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Results 251 - 300 of 1137
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Leonhardt A - - 1997
Immunological and biochemical alterations in atopic dermatitis have been attributed to a deficient conversion of omega-6 fatty acids (i.e. linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid) to prostaglandin (PG) E1. In patients with atopic dermatitis, however, the formation of PGE1 has not been evaluated so far. We therefore measured plasma ...
Planas M - - 1997
Lipid emulsions have been associated with changes in pulmonary function. Although these changes were related to the physical effects of the infusion-induced lipemia on gas exchange, several animal and human studies suggest that the impairment in pulmonary function observed with lipid infusions was mediated by prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are synthesized enzymatically ...
Malmberg A B - - 1997
The effect of the inositol trisphosphate analog alpha-trinositol on noxious-evoked behavior, amino acid and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release was examined in unanesthetized rats using intrathecal microdialysis probes. Subcutaneous injection of 50 microliters 5% formalin solution produced two phases of pain-like behavior and significant elevation of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine and ...
Mancini J A - - 1997
Aspirin (ASA) acetylates Ser516 of prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2) resulting in a modified enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to 15(R)-hydroxy-eicosatetraeroic acid [15(R)-HETE]. ASA has pharmacological benefits that may not all be limited to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, and this study was initiated to further investigate the properties of ASA-acetylated PGHS-2 ...
Fischer S M - - 1997
Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipids produced enzymatically and nonenzymatically from 20 carbon fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins and related metabolites (collectively referred to as eicosanoids), including the thromboxanes, prostacyclins, hydroperoxy and hydroxy fatty acids, and leukotrienes are produced by most tissues of the body by oxidation of arachidonic acid, although ...
Althaus H H - - 1997
The synthesis and release of prostaglandins have been studied in oligodendrocytes isolated from adult pig brain. Radioactively labelled arachidonic acid and di-homo-y-linoleic acid were offered as precursors and their incorporation into individual phospholipids followed. Most of the labelling was incorporated into phosphatidylinositol, which may serve as a major source for ...
Campbell J M - - 1997
Evidence supports a pathogenic role of arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory mediators within the gastrointestinal tract of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an ulcerative colitis nutritional formula (UCNF) containing oligosaccharides, fish oil, gum arabic and antioxidants on plasma and colonic phospholipid ...
Black P N - - 1997
The last two decades have seen an increase in the prevalence of asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis in developed countries. This increase has been paralleled by a fall in the consumption of saturated fat and an increase in the amount of polyunsaturated fat in the diet. This is due to ...
Godessart N - - 1996
This study was focused on the characterization of the metabolism of linoleic acid by human dermal fibroblasts and the effect of interleukin-1 on the biosynthesis of octadecanoids. Dermal fibroblasts untreated and treated with recombinant IL-1beta were incubated with exogenous labeled linoleic acid. A combination of high performance liquid chromatography and ...
Prigent-Tessier A - - 1996
It is well known that arachidonic acid, as a substrate of prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS), is converted into prostaglandins of the two-series. In this work, we attempted to determine whether arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 might regulate the expression of PGHS and the pancreatic-type phospholipase A2 (PLA2I), which may be ...
Landoni M F - - 1996
The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the production of beta-glucuronidase (beta-glu), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated equine synoviocytes. The agents studied were flunixin, tolfenamic acid, S(+)ketoprofen (KTP) ...
Bowman A S - - 1996
Prostaglandins (PGs) are oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids, most notably arachidonic acid, that act as 'local hormones', regulating a plethora of physiological processes in mammals and other vertebrates. For a long time, PGs were reported only in higher vertebrates, but more recently they have been reported in lower organisms ...
Schäfer D - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and peptidoleukotrienes (pLT) are known to be biologically highly active lipid mediators, especially in human lung epithelium. PGE2 is thought to have mostly bronchoprotective effects, whereas pLT and TXA2 are bronchoconstrictive. This study was undertaken to assess the release and ...
Glen A I - - 1996
Clinical definitions of schizophrenia are unreliable and difficult to use. The niacin flush test, which involves prostaglandin-induced vasodilatation, offers a method of exploring essential fatty acid metabolism in schizophrenic patients and may serve to define a subgroup of patients. In a multicentre study of schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms, we ...
