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Wong P T - - 1992
The syntheses of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha, E2 and D2, and thromboxane (TX) B2 from [14C]arachidonic acid were studied in frontal cortex of human control and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains using the microsomal fractions. Under the assay conditions employed, it was found that the major metabolite of [14C]arachidonic acid was ...
Arnold W P - - 1992
In vivo studies in rodents suggest that prostaglandins and/or leukotrienes are involved in the epidermal induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Recently, we have shown that, in human epidermis, prostaglandins are not involved in this process. Here we report the role of leukotrienes in epidermal ODC induction in human skin. Topical ...
Schlesinger R B - - 1992
Studies examining effects of air pollutants often use single compounds, while "real world" exposures are to more than one chemical. Thus, it is necessary to assess responses following inhalation of chemical mixtures. Rabbits were exposed for 3 hr to sulfuric acid aerosol at 0, 50, 75, or 125 micrograms/m3 in ...
Farmer E E - - 1992
Signalling pathways that regulate the expression of plant genes are poorly understood. Recent evidence indicates that octadecanoid-derived signals may be parts of signalling pathways in plants in which C(18) fatty acids, liberated from membranes in response to environmental or developmental cues, are converted to intracellular signalling molecules such as jasmoric ...
Sakuma S - - 1992
The effects of arachidonic acid and arachidonoyl CoA on the catabolism of prostaglandin E2 in a 105000 x g supernatant fraction from rabbit kidney cortex were examined. Arachidonic acid reduced the 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase activity by 50% at 20 microM, while arachidonoyl CoA showed weak inhibition for the enzyme activity ...
Oliw E H - - 1992
Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n - 3)) is oxygenated to 17S(18R)epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (EpETE) by microsomes of monkey seminal vesicles, which also are rich in prostaglandin (PG) H synthase. The metabolism of racemic [14C]17(18)EpETE by PGH synthase of sheep vesicular glands was investigated in the present report. The two main metabolites were identified ...
Ziboh V A - - 1992
The skin is an organ that displays a highly active metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Deficiency of the 18 carbon (n-6) dietary PUFA (linoleic acid) in epidermis results in scaly dermatoses and disruption of the skin barrier system. The skin possesses the enzyme systems to metabolize and interconvert a ...
Elliott G R - - 1992
Adherent human dermal fibroblasts secreted interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin I2 and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (assayed by radioimmunoassay) during a 3 h incubation period. Although human dermal fibroblasts did not secrete interleukin-1 alpha or interleukin-1 beta, human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha stimulated arachidonic acid metabolism and interleukin-6 synthesis. This effect was, at least ...
Torsher K J - - 1992
Prostaglandins have been demonstrated to have a mucosal protective effect when administered prior to the experimental induction of colitis in animals. We here determined whether prostaglandins would have a beneficial therapeutic effect when administered after colitis had been established. Diffuse, chronic, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis was established in rats, and ...
Hampson A J - - 1992
Blood cells from the crab, Carcinus maenas, stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187, in the presence of exogenous fatty acid, produced cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and monooxygenase derivatives of eicosatetraenoic (20:4(n - 6)) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5(n - 3)) acids. Isolation, identification and quantification of these products was achieved using chiral and reverse phase-high ...
Leonhardt A - - 1992
Urinary excretion of prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha, E-M (7 alpha-hydroxy-5, 11-diketotetranor-prosta-1, 16-dioic acid), 6-keto F1 alpha, 2,3-dinor-6-keto-F1 alpha, thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 83 healthy subjects aged one day to 37 years. The excretion rates of all prostanoids increased with advancing ...
Duyster J - - 1992
Zymosan and phorbol ester induced in liver macrophages the release of arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E2, and superoxide; the calcium ionophore A 23187 elicited a release of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 but not of superoxide, and exogenously added arachidonic acid led to the formation of prostaglandin E2 only. The zymosan- ...
Oshige T - - 1992
We examined the effects of three saturated fatty acids (myristic acid 14:0, palmitic acid 16:0, and stearic acid 18:0) on prostaglandin E 9-ketoreductase (PGE-9-KR, EC 1.1.1.189), which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) into prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). Palmitic acid inhibited PGE-9-KR activity dose-dependently, whereas the other two ...
