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Fujimoto Yohko - - 2008
Linoleic acid (LA) preincubated with cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or -2 inhibited prostaglandin (PG) formation from arachidonic acid (AA) catalyzed by the respective enzyme, but LA without the preincubation did not. 13S-Hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) a hydroperoxy adduct of LA inhibited PG formation catalyzed by COX-1 or -2. 13S-Hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid had no effect ...
Prakash Chandra - - 2008
CP-533,536, (3-{[(4-tert-butyl-benzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (1), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist, is being developed to aid in the healing of bone fractures. To support the development of this program, in vitro metabolism of 1 was investigated in human liver microsomes and major recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms. 1 was metabolized ...
Antoun Joseph - - 2008
The regulation of the human liver-specific cytochrome P450 4F3B (CYP4F3B) isoform, a splice variant of the CYP4F3 gene with strong substrate specificity for long chain fatty acids, is yet an unsolved question. This report provides the first evidence that CYP4F3B is uniquely induced by prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) in human hepatocyte-like ...
Zhou Qiong - - 2008
Four pepsinogens (PG-I, PG-II, PG-III(a), and PG-III(b)) were highly purified from the stomach of the freshwater fish mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion exchange, and gel filtration. The molecular masses of the four purified PGs were 36, 35, 38, and 35 kDa, respectively. All the pepsinogens converted ...
Pettersson Jenny - - 2008
A vegetarian diet rich in phytochemicals may prevent colon carcinogenesis by affecting biochemical processes in the colonic mucosa. Compounds passing the digestive system reaching the colon could potentially be detected in fecal water. We previously reported that intact fecal water samples from human volunteers significantly decreased prostaglandin production and COX-2 ...
Sugimoto Ayako - - 2008
Latanoprost, a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue, has been shown to be an effective ocular hypotensive agent when used alone on ocular hypertensive or open angle glaucoma patients. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors are also used to reduce ocular hypertension by decreasing aqueous humor secretion, and are given in combination with prostaglandin ...
Erb-Downward John R JR Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0642, - - 2008
Recently, it has been demonstrated that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans can synthesize authentic immunomodulatory prostaglandins. The mechanism by which this takes place is unclear as there is no cyclooxygenase homologue in the cryptococcal genome. In this study, we show that cryptococcal production of both PGE(2) and PGF(2 alpha) ...
Meier S - - 2009
Two studies tested the hypothesis that eicosapentaenoic (20:5omega3; EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (22:6omega3; DHA) or linoleic acid (C18:2omega6; LIN) reduced bovine endometrial and trophoblast prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release during short-term culture. In Study 1, endometrial tissues were collected from non-lactating, non-pregnant cows and endometrial plus trophoblast tissues ...
Martínez-González José - - 2008
Oleanolic acid is a triterpenoid that may contribute to the cardio-protective effects of olive oil. Our goal was to assess whether oleanolic acid could modulate eicosanoid biosynthesis and to determine the mechanism involved in this effect. Human coronary smooth muscle cells (SMC) were treated with oleanolic acid, erythrodiol, or hydroxytyrosol ...
Bhat Abdul-Shakoor - - 2008
BACKGROUND: An interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenases (COX) in the production of prostaglandins in carrageenan-induced inflammation has been established. However, limited information is available about the interaction between inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and COX inhibitors in pain perception. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the nature of ...
Sharif Najam A - - 2008
Numerous synthetic FP-class prostaglandin (PG) analogs stimulated the contraction of isolated non-pregnant female rat uterus in a concentration-dependent manner with the following agonist potencies: bimatoprost acid (17-phenyl-trinor PGF(2alpha); EC(50)=0.68+/-0.06 nM)=cloprostenol (EC(50)=0.73+/-0.01 nM)>travoprost acid (EC(50)=1.3+/-0.07 nM)>latanoprost acid (EC(50)=2.7+/-0.08 nM)>PGF(2alpha) (EC(50)=52+/-11 nM)>unoprostone (UF-021; EC(50)=310+/-101 nM)>S-1033 (EC(50)=610+/-4 nM)>bimatoprost (EC(50)=1130+/-173 nM). The FP-receptor antagonist, ...
Choi Ahyoung - - 2008
The effects of fatty acids at various concentrations in propylene glycol (PG) on the in vitro permeation of alendronate from solution formulations and formulated pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) transdermal delivery systems through excised hairless mouse skin were investigated. Caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid at concentrations ...
Aggarwal Nitin T - - 2008
Arachidonic acid is metabolized by the 15-lipoxygenase-1 pathway to the vasodilatory eicosanoids hydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. We determined the in vitro and in vivo effects of the 15-lipoxygenase-1 metabolites in rabbits infected with adenovirus containing cDNA for human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Ad-15-LO-1). Forty hours after intravenous adenoviral injection, 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression increased ...
Jahn Ullrich - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important constituents in all organisms. They fulfil many functions, ranging from modulating the structure of membranes to acting as precursors of physiologically important molecules, such as the prostaglandins, which for a long time were the most prominent cyclic PUFA metabolites. However, since the beginning of ...