Mitchell M D - - 1996
Renin is a proteolytic enzyme that has been considered to have only one function which is to cleave angiotensinogen between the 10th and 11th amino acids to form angiotensin-1. This is then converted to angiotensin-II, a potent vasoconstrictor, antinatriuretic and antidiuretic by angiotensin-converting enzyme. We have investigated the action of ...
Murai A - - 1996
This study investigated the effect of prostaglandin E2 derivative, enprostil, on the hepatic lipid metabolism of Japanese quail. In experiment 1, the birds received 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 micrograms enprostil/kg body weight intraperitoneally, and they were killed after 10, 30, 60 and 120 min. After 60 min, hepatic triacylglycerol ...
Landino L M - - 1996
Reaction of manganese-reconstituted prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (Mn-PGHS) with 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE) generates two products in nearly equal amounts: 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 15-ketoeicosatetraenoic acid (15-KETE) [Kulmacz et al. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 5428-5439]. Their proposed mechanism to explain 15-KETE formation, namely oxidation of 15-HETE by the peroxidase activity of MnPGHS, was ...
Mercer D W - - 1996
Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor to prostaglandin formation in the stomach. When applied topically to gastric mucosa it prevents injury from a variety of damaging agents, similar to the effects observed with exogenous prostaglandins. Alternatively, fatty acids could act as mild irritants and protect the gastric mucosa ...
Romstedt K J - - 1996
The antilipidemic drug clofibric acid (CPIB) exhibits antiplatelet effects. In order to examine the role of enantioselectivity and hydrophobicity, the mono(desmethyl) enantiomers of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (CPPA), related butanoate homologs, 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (CPBA), thioether relatives, 2-(4-chlorothiophenoxy)propanoic acid (CTPA) and corresponding butanoate homologs, 2-(4-chlorothiophenoxy)butanoic acid (CTBA) were studied. All compounds inhibit prostaglandin-dependent ...
Leis H J - - 1996
1 The blocker of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ) was shown to inhibit formation of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin in the osteoblast-like cell lines, MC3T3-E1 and ROS 17/2.8, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.5-1 microM. Inhibition was observed with various stimuli (arachidonic acid, bradykinin, melittin and ...
Larsen L N - - 1996
Prostaglandin H synthase can oxidize arachidonic acid with leuco-dichlorofluorescein as reducing cosubstrate. Addition of 0.5 mM phenol increases the oxidation of leuco-dichlorofluorescein to dichlorofluorescein 5-fold, probably by acting as a cyclic intermediate in the oxidation. Tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine is also oxidized as cosubstrate. Its oxidation is not influenced by phenol. A stoichiometry ...
Imig J D - - 1996
The present study examined whether preglomerular arterioles of the rat produce 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and whether 20-HETE is vasoactive on these vessels. Raf preglomerular arterioles produced 20-HETE (4.8 +/- 1.0 pmol.min-1.mg-1, n = 7) and, to a lesser extent, 14-, 15-, 11-, and 12-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 6-ketoprostaglandin F/alpha and prostaglandin E2 ...
Bakovic M - - 1995
The stoichiometry of the oxygenation reaction of cis,cis-eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid catalyzed by prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and soybean lipoxygenase has been investigated by using steady-state initial rate measurements. The rate of product formation (conjugated diene hydroperoxy and hydroxy derivatives) was followed spectrophotometrically at 235 nm, and the rate of oxygen consumption was ...
Bieglmayer C - - 1995
In a pilot study we investigated the association between concentrations of various eicosanoids in menstrual blood with pain and oral contraceptive use. Menstrual fluid was collected on tampons by 12 women who did not use an oral contraceptive but suffered from slight primary dysmenorrhea and by three pain-free women who ...
Trujillo E P - - 1995
The effects of different ratios of dietary (n-3):(n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids on prostaglandin E, prostaglandin F2 alpha and ovulation in rats were assessed. Dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids were incorporated, by ovarian phospholipids with ovarian tissue enrichment, with (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids enhancing, and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids reducing, the ...
Meyer D J - - 1995
The prostaglandin H D-isomerase of rat immune accessory cells has been purified from spleen by a simple procedure, and its high specificity and activity [Urade, Fujimoto, Ujihara and Hayaishi (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 3820-3825] have been confirmed in an assay coupled to prostaglandin H synthase. The enzyme also decreases ...