Abián J - - 1992
Mouse peritoneal macrophages are used as a model for studies undertaken around the oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid elicited by xenobiotics (N-phenyllinoleamide, related to the toxic oil syndrome, has been used as an example). A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for cyclo- and lipoxygenase metabolite fractionation has been developed. Gas chromatographic/mass ...
Zijlstra F J - - 1992
Eicosanoids were measured in colonic biopsies from eleven patients with active ulcerative colitis and from thirteen controls. Eicosanoid formation was measured after the addition of arachidonic acid and stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187. The 15-lipoxygenase derivative 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) was the predominant product formed in all biopsies. The amount of ...
Lee S H - - 1992
Our previous studies showed that samples of middle ear effusion contain high concentrations of arachidonic acid metabolites (AAMs); both prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs). Since abnormal levels of AAMs in the perilymph seem to be associated with salicylate ototoxicity and the round window membrane (RWM) is the most likely route ...
Pons L - - 1992
The effects of colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and influence of previous treatment with specific antagonists of inflammatory mediators (platelet-activating factor, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes) on colonic transit were examined in conscious rats which were permanently fitted with an intracolonic catheter inserted into the proximal colon. Colonic inflammation ...
Calder P C - - 1992
Eicosanoids, in particular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are potent inhibitors of a number of immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation. We have previously shown that fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), inhibit mitogen-stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes. One mechanism by which fatty acids could exert their inhibitory effect is via modulation of ...
Kristev A - - 1992
The effects of the butyric short-chain fatty acid, an agent with proved comagenic action, on the bioelectric brain activity of rabbits was studied. In all monopolar leads, paroxysms were recorded which manifested themselves 15 to 30 minutes after the infusion of butyrate. The analysis used F2 exogenic prostaglandins and indomethacin, ...
Zheng D R - - 1992
The localization of rat lens fatty acid cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase) was studied using indirect immunofluorescent and indirect streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining techniques. Both methods employed monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against fatty acid cyclooxygenase, the key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. The immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that (1) ...
Preclik G - - 1992
We investigated the effects of an exogenous Type I phospholipase C (PLC) from clostridium perfringens on arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin synthesis from gastric mucosa by determining PGE2 release from organ cultured rabbit mucosal biopsies as well as PGE2 synthesis and substrate-dependent inactivation of the prostaglandin cyclooxygenase from endogenously released ...
Schrör K - - 1992
The cardiovascular effects of bradykinin require additional vasoactive mediators for a fully balanced response. This includes arachidonic acid (eicosatetraenoic acid) and its metabolites, the eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and others). Eicosanoid generation by bradykinin is started by binding of the peptide to specific B2 receptors at the plasma membrane. This ...
Rubin D - - 1991
Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), derived by enzymatic oxidation of cellular dihomogammalinolenic acid (DHLA) and arachidonic acid (AA), respectively, have diverse and, at times, distinct biological actions. It has been suggested that PGE1 specifically inhibits a variety of inflammatory processes, and, in light of the potential therapeutic benefit ...
Swinney D C - - 1991
2-Methoxy-6-[1-methylethyl]naphthalene (MMEN) was hydroxylated in an NADPH-dependent manner to the (omega-1)-alcohol and the (R)-omega- and (S)-omega-alcohols by rat hepatic microsomes. (S)-omega-Hydroxylation was selectively induced 7-fold by clofibrate treatment. Phenobarbital, 3-methyl-cholanthrene, dexamethasone, cholestyramine, and MMEN did not induce this activity to the same extent. Incubation of the racemic omega-alcohols with microsomes ...
Song W C - - 1991
Prostaglandin A2 is a major constituent of the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla, and there is evidence that its biosynthesis involves a noncyclooxygenase pathway. The coral contains an 8(R)-lipoxygenase and an allene oxide synthase; from arachidonic acid, the sequential action of these enzymes gives an allene epoxide, the cyclization of which forms ...
Hidaka T - - 1991
16,16-Dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2) is known to protect against cellular damage in various tissues. Histological and biochemical approaches were used to examine the effect of this prostaglandin on hepatocellular damage in an experimental Reye's syndrome model produced in rats by 4-pentenoic acid. Chronic intraperitoneal administration of 4-pentenoic acid induced an accumulation ...
