Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1071
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VanderJagt Dorothy J - - 2003
To determine the cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of red cell membrane phospholipids (PL) of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and to correlate these levels with whole body phase angle that is related to the integrity and function of cell membranes. Blood samples were obtained from 69 children ...
Ren Shunlin - - 2003
Cholesterol metabolized to 7alpha-hydroxylated bile acids is a principle pathway of cholesterol degradation. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-determining enzyme in the "classic pathway" of bile acid synthesis. An "alternative" pathway of bile acid synthesis begins with 27-hydroxylation of cholesterol by 27-hydroxylase (CYP27), followed by 7alpha-hydroxylation by oxysterol ...
Mensink Ronald P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: ...
Steer P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid composition of serum lipids is associated with cardiovascular disease. As attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) is an early event in atherosclerosis, we investigated the relationships between endothelial vasodilatory function and the proportion of serum fatty acids, reflecting dietary fat quality, in 74 healthy men and women, aged 20-30 ...
Burnham M R - - 2003
In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the contents of egg yolks from commercial Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of 8 (trial 1) or 16 (trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass biological isolation units. ...
Downes Michael - - 2003
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a bile acid (BA) sensor coordinating cholesterol metabolism, lipid homeostasis, and absorption of dietary fats and vitamins. However, BAs are poor reagents for characterizing FXR functions due to multiple receptor independent properties. Accordingly, using combinatorial chemistry we evolved a small molecule agonist termed ...
Meerarani Purushothaman - - 2003
Vascular endothelial cell activation and dysfunction are critical early events in atherosclerosis. Even though very low or high levels of cholesterol can compromise cellular functions, cholesterol is a critical membrane component and may protect the vascular endothelium from oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acid-mediated inflammatory responses. We have previously shown ...
Perassolo Magda S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the fatty acid composition of serum phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol ester fractions and to analyze the lipid profile of microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 72 patients: 37 were normoalbuminuric (urinary albumin excretion rate [UAER] <20 microg/min), and ...
Kastelein John - - 2003
For most patients who require lipid-lowering treatment, statin monotherapy is the appropriate treatment. However, in those patients where statin monotherapy does not produce optimal lipid levels, the combination of a statin with niacin, a bile acid sequestrant, a fibric acid derivative, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor or a fish oil preparation ...
Johnson Rebecca A - - 2003
Cholesterol and free fatty acids in membranes modulate major biological processes, and their cellular metabolism and actions are often coordinately regulated. However, effects of free fatty acid on cholesterol-membrane interactions have proven difficult to monitor in real time in intact systems. We developed a novel (13)C NMR method to assess ...
Bae Soo Kyoung - - 2003
Cholesterol-conjugated proteinoids and their aggregation behaviors were investigated with model proteinoid systems. Model proteinoids of molecular weights in the range of 4000 to 6000 were synthesized by anhydrous thermal condensation forming a matrix with glutamic acid and aspartic acid and of naturally occurring amino acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier ...
Serkova N - - 2003
The present study was designed to quantify the major cellular metabolites in human placentae and their changes due to the confounding effect of time and subsequent hypoxia during sample collection using magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-and (31)P-MRS). The absolute placental concentrations of lactate, glucose, major amino acids and cellular volume/osmo-regulators, glutathione, ...
Glew R H - - 2003
In a previous study conducted in Nigeria, we found that children with sickle cell disease (SCD) had exceedingly low total serum cholesterol levels (mean=100-102mg/dl). The fact that significant reductions in the levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been documented in the serum phospholipids of these same SCD subjects ...
Kim Hae Kyung - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hesperetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid that has hypolipidemic properties. METHODS: Male rats were fed a 1 g/100 g high-cholesterol diet for 5 weeks along with hesperetin (0.02%, 0.066 mmol/100 g diet) and hesperetin metabolites. The hesperetin metabolites, m-hydroxycinnamic acid (m-HC), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3,4-DHPP), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid), ...
Gere-Pászti E - - 2003
The nature of the interaction between amino acids and cholesterol was shown by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) in the presence of monovalent cations of different concentration. The degree of interaction between amino acids and cholesterol was affected by different salt solutions and by applying cholesterol to the chromatographic plates at ...
Dikopoulos N - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory states such as hepatitis and sepsis are frequently associated with alterations of bile acid synthesis. These conditions are mediated by bacterial wall products like lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis. Hydrophobic bile acids repress cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase transcription via binding to ...
Grundy Scott M - - 2002
Two cholesterol-raising fatty acids in the diet, saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids, increase the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. This fact justifies the recommendation of a reduced intake of cholesterol-raising fatty acids. Emerging data suggest that diets higher in unsaturated fatty acids, particularly monounsaturated fatty acids, have several ...
Gazzola J - - 2003
The effect of free cholesterol on the fatty acid composition and growth of rat fetal enterocytes was investigated in the absence and presence of 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum. Cholesterol caused a significant reduction of cell number after 6 and 12 h in culture. The fatty acid composition of enterocytes ...
