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Logan Alan C - - 2005
Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), or bed-wetting, is a distressing urinary condition which can persist through childhood and beyond. Altered prostaglandin and nitric oxide production have been observed in children with PNE, and prostaglandin inhibitors are known to be of therapeutic value. Omega-3 fatty acids have the potential to influence the ...
Jun Jae Yeoul - - 2005
1. We investigated the role of deoxycholic acid in pacemaker currents using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques at 30 degrees C in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) from murine small intestine. 2. The treatment of ICC with deoxycholic acid resulted in a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of pacemaker currents ...
Harrington Louise S - - 2004
P-450 metabolites, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, are likely candidates for endothelial derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF). In the present study, we confirm that the stable analogue 11-nonyloxyundec-8(Z)-enoic acid is a vasodilator of murine vessels. However, we also show that the 'epoxyeicosatrienoic acid receptor' antagonist 14,15 EEZE similarly dilates murine vessels contracted ...
Van Anholt R D - - 2004
This study aims to clarify the role of the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) in the stress response of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). ArA is converted into eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, which can influence the response to stressors. Tilapia, a species able to form ArA from its precursor, was ...
Barbosa Nádia R - - 2004
In the inflammation process, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyses the cleavage of the sn-2 ester-linked fatty acids from phospholipids, being the enzyme responsible for arachidonic acid (AA) release by cells for the biosynthesis of the prostaglandins and thromboxanes via the cyclooxygenase system, and the leukotrienes and eicosatetraenoids via the lipoxygenase pathway. ...
Strokin Mikhail - - 2004
Various diseases of the central nervous system are characterized by induction of inflammatory events, which involve formation of prostaglandins. Production of prostaglandins is regulated by activity of phospholipases A(2) and cyclooxygenases. These enzymes release the prostaglandin precursor, the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid and oxidize it into prostaglandin H(2). ...
Baenkler Hanns W - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are implicated in several diseases showing altered tissue and leukocyte eicosanoid patterns, such as nasal polyposis and asthma. NSAIDs are also associated with gastrointestinal lesions, but it is unknown whether there is an altered eicosanoid pattern. MATERIAL/METHODS: The ex vivo modulated syntheses of prostaglandin E2 ...
Little Joanna M - - 2004
Arachidonic acid (AA) can be metabolized to various metabolites, which can act as mediators of cellular processes. The objective of this work was to identify whether AA, prostaglandin (PG) B1 and E2, and 15- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (15- and 20-HETE) are metabolized via glucuronidation. Assays with human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ...
Bouarab Kamal - - 2004
The oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids, known as oxylipins, are pivotal signaling molecules in animals and terrestrial plants. In animal systems, eicosanoids regulate cell differentiation, immune responses, and homeostasis. In contrast, terrestrial plants use derivatives of C18 and C16 fatty acids as developmental or defense hormones. Marine algae have emerged ...
Cho Young Ah - - 2004
The effects of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro permeation of ketorolac tromethamine (KT) across excised hairless mouse skins were investigated. Among pure vehicles examined, propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) showed the highest permeation flux, which was 94.3 +/- 17.3 microg/cm2/h. Even though propylene glycol monocaprylate (PGMC) alone did ...
Namazi M R - - 2004
Psoriasis is uncommonly seen in Africans, probably partly due to genetic factors. However, the dietary habits of Africans may provide another explanation, which is explored in this paper. Maize, the staple diet in most parts of Africa, is high in linoleic acid but low in other polyunstaturated fatty acids and ...
Tahara Daisuke - - 2004
Total lipid, fatty acids and prostaglandins (PGF(2 alpha) and PGE(2)) in the ovary of kuruma prawns (Marsupenaeus japonicus) were measured during ovarian development. The level of ovarian total lipid increased with an increase in the gonad-somatic index (GSI). No significant difference was found in fatty acid composition among different stages ...
Koetzner Lee - - 2004
Spinal dynorphin is hypothesized to contribute to the hyperalgesia that follows tissue and nerve injury or sustained morphine exposure. We considered that these dynorphin actions are mediated by a cascade involving the spinal release of excitatory amino acids and prostaglandins. Unanesthetized rats with lumbar intrathecal injection and loop dialysis probes ...