Calderaro V - - 1991
The relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and chloride secretion were investigated in mucosal preparations of rabbit distal colon. Tissues displayed a significant cyclooxygenase activity already in nonstimulated conditions and incubation with exogenous AA and calcium ionophore A23187 produced a predominant prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) profile [PGF2 alpha greater ...
el Sayed A A - - 1991
1. The response of the isolated rat kidney to a mixed amino acid solution was examined in the presence of three renal autacoid inhibitors, indomethacin (a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), sulpiride (a dopamine antagonist) and L-nitroarginine methyl ester (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis). 2. Increasing the concentration of the mixed amino ...
Lehmann V - - 1991
The structural elements of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that are able to stimulate peritoneal macrophages to produce increased amounts of prostaglandin E2, ornithine, and citrulline, agents known to modulate immune responses, are described. Two different incomplete lipid A structures which lack the carbohydrate portion, the nonhydroxylated fatty acids lauric acid ...
Horn H - - 1991
We investigated the action of the new aminosalicylate olsalazine (disodium azodisalicylate) on arachidonic acid metabolism in comparison with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulphasalazine (SASP) by in vitro incubation of cellular homogenates from human polymorphonuclear (PMNL) and mononuclear (MNL) leukocytes with 14C-labelled arachidonic acid. Olsalazine reduced the synthesis of leukotriene B4 ...
Neulen J - - 1991
Preimplantation embryos of many species are known to synthesize prostaglandins. These tissue hormones are believed to influence embryonic metabolism, as well as embryo-maternal interaction during implantation although their putative role(s) remains obscure. Here, prostaglandin production by blastocysts from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was examined qualitatively during in vitro culture. Tritium ...
Shiozaki M - - 1991
2-Deoxy-2-[(2,2-difluoro-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)amino]-3-O-[(R)-3- (tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-D-glucopyranose 4-phosphates (9H,L) were synthesized from allyl 2-amino-2-deoxy-4,6-O- isopropylidene-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), (+/-)-3-[(benzyloxycarbonyl)oxy]-2,2-difluorotetradecanoic acid, and (R)-3- (tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoic acid. Both compounds 9H and 9L were more active than GLA-60 for the prostaglandin D2 releasing test on macrophages.
Eling T E - - 1991
Prostaglandin H synthase oxidizes arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) via its cyclooxygenase activity and reduces PGG2 to prostaglandin H2 by its peroxidase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if endogenously generated PGG2 is the preferred substrate for the peroxidase compared with exogenous PGG2. Arachidonic acid and ...
Arisaka M - - 1991
Our previous study demonstrated that levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid in serum total lipids decreased in association with increased plasma levels of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this study, 11 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus completed a ...
Baraldi A - - 1991
In the authors' centers, fresh saphenous veins (FSV) procured from routine saphenectomies have been preferred to synthetic prostheses in cases of difficult vascular accesses (VA) for dialysis. The need for veins of different lengths and diameters prompted them to preserve SV by instantaneous freezing in liquid nitrogen since November 1987. ...
Panaretto K S - - 1991
This study was designed to determine whether indomethacin, a suggested treatment for adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), would inhibit the efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in an animal model of ARDS. Functional residual capacity (FRC), alveolar-to-arterial oxygen difference (A-aPo2) and total lung water were measured in rabbits: 30 controls ...
Guivernau M - - 1991
The effect of captopril on vascular prostacyclin production was studied, evaluating which of its components--sulfhydryl (SH) group or proline--is responsible for this effect. Rat aortas were incubated with captopril (10-100 microM), 2-mercaptoethanol or proline (10 microM), and captopril plus the SH-binding reagents N-ethylmaleimide or ethacrynic acid (50 microM). Prostacyclin was ...
Zijlstra F J - - 1991
Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and mono-hydroxy acid products of arachidonic acid were measured in mucus of freshly recovered morning stools of a patient with an exacerbation of ulcerative proctocolitis. Eicosanoids in ether extracts were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and amounts determined by radioimmunoassay. Four hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids were detected, of which ...
