase in ...
Cohen B I - - 1995
The effects of beta-muricholic acid and hyocholic acid on cholesterol cholelithiasis were examined in two animal models. The following experiments were carried out: A) In a gallstone prevention study, prairie dogs were fed the lithogenic diet with or without 0.1% beta-muricholic or 0.1% hyocholic acid for eight weeks. B) In ...
Mao-Qiang M - - 1995
Three key lipid types, cholesterol, ceramides (CER), and free fatty acids (FA), form the stratum corneum (SC) lamellar bilayers that mediate barrier function. Prior studies have shown that barrier requirements regulate CER generation from glucosylCER, and that this catabolic step takes place within the SC interstices. Here, we addressed whether ...
Simon J A - - 1995
To examine the relation between serum fatty acids and coronary heart disease (CHD), the authors conducted a nested case-control study of 94 men with incident CHD and 94 men without incident CHD who were enrolled in the Usual Care group of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial between December 1973 ...
Demigné C - - 1995
In the present study the actual role of propionic acid in the control of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis was investigated in isolated liver cells from fed rats maintained in the presence of near-physiological concentrations of glucose, glutamine and acetate. Using 3H2O for lipid labelling, propionate appears as an effective ...
Bertolotti M - - 1995
Little is known about the relationships between hyperlipidemia and bile acid metabolism. However, hypolipidemic treatment with fibric acid derivatives has been shown to increase biliary cholesterol secretion, presumably by reducing bile acid synthesis. To clarify such relationships, we investigated the effects of different hyperlipoproteinemic conditions and of treatment with fibric ...
Mensink R P - - 1995
When various fats and oils are given to humans, marked differences in the concentrations of serum lipids and lipoproteins will be observed. Relative to dietary carbohydrates, lauric, myristic and palmitic acid, which are saturated fatty acids, but also trans fatty acids from hydrogenated fats elevate the serum total and LDL ...
Cohen-Solal C - - 1995
The effects of hyodeoxycholic (HDCA) and alpha-hyocholic acids (alpha-HCA), on cholesterol, bile acid and lipoprotein metabolism, were studied in hamsters. The animals were fed a low cholesterol control diet supplemented with 0.1% HDCA or alpha-HCA for 3 weeks. In both treated groups, the LDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly lowered and was ...
Dictenberg Jason B. - - 1995
Trans isomers of dietary fatty acids, generated during the commercial hydrogenation of unsaturated fats, may contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD) in humans by interfering with lipid metabolism. To examine this possibility in a fat-sensitive model, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) was used to compare the cholesterolemic and triglyceridemic potential ...
Inamoto Y - - 1995
Lipids extracted from Helicobacter pylori were separated into lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography. Simple H. pylori lipids consisted of cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, diacylglycerols, and monoacylglycerols. Fatty acids were released from each lipid class by acid methanolysis, and analyzed by gas liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Unique ...
Simon J A - - 1995
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between serum fatty acids, which reflect dietary intake, and stroke, we conducted a nested case-control study of 96 men with incident stroke and 96 control subjects matched by age, clinical center, treatment group, and date of randomization who were enrolled in the Multiple ...
Kromhout D - - 1995
BACKGROUND: In the Seven Countries Study associations between intake of individual fatty acids and dietary cholesterol were studied in relation to serum cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease. All analyses concern only intercohort comparisons. METHODS: In the baseline surveys carried out between 1958 and 1964, risk factors for ...
Kurushima H - - 1995
We investigated the differences between the hypocholesterolemic effects induced by dietary linoleic acid and those induced by oleic acid in hamsters. Addition of 5% linoleic acid or oleic acid to a 0.1% cholesterol-supplemented diet diminished the increases in plasma total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol induced by cholesterol alone. ...
Sutherland W H - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid composition, plasma lipids and lipoproteins and dietary intake between urban and rural Melanesian Fijians. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed in a random subsample (n = 154) from a total survey population of 589 subjects. ...
Mizushima H - - 1995
The mechanism of the self-assembly of the lamellar structure of natural stratum corneum lipids (SCL) has been a subject of considerable interest. We have examined this question by using a synthetic pseudo-ceramide (sphingolipid E, SLE) which was analogous to the naturally occurring ceramide type 2. The thermotropic properties and the ...