Miller Jon S - - 2004
Insect cellular immune reactions to bacterial infection include nodule formation. Eicosanoids mediate several cellular actions in the nodulation process, including formation of hemocyte microaggregates, an early step. In previous work, we reported that isolated hemocytes produce and secrete eicosanoids that influence hemocyte behavior in response to bacterial challenge. We also ...
Wallace John L - - 2004
NCX-2216 [3-[4-(2-fluoro-alpha-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-acetyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-propenoic acid 4-nitrooxy butyl ester] is an NO-releasing flurbiprofen derivative that also contains a ferulic acid (antioxidant) moiety. NCX-2216 has been shown to be effective in reducing beta-amyloid deposition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The tolerability of this compound in the stomach and its ability to ...
McGinley Chris M - - 2003
The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic and linoleic acid initiates a plethora of cell signaling pathways in animals and plants. The chemistry of the enzymatic oxidation has been investigated for several enzymes, most notably prostaglandin synthase and the lipoxygenases, revealing many surprises and impressive examples of enzymatic ...
Messamore Erik - - 2003
The skin flush response to niacin is selectively mediated by the release of vasodilatory prostaglandins from the skin. The normal skin flush response to niacin is attenuated in many individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ). This finding suggests abnormal prostaglandin signaling in SCZ. Since prostaglandins are derived from arachidonic acid (AA), the ...
Tsipas George - - 2003
In this study we investigated the role of a mixture of n-6/n-3 essential fatty acids, in the cyclosporine model nephrotoxicity. Administration of cyclosporine in rats decreased creatinine clearance and provoked body weight loss, but it did not induce proteinuria and did not alter the urine volume. These changes were associated ...
Schneider Claus - - 2004
The cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis begins with the highly specific oxygenation of arachidonic acid in the 11R configuration and ends with a 15S oxygenation to form PGG2. To obtain new insights into the mechanisms of stereocontrol of oxygenation, we mutated active site residues of human COX-2 that ...
Phelps Pamela K - - 2003
Nodulation is the predominant cellular defense reaction to bacterial challenge in insects. Eicosanoids mediate several steps in the nodulation process, including formation of hemocyte microaggregations. Isolated hemocyte preparations synthesize and secrete eicosanoids, which mediate hemocytic immune reactions. Two major groups of eicosanoids are prostaglandins (products of cyclooxygenase pathways) and various ...
Utsunomiya Tohru - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of sesamin (a non-fat constituent of sesame oil) have been attributed to an increased accumulation of dihomo-y-linolenic acid, a precursor of 1-series prostaglandins, and the decreasing production of proinflammatory 2-series prostaglandins and 4-series leukotrienes by inhibiting the delta-5 desaturase activity. We investigated the effects ...
Hernández-Hernández Fidel de la Cruz Fde - - 2003
The activation of Dactylopius coccus (Costa) hemolymph with microbial polysaccharide molecules was studied. Hemolymph incubated in the presence of laminarin, zymosan, and N-acetyl glucosamine produced a dark fibrillar precipitated, and the red pigment (carminic acid) was consumed (measured spectrophotometrically at 495 nm). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not induce any response. The ...
Kratzsch Susanne - - 2003
This paper describes parallel and comparative experiments on the enzymatic cyclooxygenase (COX) driven conversion of arachidonic acid (AA, all-cis-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) into prostaglandins by using pure arachidonic acid and AA samples containing relatively small amounts of thiyl radical induced trans-isomers. The experiments were performed in a liquid aqueous model system using ...
Athanassakis Irene - - 2003
L-carnitine is an essential energy-providing compound to the cell since it transports long chain fatty acids through the mitochondrial membrane and delivers them to the beta-oxidation pathway for catabolism and/or entrance to biosynthetic pathways. Some of the early events taking place in immune cells after L-carnitine inoculation in vitro are ...
Lucia Vienna D - - 2003
This study was designed to compare the effects of dietary arachidonic acid (AA) versus prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on bone cell metabolism and bone mass. Twenty-eight piglets from 7 litters were randomized to 1 of 4 treatments for 15 days: fatty acid supplemented formula (FA: 0.8% of total fatty acids as ...
