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Zhao Bin - - 2008
Neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH)-mediated hydrolysis of cellular cholesteryl esters (CEs) is required not only to generate free cholesterol (FC) for efflux from macrophages but also to release FC from lipoprotein-delivered CE in the liver for bile acid synthesis or direct secretion into the bile. We hypothesized that hepatic expression ...
Sathiyapriya V - - 2008
The global burden posed by cardiovascular disease due to a rising incidence of known risk factors like essential hypertension underlines an urgent need to identify other potential risk factors like dyslipidemia, elevated levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), Apo-B, and sialic acid in prehypertensive subjects. This study sought to examine the ...
Keller Paul M - - 2008
Endothelial lipase (EL) is a 482-amino-acid protein from the triglyceride lipase gene family that uses a Ser-His-Asp triad for catalysis. Its expression in endothelial cells and preference for phospholipids rather than triglycerides are unique. Animal models in which it is overexpressed or knocked out indicate EL levels are inversely correlated ...
Jakobsen Caroline Hild - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are normal constituents of the diet, but have properties different from other fatty acids (e.g., through generation of signaling molecules). N-3 PUFAs reduce cancer cell growth, but no unified mechanism has been identified. We show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) causes extensive changes in gene ...
Bertolotti Marco - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatic bile acid synthesis is the main mechanism whereby the organism can degrade cholesterol. Plasma levels of 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one have been reported to reflect bile acid synthesis and the expression or activity of the limiting enzyme of the main biosynthetic pathway, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Aim of this study was to correlate ...
Tanaka Yuji - - 2008
NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that is activated by oxidative stress and electrophiles that regulates the expression of numerous detoxifying and antioxidant genes. Previous studies have shown that Nrf2 protects the liver from xenobiotic toxicity; however, whether Nrf2 plays a role in lipid homeostasis in liver is ...
Benadie Yolandy - - 2008
Mycolic acids (MAs) are a major component of the cell walls of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and related organisms. These alpha-alkyl beta-hydroxy long fatty acids have been the subject of numerous studies for their immunological properties. We previously reported that an interaction between cholesterol and mycolic acids could be responsible for the ...
Larregle Ethel V - - 2008
We investigated the effect of exposition to cadmium (Cd, 15ppm for 8 weeks) through drinking water on liver lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats. As compared to metal non-exposed (control) rats, the serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL+VLDL cholesterol concentrations increased. This was associated to a decrease of lipoprotein lipase ...
Fang Yi-Ping - - 2008
In this study we successfully entrapped 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in liposome, although it exists as a zwitter ion. A molar ratio of 2:1:2.5 phosphatidyle-thanolamine (PE)/cholesterol/sodium stearate represented the best condition to achieve high entrapment efficiency (29.37 +/- 1.21%), and the average vehicle size was 133.6 +/- 2.8 nm. After 32 ...
Engelen M - - 2008
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder and is characterized by a striking and unpredictable variation in phenotypic expression. It ranges from a rapidly progressive and fatal cerebral demyelinating disease in childhood (CCALD), to the milder slowly progressive form in adulthood (AMN). X-ALD is caused by mutations in ...
Leikin-Frenkel Alicia - - 2008
Fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs) prevent and dissolve cholesterol gallstones and prevent diet induced fatty liver, in mice. The present studies aimed to test their hypocholesterolemic effects in mice. Gallstone susceptible (C57L/J) mice, on high fat (HFD) or regular diet (RD), were treated with the conjugate of cholic acid ...
Lam Cheuk Kai - - 2008
We investigated the relative hypocholesterolemic activity of linoleic acid (LA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), alpha-linolenic acid (LN) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) in hamsters. Five groups of hamsters (n=10 each) were fed either the control diet or one of the four fatty acids-supplemented diets for 6 weeks. Results demonstrated that ...
Dyer David H - - 2008
Mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 (AeSCP-2) and sterol carrier protein-2-like2 (AeSCP-2L2) are members of the SCP-2 protein family with similar expression profiles in the mosquito life cycle. In an effort to understand how lipids can be transported by different SCP-2 proteins, the three-dimensional crystal structure of AeSCP-2L2 was solved at 1.7 ...