Lanas A I - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of aspirin on the oesophageal mucosa and on acid- and pepsin-induced oesophagitis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The effects both of intraluminal (18 mg/ml) and of parenteral (100 mg/kg per h) aspirin on an in-vivo rabbit model of oesophagitis induced by acidified pepsin (pH 2) were studied. ...
Crankshaw D - - 1995
8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulated contraction of human myometrial strips obtained from five different donors at the time of hysterectomy with a pEC50 value of 6.3 +/- 0.5. In paired strips from the same donors the pEC50 value for the selective TP receptor agonist U46619 ([1R-[1a,4a,5b(Z),6a(1E,3S*)]]-7-[6-(3- hydroxy-1-octenyl)-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl]-5-heptenoic acid) was 8.3 +/- ...
Lang F - - 1995
Oral or parenteral application of amino acids leads to marked hyperfiltration and increased of renal plasma flow. Amino acids stimulate the release of glucagon, which increases hepatic production and release of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). In the kidney, the combined effect of cAMP and glucagon increases glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ...
Nishihara I - - 1995
We recently reported that intrathecal administration of prostaglandin E2 induced hyperalgesic and allodynic effects through the glutamate receptor system. Here we examined whether prostaglandin E2 could evoke amino acid release from nerve terminals using rat spinal cord synaptosomes. Exposure in superfusion to prostaglandin E2 significantly increased endogenous glutamate and aspartate ...
Fujii Y - - 1995
The prostaglandin response of mouse intestinal epithelial cells after exposure to Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin II was examined. The quantity of prostaglandin E2 produced by the intestinal cells was directly related to the dose of heat-stable enterotoxin II. The change in the amount of prostaglandin E2 over time correlated to ...
Tam S S - - 1995
Prostaglandin-H synthase-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis, has both cyclooxygenase (CO) and peroxidase (PO) activities. While most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit only the CO activity, we describe an inhibitor, tepoxalin, that inhibits both the CO (IC50 = 0.1 microM) and the PO (IC50 = 4 microM) activities. Unlike ...
Nakagawa Y - - 1995
The relationship between the metabolism and the cytotoxic effects of propyl gallate (PG) has been studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Addition of PG (0.5-2.0 mM) to the hepatocytes elicited concentration-dependent cell death, accompanied by decreases in intracellular ATP, adenine nucleotide pools, glutathione, and protein thiols. The rapid loss of ...
Pérez Vallina J R - - 1995
The effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) acetylsalicylic acid, metamizole, phenylbutazone, indometacin, piroxicam, naproxen, tolmetin, diclofenac, and mefenamic acid on methacholine (10 mumol/l), prostaglandin F2 alpha (1 mumol/l), and KCl (60 mmol/l) induced contractions of isolated rat uterus were assayed. All of these cause a concentration-dependent inhibition of methacholine ...
Grechkin A N - - 1995
The present review is concerned with a group of prostanoids from soft corals, namely, clavulones and their congeners, as well as with related octadecanoids found in plants of the genus Chromolaena (Compositae). Known physiological properties of these prostaglandin-like fatty acids are discussed. Special attention is paid to published hypotheses on ...
Mertz-Nielsen A - - 1995
Prostaglandin analogues of the E-series theoretically offer the ideal antiulcer drugs. Peptic ulcer healing with prostaglandin analogues is, however, no better than would be predicted from their ability to inhibit gastric acid secretion and they are less effective than histamine H2 receptor antagonists in preventing ulcer relapse. It could be ...
Chung H Y - - 1995
The effect of magnesium lithospermate B purified from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix on the kinin-prostaglandin E2 system was investigated using kidney slices and isolated kidney microsomes. Magnesium lithospermate B markedly increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances produced by incubation of arachidonic acid in renal slices. Enhancement of arachidonic acid-mediated oxygenation ...
Jayadeep A - - 1995
House lizards are able to regenerate their tails. This is an ideal model to study the growth and differentiation of an organ. Prostaglandins (PGs) are local hormones having diverse and potent biological activities. In an effort to understand PG metabolism during the growth and differentiation of the regenerating lizard tail, ...