Fang Jia-You - - 2003
The efficacy and safety of commonly used enhancers were systemically evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods in this study. Flurbiprofen was used as the model drug to examine the enhancing capacity of these enhancers. Both in vitro permeation by Franz cells and in vivo kinetics of skin disposition ...
Boutaud Olivier - - 2003
The product of oxygenation of arachidonic acid by the prostaglandin H synthases (PGHS), prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)), undergoes rearrangement to the highly reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes, levuglandin (LG) E(2), and LGD(2). We have demonstrated previously that LGE(2) reacts with the epsilon-amine of lysine to form both the levuglandinyl-lysine Schiff base and the pyrrole-derived ...
Leung Felix W - - 2003
Intraduodenal acidification produces a mesenteric hyperemia that is mediated in part by mucosal capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves and the bradykinin B2 receptor in anesthetized rats. We hypothesized that novel mechanisms mediated by substance P, adenosine, and histamine1 receptors are involved. Confirmation of a role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) but not ...
Chartrand R - - 2003
The present experiment was conducted to determine the influence of dietary fatty acids C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 on the modulation of intrauterine synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2alpha (PGF2alpha) during early pregnancy in pigs. Prostaglandin E2 in uterine fluid has been previously reported to be associated with embryo survival and ...
Ates Mehmet - - 2003
It is generally accepted that the phospholipase-A2-cyclooxygenase-prostanoids-cascade mediates spinal sensitization and hyperalgesia. However, some observations are not in line with this hypothesis. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether different components of this cascade exhibit nociceptive or antinociceptive effects in the rat formalin test. Intrathecal (i.th.) injection ...
Krischke Markus - - 2003
A novel group of cyclopentenone prostaglandin-like compounds, deoxy phytoprostanes J(1), together with their precursors, phytoprostanes D(1), were identified in tobacco, tomato and Arabidopsis. Previously, it was thought that 14,15-dehydro-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a member of the deoxy phytoprostanes J(1) family, is derived from either 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid or diketols via the allene oxide ...
Sanae Fujiko - - 2003
The vascular effect of a component of hydrolysable tannins, gallic acid, was examined in isolated rat thoracic aorta. Gallic acid exerted a contractile effect on the phenylephrine- or prostaglandin F(2/alpha)-precontracted endothelium-intact arteries. In endothelium-denuded arteries, the contractile response to-gallic acid was absent. Pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (30 microM) abolished ...
Sarkar Sanchoy - - 2003
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Central sensitization, an activity-dependent increase in spinal cord neuronal excitability, has been shown to contribute to esophageal pain hypersensitivity. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) is a mediator in both peripheral and central sensitization, in part via the prostaglandin E2 receptor-1 (EP-1), and may be a potential target for treating ...
Sharif N A - - 2003
Bimatoprost is the ethyl amide derivative of 17-phenyl-trinor prostaglandin F(2alpha). Here, we show that bimatoprost (K(i)=9250+/-846nM) and bimatoprost free acid (17-phenyl-trinor prostaglandin F(2alpha); K(i)=59+/-6nM) bind to the FP receptor and displace [(3)H]-travoprost acid, a selective FP agonist. Bimatoprost (EC(50)=3070+/-1330nM), Lumigan((R)) (bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution; EC(50)=1150+/-93nM) and bimatoprost acid (EC(50)=15+/-3nM) mobilized ...
Park S - - 2003
The present study was conducted to determine regional differences in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in the rat stomach tissue (fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum) from radioactive arachidonic acid (AA). The radioactive metabolites were validated by RP-HPLC using non-radioactive AA as substrate. PGE(2) was the major ...
Miles E A - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes (LT) are usually formed from arachidonic acid (e.g. PGE(2), LTB(4), LTC(4)). The anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil may be mediated through the production of alternative PG and/or LT formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (e.g. PGE(3), LTC(5)). This study examines the effects of PG and LT derived ...
Duttaroy Asim K - - 2002
Arachidonic acid at 100 nM stimulated internalisation of 125I-leptin in human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells by 3-fold compared with controls. In contrast, eicosapentaenoic acid at similar concentration decreased internalisation of leptin by 2-fold. Use of ibuprofen and indomethacin (inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis) inhibited the stimulatory effect of arachidonic acid. Prostaglandin ...