Sniderman Allan D - - 2003
This study determined the effects of apoA-I, HDL3, or hydroxy-beta-cyclodextrin on apoB-100 secretion and bile acid synthesis by HepG2 cells. The principal observations were that: 1) ApoB-100 secretion into the medium was significantly less after the addition of any of the three agents. 2) Triglyceride mass was not significantly changed ...
Kwak H S - - 2002
This study was carried out to determine the cholesterol removal rate and resulting changes in flavor, fatty acid and bitter amino acid production in reduced-cholesterol Cheddar cheese, made by cream separation followed by 10% beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) treatment. The cholesterol removal from the cheese was 92.1%. The production of short-chain free ...
Neumeister Volker - - 2002
Particular danger associated with an arteriosclerotic plaque consists in the possible rupture of its cap, dependent on the thickness of the cap covering the lipid core, its composition and different inflammatory changes. The purpose of this study was to compare the total cholesterol and collagen contents of arterial walls, both ...
Ramírez-Expósito M J - - 2002
Several studies have addressed the interaction between fatty acids and lipids with central nervous system peptides. Because aminopeptidases (AP) are involved in the regulation of neuropeptides, this work studies several AP expressed in cultured astroglia, after exogenous addition of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol to the culture medium. ...
Niu Shui-Lin - - 2002
Lateral domain or raft formation in biological membranes is often discussed in terms of cholesterol-lipid interactions. Preferential interactions of cholesterol with lipids, varying in headgroup and acyl chain unsaturation, were studied by measuring the partition coefficient for cholesterol in unilamellar vesicles. A novel vesicle-cyclodextrin system was used, which precludes the ...
Moreau Robert A - - 2002
Phytosterols (plant sterols) are triterpenes that are important structural components of plant membranes, and free phytosterols serve to stabilize phospholipid bilayers in plant cell membranes just as cholesterol does in animal cell membranes. Most phytosterols contain 28 or 29 carbons and one or two carbon-carbon double bonds, typically one in ...
Gylling Helena - - 2002
Statins effectively inhibit cholesterol synthesis and are currently the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and those unwilling to take, or who cannot tolerate statins, and patients with combined hyperlipidemia require a combination treatment. Statins combined with cholesterol malabsorption, caused, e.g., by ...
Pereira Dora I A - - 2002
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human gut-derived lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria on cholesterol levels in vitro. Continuous cultures inoculated with fecal material from healthy human volunteers with media supplemented with cholesterol and bile acids were used to enrich for potential cholesterol assimilators among ...
Chiang John Y L - - 2002
Bile acids derived from cholesterol and oxysterols derived from cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways are signaling molecules that regulate cholesterol homeostasis in mammals. Many nuclear receptors play pivotal roles in the regulation of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. Bile acids activate the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) to inhibit transcription ...
Osochuk S S - - 2002
In experiments on outbred albino rats the spectrum of plasma lipids and composition of HDL were studied during the early period of experimental peritonitis. The content of HDL cholesterol, activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, and intensity of VLDL lipolysis increased. We also revealed accumulation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic, a marker of essential fatty ...
Fuda Hirotoshi - - 2002
As a result of an alternative exon 1, the gene for human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (SULTB1) encodes for two peptides differing only at their amino termini. The SULT2B1b isoform preferentially sulfonates cholesterol. Conversely, the SULT2B1a isoform avidly sulfonates pregnenolone but not cholesterol. The outstanding structural feature that distinguishes the SULT2B1 isoforms ...
Devaraj Gopi N - - 2002
Monomers of some amphiphiles organize into bilayers to form liposomes and niosomes. Such bilayers are unstable or leaky and hence cholesterol is a common ingredient included to stabilize them. Cholesterol stabilizes bilayers, prevents leakiness, and retards permeation of solutes enclosed in the aqueous core of these vesicles. Other than cholesterol ...
Asano Keiji G - - 2002
This work investigates the chemical nature of fingerprints to ascertain whether differences in chemical composition or the existence of chemical markers can be used to determine personal traits, such as age, gender, and personal habits. This type of information could be useful for reducing the pool of potential suspects in ...
Hu Po Chen - - 2002
The effect of riboflavin or fatty acid methyl esters on cholesterol photooxidation was studied. Samples containing cholesterol, either alone or in combination with riboflavin or fatty acid methyl esters, were illuminated at 25 degrees C in an incubator for 28 days. The various cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and cholesterol were ...
Nemec T - - 2002
Addition of 0.1% of nonionic surface-active Tween 80 to a medium optimized for pectolytic enzyme production of Aspergillus niger increased the amount of enzymes excreted by 70%. In the presence of Tween 80 the amount of sterol esters and triacylglycerols was increased. During the course of cultivation the amounts of ...
Pereira Nádia Rosa - - 2002
This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, cholesterol contents and fatty acids profile of Brazilian commercial chicken giblets. The analysis were performed in gizzard, liver and heart in natura and also in cooked gizzard, fried liver and roasted heart. Fat and cholesterol contents ranged from 0.88% and ...