Choi Sung-Won - - 2007
Squalene synthase plays an important role in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Inhibiting this enzyme in hypercholesterolemia can lower not only plasma cholesterol but also plasma triglyceride levels. A squalene synthase inhibitor was screened from Prunus mume fruit, and then purified via sequential processes of ethanol extraction, HP-20 column chromatography, ethyl ...
Davidson Michael H - - 2007
Bile-acid sequestrants augment cholesterol excretion via enhanced conversion to bile acids, and act to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), especially when combined with other cholesterol-lowering drugs. Colesevelam hydrochloride (HCL) has become the preferred drug of this class due to fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects. This article reviews the use of colesevelam ...
Tkatcheva Victoria - - 2007
The physiological responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to lithium (as LiCl) in moderately hard freshwater (CaCO(3) = 120-140 ppm, Na(+) = approximately 0.6 mM) were studied. The study employed a 15-day step-up exposure regime; 66 microg/L Li for the first 9 days and 528 microg/L for the next ...
Gilardi Federica - - 2007
Mammals dispose of cholesterol mainly through 7alpha-hydroxylated bile acids, and the enzyme catalyzing the 7alpha-hydroxylation, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), has a deep impact on cholesterol homeostasis. In this review, we present the study of regulation of CYP7A1 as a good exemplification of the extraordinary contribution of molecular biology to the advancement ...
Lichtenstein Laeticia - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of plasma lipoprotein levels may increase the risk for atherosclerosis. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4, also known as fasting-induced adipose factor Fiaf, was uncovered as a novel modulator of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Here we take advantage of the fasting-dependent phenotype of Angptl4-transgenic (Angptl4-Tg) mice to better characterize the metabolic ...
Heverin Maura M Division of Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, S-14186, - - 2007
Characterization of cholesterol homeostasis in male mice with a genetic inactivation of 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta24-reductase, causing replacement of almost all cholesterol with desmosterol. There was an increase in hepatic sterol synthesis and markedly increased fecal loss of neutral sterols. Fecal excretion of bile acids was similar in knockout mice and in controls. ...
Visavadiya Nishant P - - 2009
Hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia are major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Root of Asparagus racemosus (AR) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is known for its steroidal saponin content. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesteremic and antioxidant potential of AR root in both normo- ...
Tachibana Shizuko - - 2007
In this study we analyzed functions of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in sterol transport from Caco-2 cells. Treatment with a synthetic liver x receptor ligand elevated both mRNA and protein levels of ABCG5, G8, and ABCA1. The ligand stimulated cholesterol efflux, suggesting that ABC transporters are involved in it. ...
Nałecz Katarzyna A - - 2007
Palmitoylcarnitine was previously shown to promote differentiation of neuroblastoma NB-2a cells. It was also observed to increase palmitoylation of several proteins and to diminish incorporation of palmitic acid to phospholipids, as well as to affect growth associated protein GAP-43 by decreasing its phosphorylation and interaction with protein kinase C. The ...
Wydro Paweł - - 2007
Owing to its distinct chemico-biological properties, chitosan, a cationic biopolymer, offers a great potential in multifarious bioapplications. One such application is as a dietary antilipidemic supplement to be used to reduce obesity/overweight and to lower cholesterol. The lipid-binding efficiency of chitosan, however, remains debatable. Accordingly, in this study we investigated ...
Natali Francesco - - 2007
Glial cells play a pivotal role in brain fatty acid metabolism and membrane biogenesis. However, the potential regulation of lipogenesis and cholesterologenesis by fatty acids in glial cells has been barely investigated. Here, we show that physiologically relevant concentrations of various saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly reduce [1-(14)C]acetate ...
Zhang Fang - - 2007
A selection and optimization procedure for the synbiotic combination of probiotic and prebiotics was established to optimize its cholesterol removal in vitro. In light of fermentability, prebiotics utilization by probiotics was highly variable and interspecies differences existed. Based on the results of fermentability, L. plantarum LS12, Ls31, LP529 and L. ...