McEntee M F - - 2002
Epidemiology has implicated dietary fat in mortality associated with some of the most common forms of cancer, including those affecting the intestinal tract, breast and prostate. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, and arachidonate in particular, have been unequivocally linked to experimental colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary, pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of tissue arachidonic acid ...
Krieger Nancy S - - 2002
Metabolic acidosis increases urine calcium excretion without an increase in intestinal calcium absorption, resulting in a net loss of bone mineral. In vitro, metabolic acidosis has been shown to initially induce physicochemical mineral dissolution and then enhance cell-mediated bone resorption. Acidic medium stimulates osteoblastic prostaglandin E(2) production, which mediates the ...
Bergh Kerstin - - 2002
Several prostaglandin analogues used for glaucoma treatment cause increased pigmentation of the iris. The purpose of the present study was investigate whether latanoprost, a PGF(2 alpha) analogue, has any effect on the production of endogenous prostaglandins in iridial melanocytes, which could be important in the mechanism leading to increased pigmentation. ...
Peng Sheng - - 2002
Prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G(2) in the cyclooxygenase reaction. The first step of the mechanism has been proposed to involve abstraction of the pro-S hydrogen atom from C13 to generate a pentadienyl radical spanning C11-C15. We report here the synthesis of six ...
Balboa María A - - 2002
Previous studies have demonstrated that U937 cells are able to mobilize arachidonic acid (AA) and synthesize prostaglandins in response to receptor-directed and soluble stimuli by a mechanism that involves the activation of Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha. In this paper we show that these cells also mobilize AA in response ...
Schneider Claus - - 2002
Prototypical lipoxygenases (LOXs) of animals and plants synthesize hydroperoxy fatty acids of the S stereoconfiguration, yet enzymes forming R-configuration products are found in both the animal and plant kingdoms. R-LOX are widespread in aquatic invertebrates, in some of which their R-HETE products have a defined role in reproductive function. A ...
Garavito R Michael - - 2002
Despite the marked differences in their physiological roles, the structures and catalytic functions of the prostaglandin H2 endoperoxide synthases-1 and -2 (PGHS-1 and -2) are almost completely identical. These integral membrane proteins catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 and finally to PGH2. The crystal structures of PGHS-1 and ...
Sharif N A - - 2002
We have determined the agonist activity of a number of natural prostaglandins and prostaglandin analogs at the FP prostaglandin receptor cloned from a human ciliary body cDNA library using phosphoinositide (PI) turnover assays. Travoprost acid (EC50 = 3.2 +/- 0.6 nM) was the most potent agonist in these cells followed ...
Maxey Kirk M - - 2002
Using human and bovine corneal tissue, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of bimatoprost (17-phenyl-18,19,20-trinor-prostaglandin F(2alpha) ethyl amide, Lumigan (Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA). Enzymatic amidase activity, which converts bimatoprost to the corresponding prostaglandin carboxylic acid, was found to be present in corneal tissue from both species. Using HPLC and mass ...
Kenny Louise C - - 2002
Endothelium-dependent responses were assessed in myometrial small arteries isolated from pregnant women, using pressure myography. Responses to bradykinin were unaffected by the combined presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 micro M) and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 micro M). The additional presence of ...
Levin Galit - - 2002
Prostaglandin (PG) E(1) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties and to modulate vascular reactivity. These activities are sometimes distinct from those of PGE(2), suggesting that endogenously produced PGE(1) may have some beneficial therapeutic effects compared with PGE(2). Increasing the endogenous formation of PGE(1) requires optimization of two separate processes, ...
Yin Huiyong - - 2002
Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and esters leads to a complex mixture containing hydroperoxides and cyclic peroxides. Prostaglandin bicyclic endoperoxides have been detected from the autoxidation of cholesteryl arachidonate by LC-MS and GC-MS techniques. All four possible types (I-IV) of bicyclic endoperoxides have been found starting from different regioisomeric hydroperoxides ...
Brecher Alexandra R - - 2002
Prostaglandin synthesis occurs via the coordinate action of a phospholipase that liberates arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and a cyclooxygenase (COX) that converts the free arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Several lines of evidence suggest that prostaglandins play a role in carcinogenesis. Two isoforms of COX have been described. COX-2 is ...
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