Myers-Payne S C - - 1995
Rat pancreatic cholesterol esterase was examined for its ability to effect sterol transfer between small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) preparations. Sterol exchange was determined using SUV composed of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine/sterol (65:35) with or without 10 mol % phosphatidylserine or phosphatidic acid. This recently developed assay does not require separation of donor and ...
Anderson R L - - 1995
Soybeans are high in protein but also contain a number of minor constituents traditionally considered to be antinutritional factors. These include trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones. These compounds are now thought to have beneficial biological effects in the diet, such as lowering blood cholesterol or preventing cancer. Soybean ...
Potter S M - - 1995
A large body of literature indicates that protein from soybeans reduces blood cholesterol concentrations in experimental animals as well as in humans. The mechanism and component of soy responsible has not been established fully. Some suggest that when soy protein is fed, cholesterol absorption and/or bile acid reabsorption is impaired. ...
Scheibner J - - 1995
In the current study, the role of the supply of preformed and newly synthesized cholesterol for the feedback control of the synthesis of different bile acids and the secretion of biliary cholesterol was investigated. To define these cholesterol fluxes and the possibility of a different modulation by bile acids with ...
O'Reilly E B - - 1995
The dissolution rates and solubilities of cholesterol monohydrate, palmitic acid, and their mixtures in the cholelitholytic solvents monooctanoin (MO) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and mixtures of these two solvents were determined. The dissolution rates obtained were consistent with the diffusion-controlled two-component noninteracting model. The addition of MTBE as cosolvent ...
Pandak W M - - 1995
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The decrease in cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase induced by intraduodenal infusion of taurocholate in bile fistula rats may be indirect, i.e., mediated through release or absorption of an intestinal factor in response to the presence of bile salts in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine if ...
Bergstrom J D - - 1995
The zaragozic acids (ZAs), a family of fungal metabolites containing a novel 4,6,7-trihydroxy-2,8-dioxobicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3,4,5-tricarboxylic acid core, were discovered independently by two separate groups screening natural product sources to discover inhibitors of squalene synthase. This family of compounds all contain the same core but differ in their 1-alkyl and their 6-acyl side ...
Pahuja S L - - 1995
Although fatty acid esters of several steroids have been found in both blood and tissues, their biosynthetic origins are uncertain. For example, the fatty acid esters of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are synthesized in tissues by an acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase. These esters are not secreted, and the ...
Fukuda N - - 1995
The effect of cis,cis (cc)- and trans,trans (tt)-9,12-octadecadienoic (18:2) acids on ketogenesis and lipid secretion was compared in isolated perfused livers from cholesterol-fed rats. The hepatic uptake of 18:2 acids was comparable in both isomers. The livers perfused with cc-18:2 acid in comparison with those perfused without fatty acid substrate ...
Mital B K - - 1995
Lactobacillus acidophilus is considered to possess health-promoting attributes. These include anticarcinogenic and hypocholesterolemic properties and antagonistic action against intestinal and food-born pathogens. L. acidophilus can also survive the hostile environment and establish in the complex ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the beneficial effects of ingesting L. acidophilus accrue over ...
Dusserre E - - 1995
The aim of our work was to determine whether fatty acid modifications in smooth muscle cell phospholipids affect cholesterol efflux and desorption. [3H]Cholesterol was used to label cholesterol pools in the whole cell or selectively in the plasma membrane. Cells were incubated for 12 h in order to increase oleate, ...
Vanderveen J E - - 1994
Before 1974 the only regulations involving stearic acid were for its use as a food additive. In 1974 the regulation for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol contents was finalized; this regulation defined saturated fatty acid as the sum of lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Because the labeling of saturated ...
Javitt N B - - 1994
Bile acid synthesis from cholesterol can occur via two pathways, one initiated by sterol 27-hydroxylase activity or one initiated by that of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. In contrast to cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is found in the liver, sterol 27-hydroxylase is a widely distributed mitochondrial enzyme with high activity in vascular ...
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