Bastiat Guillaume - - 2007
We present a novel formulation of non-phospholipid liposomes formed from cholesterol and palmitic acid. Despite the fact that these two lipidic species do not form individually fluid bilayers, we show that once mixed together, fluid bilayers can be obtained and, moreover, these can be extruded using classical extrusion processes to ...
Ghezzi Silvia - - 2007
Cigarette smoke (CS) contains thousands of substances, mainly free radicals that have as a target the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Long chain PUFA are produced through elongation and desaturation reactions from their precursors; the desaturation reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes: the conversion of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid, LA) to 18:3n-6 ...
Hişmioğullari Adnan Adil - - 2007
The liver has many biochemical functions, of which one of the most important is bile formation. Bile is both a secretory and an excretory fluid and two of its most important functions are the delivery to the intestinal tract of: (i) bile acids to assist in fat digestion and absorption; ...
Fauler G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Statins inhibit the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate by HMG-CoA reductase. Statins are usually taken in the evening as the HMG-CoA reductase activity is high during the night. This recommendation might not apply if statins are given as extended-release (ER) ...
Garg Neeraj - - 2007
Based on the scaffold of the pharmacologically selective thyromimetic 2b, structurally a close analog to KB-141 (2a), a number of novel N-acylated-alpha-amino acid derivatives were synthesized and tested in a TR radioligand binding assay as well as in a reporter cell assay. On the basis of TRbeta(1)-isoform selectivity and affinity, ...
Mazalli Mônica Roberta - - 2007
The effect of the storage of egg powder on cholesterol oxide formation and alterations in the fatty acid composition was studied. Two commercial brands, A and B, were studied at 0 time and then monthly for up to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Five cholesterol oxides were identified and quantified ...
Seidah Nabil G - - 2007
The family of the secretory proprotein convertases (PCs) comprises seven basic amino acid (aa)-specific subtilisin-like serine proteinases known as PC1/3, PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, PACE4 and PC7, and two other PCs, SKI-1 (subtilisin-kexin isozyme-1)/S1P (site-1 protease) and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9) that cleave at nonbasic residues. Except for ...
Norlin Maria - - 2007
This article aims to give an overview on the characterization, properties and regulation of enzymes, particularly the cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes, in the formation of bile acids from cholesterol. Bile acids are biologically active molecules that promote absorption of dietary lipids in the intestine and stimulate biliary excretion of cholesterol. ...
Souchet Nathalie - - 2007
Sterol composition was determined in snow crab hepatopancreas and mackerel and herring viscera for various locations and collection periods. A simple and valuable method, using direct saponification and extraction with water-cyclohexane has been optimized to recover total sterol. They were identified and quantified as trimethylsilyl ether derivatives by GC-MS analysis. ...
Castro Inar A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of a formulation containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid combined with soluble fibers (beta-glucan and guar gum) on fasting blood lipids used as coronary heart disease biomarkers of individuals classified into different levels of lipidemia by multivariate techniques. METHODS: Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein ...
Iwahashi Makio - - 2007
It has been empirically known that cholesterol largely increases the viscosity of oleic acid. To clarify the mechanism of the effect of cholesterol on the intermolecular and the intramolecular (segmental) movements of oleic acid in the liquid state, we measured density, viscosity, IR, 1H NMR chemical shift, self-diffusion coefficient, and ...
Xiong Quanbo - - 2007
In the Liebermann-Burchard (LB) colorimetric assay, treatment of cholesterol with sulfuric acid, acetic anhydride, and acetic acid elicits a blue color. We studied the reactivity of cholesterol under LB conditions and provide definitive NMR characterization for approximately 20 products, whose structure and distribution suggest the following mechanistic picture. The major ...
Turunen Mikael - - 2007
Fatty acid esterification of dolichol and cholesterol in Niemann-Pick type C1 mouse (Balb/c NIH npc1(-/-)) livers was investigated in response to treatment with peroxisomal proliferators. These inducers have hypolipidemic properties and influence the mevalonate pathway and the intracellular transport of the final products of this biosynthetic route. Such inducers are ...