Won S J - - 1991
Polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid injected intravenously into rabbits produced a rapid-onset, monophasic fever. Pyrogenic tolerance occurred in rabbits following daily injections of polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid. However, direct injection of the agent into the preoptic anterior hypothalamic region of rabbit's brain produced a markedly different fever. After an intrahypothalamic injection of polyadenylic.polyuridylic acid, fever ...
Schreiner G F - - 1991
Several general principles with respect to the role of the fatty acids in the progression of kidney disease have begun to emerge from the mass of observational detail. Interventions that increase renal exposure to prostaglandins of the E series appear to be beneficial. They include administration of prostaglandin analogues and ...
Grazzini R - - 1991
C22:1 omega 5-anacardic acid was found to be a good inhibitor of both potato lipoxygenase and ovine prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase with approximate IC50's of 6 and 27 microM, respectively. Very similar inhibition was seen with the crude exudate, rich in omega 5-anacardic acids, from glandular trichomes of an arthropod-resistant strain ...
Preclik G - - 1991
Self-destruction of the prostaglandin cyclooxygenase has been suggested to be an important factor in the regulation of endogenous prostaglandin synthesis. The present study was done in order to define the role of this substrate-induced inactivation in the regulation of prostaglandin synthesis in gastric mucosa. In tissue homogenate, the prostaglandin synthesizing ...
Xiao D M - - 1991
Arachidonic acid metabolism via cyclooxygenase pathway in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), calcimycin and exogenous arachidonic acid, respectively. Racemic, (-) and (+)-gossypol dose-dependently inhibited PMA or calcimycin-induced synthesis of prostacyclin, thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha, but failed to affect arachidonic acid-induced synthesis of prostaglandin. It ...
Macherey H J - - 1991
Electrical conductance as a sensitive indicator of acid damage has been investigated in guinea pig duodenal mucosa using Ussing-chamber techniques. Reductions of luminal pH from 7.4 to 3.0, 2.3, or 2.0 caused concentration-dependent, progressive increases in conductance, accompanied (pH 2.0) by a continuous increase in hydrogen permeation as determined by ...
Luther H - - 1991
Gallic acid esters possessing a varying chain length of their alcohol moiety were tested for their inhibitory potencies on 15-lipoxygenase from rabbit reticulocytes and prostaglandin H synthase from sheep vesicular glands. Octyl gallate and decyl gallate proved to be the most powerful inhibitors of both enzymes showing concentrations of half-inhibition ...
Bernstrom K - - 1991
An 'epoxygenase' eicosanoid analog, 14, 15-cis-episulfide-eicosatrienoic acid, has several unique pharmacological effects on platelets. These include (i) inhibition of ionophore A23187- but not thrombin-induced activation, (ii) inhibition of thromboxane B2 biosynthesis derived from endogenous but not exogenous arachidonic acid, and (iii) attenuation of ionophore-mediated increases in cytosolic Ca2+ when extracellular ...
Takeuchi T - - 1991
1. Prostaglandin E (PGE) may be essential for maintaining the sensitivity of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum to nicotine. The contributions of prostaglandins to nervous activity evoked by different stimuli have now been investigated by measuring the amount of acetylcholine (ACh) released from the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig ...
Espey L L - - 1991
Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid methyl esters (HETEs) are lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid that are generated along with prostaglandins (PGs) during acute inflammatory reactions. Whereas it is well known that ovarian PG levels increase during the ovulatory process, little is known about ovarian HETEs. This report compares the ovarian changes in 5-, ...
Stein T A - - 1991
A method for the determination of prostaglandin G/H synthase and lipoxygenase activities in tissues was developed and employed with rat gastric mucosa samples. Tissues and microsomes were incubated in a buffer containing nonionic detergent and 1.32 mM arachidonic acid for 10 min. Following extraction with ethyl acetate, the oxidation products ...
Cimino G - - 1991
Prostaglandin-(PG) 1,15-lactones and, in smaller amounts, free acids, were isolated from both the mantle and the dorso-lateral appendices of the opisthobranch mollusc Tethys fimbria. In vivo conversion of PGs into the corresponding lactones and accumulation of PGE2- and PGE3-1,15-lactones in the appendages were shown. The detachment of these appendages from ...
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