Downard C D - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Benzoic acid is one of the most commonly used preservatives in cosmetics, foodstuffs, and drug preparations. Nonetheless, products containing this compound frequently induce cutaneous erythema. Previous studies have suggested that prostaglandins may mediate the cutaneous vasodilation because ingestion of cyclooxygenase inhibitors before the application of benzoic acid markedly diminishes ...
Jaksic A - - 1995
There is considerable evidence that suppression of the immune system by UVB (280-320 nm UV) irradiation is initiated by UVB-dependent isomerization of a specific skin photoreceptor, urocanic acid (UCA), from the trans to the cis form. Previous studies have confirmed that cis-UCA administration to mice 3-5 days prior to hapten ...
Takeuchi Y - - 1995
Rat abdominal intact skin was treated with fatty acids, fatty amines, or Azone which were dissolved in propylene glycol (PG) and PG appearing in the rat dermis was studied. Analysis was done by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection (FT-IR/ATR) spectroscopy. The appearance of PG with time seemed to be in ...
Tang M S - - 1995
Affinity-labeling agents, 1-[4-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid (I) and 4-(bromoacetamido)-N-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)anthranilic acid (II), were synthesized on the basis of their respective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin and mefenamic acid [Askonas & Penning (1991) Biochemistry 30, 11553-11560]. Compounds I and II are now shown to inhibit homogeneous ram seminal vesicle prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) synthase by ...
Oudot F - - 1995
The synthesis of eicosanoids was investigated in cultured rat ventricular myocytes. Under normoxia, the cardiomyocytes released 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 and smaller amounts of PGF2 alpha and thromboxane B2. Hypoxia enhanced the production of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha, whereas the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was ...
Woodward D F - - 1995
The therapeutic utility of cyclooxygenase (CO) inhibitors, such as ketorolac, in reducing the inflammatory events associated with allergic conjunctivitis is not unexpected since prostanoids (PG) elicit conjunctival redness (PGD2, PGE2, PGF2 alpha), edema (PGD2, TxA2), eosinophil infiltration (PGD2, PGJ2) and mucous cell discharge (PGD2, PGJ2, TxA2). Recently, topically administered ketorolac ...
Sakuma S - - 1994
The effect of 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), a hydroperoxy adduct of linoleic acid (LA), on the activities of prostaglandin (PG) synthesizing and catabolizing enzymes in rabbit gastric antral mucosa was examined. 13-HPODE had no effect on the synthesis of PGE2, PGF2 alpha and PGD2 from exogenous arachidonic acid in the microsomal ...
Afink G B - - 1994
The bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid is besides a strong mitogen for quiescent fibroblasts, a potent inducer of phenotypic transformation of normal rat kidney cells. The lysophosphatidic acid induced loss of density-arrest is strongly inhibited by bradykinin. Although their effects on normal rat kidney cell proliferation are opposite, bradykinin mimics many ...
Noguchi T - - 1994
A food poisoning case due to the ingestion of 'ogonori', an edible red alga, occurred at Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, in late October 1993, resulting in two victims, including one death (female). No causative agent present in the ogonori was found from a routine bioassay for marine toxins. From the ...
Percival M D - - 1994
Recombinant human cyclooxygenase-2 (hCox-2, Prostaglandin G/H synthase-2) has been purified from baculovirus-Sf9 and vaccina virus-Cos-7 cell expression systems. The detergent-solubilized, purified enzyme is heterogeneous in terms of its glycosylation. The vaccinia virus hCox-2 is a mixture of two glycoforms, whereas baculovirus hCox-2 comprises at least four species. The specific cyclooxygenase ...
Bakovic M - - 1994
The naturally occurring catechol derivative caffeic acid is a moderate stimulator of prostaglandin H synthase cyclooxygenase activity and a good reducing substrate for prostaglandin H synthase-compounds I and II. The discrepancy between the two properties is explained by a specific peroxidative mechanism that includes the formation of an inhibitory complex ...
Mandel K G - - 1994
This study involved a comparison of activity of several long-chain fatty acids (arachidonic acid, dihomo-[gamma]-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid) for protection against gastric mucosal damage elicited by taurocholic acid, acidified aspirin, and ethanol in rats. Each damaging agent induced gastric mucosal lesions in the corpus. Mucosal damage was ...
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