Eapen Bell Raj - - 2007
Ultraviolet A photosensitivity is a debilitating symptom associated with the metabolic disorder Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). SLOS is a manifestation of the deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, an enzyme involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis. As a result several abnormal intermediary compounds are formed among which Cholesta 5, 7, 9(11)-trien-3beta-ol is the most ...
Norlén L - - 2007
The barrier function of skin ultimately depends on the physical state and structural organisation of the stratum corneum extracellular lipid matrix. Ceramides, cholesterol and a broad distribution of saturated long-chain free fatty acids dominate the stratum corneum lipid composition. Additionally, smaller amounts of cholesterol sulfate and cholesteryl oleate may be ...
Beyea Michael M - - 2007
Liver X receptor (LXR) activation represents a mechanism to prevent macrophage foam cell formation. Previously, we demonstrated that partial inhibition of oxidosqualene:lanosterol cyclase (OSC) stimulated synthesis of the LXR agonist 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol (24(S),25-epoxy) and enhanced ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. In contrast to a synthetic, nonsteroidal LXR activator, TO-901317, triglyceride accumulation was not ...
Malmberg Per - - 2007
Time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was utilized to address the issue of localization of lipids and inorganic ions in healthy rat aorta and human atherosclerotic plaque. Pieces of rat aorta were high pressure frozen, freeze-fractured and freeze dried. The samples were analyzed by imaging TOF-SIMS equipped with a Bi(1-7)(+)-source. Reference lipid samples ...
Argov Nurit - - 2007
Reduced reproductive performance of dairy cows during the summer is often associated with elevated temperature. Semen collected and cryopreserved during the summer may be of low quality and might contribute to the compromised fertility of dairy cows during this season. The present study examined the association between seasonality, semen quality ...
Maziarz E Peter - - 2006
PURPOSE: To investigate the sorption of oleic acid, oleic acid methyl ester, and cholesterol on currently marketed silicone hydrogel contact lenses. METHODS: Two liquid chromatography methods were developed and used to analyze lens extracts from continuous-wear and daily-wear modalities from asymptomatic silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers. RESULTS: Of the three ...
Bruder E D - - 2006
Neonatal hypoxia is a common condition that elicits a coordinated endocrine response. In the neonatal rat, hypoxia induces an ACTH-independent increase in corticosterone which can be partially blocked by chemical sympathectomy. The present study sought to characterize the effects of sympathectomy on the adrenal lipid profile, since previous work suggested ...
Nguyen T D T - - 2007
The bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum PH04 was isolated from infant feces and tested positive for bile/acid tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity. It was evaluated as a potential probiotic with cholesterol-lowering effect. Bile salt hydrolase activity was nine times greater in stationary phase than in exponential phase cells and increased when ...
Segura Ramon - - 2006
Nuts contain significant amounts of essential micronutrients that are associated with an improved health status when consumed at doses beyond those necessary to prevent deficiency states. Nuts do not contain cholesterol, but they are rich in chemically related phytosterols, a class of compounds that interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption and ...
Ubhayasekera Sarojini J K A - - 2006
Ghee (clarified butter oil), a major ingredient in Indian sweets, is an important source of saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products (COP) that are considered risk factors for atherosclerosis. The high frequency of atherosclerotic complications reported among the Indian immigrants in England prompted determination of lipids and lipid ...
Titov V N - - 2006
The number of the fatty acid double bonds (unsaturation degree) in the plasma lipid pool was evaluated by automated ozone titration. A positive relationship between the content of double bonds, cholesterol, and glycerol was detected. The higher was plasma cholesterol level, the more double bonds contained fatty acids. At cholesterol ...
Nies Leslie K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on select alternative therapies for the management of dyslipidemia. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE and PubMed (1965-March 2006) were conducted using the key terms omega-3-fatty acids, policosanol, plant stanols and sterols, flaxseed, red yeast rice, guggulipid, garlic, fiber, almonds, and cholesterol and/or lipids. STUDY SELECTION ...
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