Watkinson A - - 2002
The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have ...
Pandak William M - - 2002
Conversion of cholesterol into 7alpha-hydroxylated bile acids is a principal pathway of cholesterol disposal. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-determining enzyme in the "classic" pathway of bile acid synthesis. An "alternative" pathway of bile acid synthesis is initiated by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27) with subsequent 7alpha-hydroxylation of 27-hydroxycholesterol by ...
Liu Jian-Jun - - 2002
Dietary sphingomyelin (SM) may have regulatory effects on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the colon. Alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase) is the major enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of SM in the gut. Previously we purified the enzyme and showed that the presence of glycerophospholipids inhibited SM hydrolysis induced by alkaline SMase in ...
Javitt Norman B - - 2002
The CYP27 gene is expressed in arterial endothelium, macrophages, and other tissues. The gene product generates sterol intermediates that function as ligands for nuclear receptors prior to their transport to the liver for metabolism, mostly to bile acids. Most attention has been given to 27-hydroxycholesterol as a ligand for LXR ...
Javitt Norman B - - 2002
Although a variety of oxidation products of cholesterol occur in vitro, enzyme-catalyzed oxidations can occur at only 5 sites on the cholesterol molecule: C7alpha, C22R, C24S, C25, and C27. The genes coding for the synthesis of these enzymes were cloned, the tissue expressions of the mRNAs were identified, and the ...
Erkkilä A T - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It has been suggested that the threonine (Thr) 54 allele of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene is associated with insulin resistance and affects the fatty acid composition of serum lipids. Our aim was to investigate the frequency of the alanine (Ala) 54Thr polymorphism ...
Passi Siro - - 2002
Skin surface lipids (SSL), a very complex mixture of sebum mixed to small amounts of epidermal lipids, mantle the human epidermis, thus representing the outermost protection of the body against exogenous oxidative insults. The present work is a systematic and quantitative analysis of upper-chest SSL and their content in antioxidants ...
Howlader Zakir H - - 2002
In the present study, we isolated modified LCAT (m-LCAT) by hydroxyapatite column chromatography after incubation of crude LCAT (after DEAE SephadexA-50 column chromatography, penultimate step of LCAT purification) with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) at 37 degrees C for 1 h. The activity was found to be about 30% lower than that ...
Ramirez Dario C - - 2002
The effect of cadmium (Cd) exposure through drinking water on lipid status in mouse peritoneal macrophages (pM) was studied. After 2 months, adult male Balb/c mice that had drunk water with 15 ppm of Cd, showed tissue damage mediated by oxidative stress, as assessed by serum measuring of tissue damage ...
Loganath A - - 2002
With a view to establishing whether first-trimester human placentas possess the ability to synthesize DHEA from cholesterol, homogenates of this tissue obtained from two groups of women undergoing elective termination of normally progressing pregnancy between 10 - 12 weeks gestation (n = 5, age 23 - 29 years and n ...
Salvini Séverine - - 2002
We aimed to improve the use of the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line for studying dietary lipid and cholesterol processing by using isolated pure clones (Chantret et al. 1994). Three clones (TC7, PD7 and PF11) were grown as monolayers on semi-permeable filters and compared for cell viability, fatty acid and ...
Elias Peter M - - 2002
Aged epidermis develops an abnormality in permeability barrier homeostasis, which is accentuated further in photoaged skin. The biochemical basis is a global reduction in stratum corneum lipids and profound abnormality in cholesterol synthesis. Various cytokine/growth factor signaling pathways are abnormal in aged skin, particularly in the interleukin-1 family. Barrier repair ...
Seegmiller Adam C - - 2002
In mammals, synthesis of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids is controlled by SREBPs, a family of membrane-bound transcription factors. Here, we show that the Drosophila genome encodes all components of the SREBP pathway, including a single SREBP (dSREBP), SREBP cleavage-activating protein (dSCAP), and the two proteases that process SREBP at ...
Hong Young Mi - - 2002
Cardiomyopathy induced by Adriamycin (ADR) is a cause of congestive heart failure. Recently, it has been suggested that ADR inhibits the carnitine palmitoyltransferase system (CPT I) and consequently the transport of long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes. This study was devised to ascertain how ADR affects serum lipid and fatty ...
Brzustowicz Michael R - - 2002
The molecular organization of cholesterol in phospholipid bilayers composed of 1,2-diarachidonylphosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC), 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine (18:0-20:4PC), and 20:4-20:4PC/18:0-20:4PC (1/1 mol) was investigated by solid-state (2)H NMR and by low- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of distinct quadrupolar powder patterns arising from [3 alpha-(2)H(1)]cholesterol intercalated into the membrane and phase ...
French Margaret A - - 2002
The effect of dietary intake of high palmitic acid levels in combination with other fatty acids in normal subjects was assessed. Palmitic acid (10% of energy) was fed in conjunction with decreasing levels of linoleic acid to determine if a threshold level of linoleic acid prevented palmitic acid from being ...
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