Raphael T J - - 2008
Effect of terpenoids, ursolic acid and glycyrrhizic acid on the cell-mediated immune response was studied in metastatic tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. Intraperitoneal administration of ursolic acid and glycyrrhizic acid (50 mumoles/Kg body wt for 5 consecutive days) was found to produce increased natural killer cell activity (NK-activity) in metastatic tumor-bearing animals. ...
Smith William L - - 2008
The study of cyclooxygenases (COXs), targets of aspirin and related drugs, is rooted in the discovery of essential fatty acids (EFAs). There are two COXs that convert EFAs, primarily arachidonic acid, to prostaglandins. Each COX is involved with distinct biologies. COX-1 expression is constitutive while COX-2 is inducible. The two ...
Schneider Claus - - 2007
Biological transformations of polyunsaturated fatty acids often lead to chemically unstable products, such as the prostaglandin endoperoxides and leukotriene A(4) epoxide of mammalian biology and the allene epoxides of plants. Here, we report on the enzymatic production of a fatty acid containing a highly strained bicyclic four-carbon ring, a moiety ...
Uchida M - - 2007
We recently reported an improved method to induce colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. This method enabled us to induce colitis at appropriate regions. This study aimed to investigate the regional differences on the healing process of colitis in rats. Colitis was induced at the proximal, middle or distal colon. On ...
Vila Andrew - - 2007
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can oxygenate the endocannabinoids, arachidonyl ethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), to prostaglandin-H2-ethanolamide (PGH2-EA) and -glycerol ester (PGH2-G), respectively. Further metabolism of PGH2-EA and PGH2-G by prostaglandin synthases produces a variety of prostaglandin-EA's and prostaglandin-G's nearly as diverse as those derived from arachidonic acid. Thus, COX-2 may regulate endocannabinoid ...
Hinz Burkhard - - 2007
During past years inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme has been proven as an effective strategy to suppress pain and inflammation. Based on this and other mechanistic findings, interest has also renewed in the molecular pathways underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of herbal drugs. The present study addressed this issue and ...
Strokin Mikhail - - 2007
In the current study, we reveal that in astrocytes the VIB Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) is the enzyme responsible for the release of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). After pharmacological inhibition and siRNA silencing of VIB Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2), docosahexaenoic acid release was strongly suppressed in astrocytes, which were acutely stimulated (30 min) ...
Tham Chui-Se - - 2007
Anandamide and other fatty acid amides are metabolised by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which thereby regulates their endogenous levels. Here we demonstrate that cultured rat cortical microglia express FAAH at low levels. The potent FAAH inhibitor URB597 reduced the LPS stimulated microglial expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and ...
Erb-Downward John R - - 2007
Candida albicans produces lipid metabolites that are functionally similar to host prostaglandins. These studies, using mass spectrometry, demonstrate that C. albicans produces authentic prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) from arachidonic acid. Maximal PGE(2) production was achieved at 37 degrees C in stationary-phase culture supernatants and in cell-free lysates generated from stationary-phase cells. ...
McGinley Chris M CM Roger Adams Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2007
The mechanism by which prostaglandin synthase converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G(2), creating five new chiral centers in the process, is still incompletely understood. The first radical intermediate has been characterized by EPR spectroscopy but subsequent proposed intermediates have not succumbed to detection. We report the synthesis of 7-thiaarachidonic acid ...
Pope Edward C - - 2007
Eicosanoids are a group of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives formed from C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The potential of the coelomocytes of the starfish, Asterias rubens, to generate eicosanoids through the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways was investigated using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, enzyme ...
Yeh Hui-Chun HC Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2007
Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and thromboxane synthase (TXAS) are atypical cytochrome P450s. They do not require NADPH or dioxygen for isomerization of prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) to produce prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). PGI(2) and TXA(2) have opposing actions on platelet aggregation and blood vessel tone. In this report, we use ...
Burstein Sumner H SH Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. - - 2007
A library of amino acid-fatty acid conjugates (elmiric acids) was synthesized and evaluated for activity as potential anti-inflammatory agents. The compounds were tested in vitro for their effects on cell proliferation and prostaglandin production, and compared with their effects on in vivo models of inflammation. LPS stimulated RAW 267.4 mouse ...
Smesny Stefan - - 2007
Increasing evidence suggests modulating effects of cannabinoids on time of onset, severity, and outcome of schizophrenia. Efforts to discover the underlying pathomechanism have led to the assumption of gene x environment interactions, including premorbid genetical vulnerability and worsening effects of continuing cannabis use. The objective of this cross-sectional study is ...
Aronoff David M - - 2007
Eicosanoids are a large group of oxygenated fatty acids [viz., omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) C(20) polyunsaturated fatty acids], the most important source being the omega-6 cell membrane-derived arachidonic acid (AA). Eicosanoids are produced by many different cell types; through their ligation and activation of specific membrane-bound and intracellular receptors, ...
Ma Bennett - - 2007
The cytotoxic effects of blattellaquinone (BTQ), a sex pheromone produced by adult female German cockroaches, have been studied using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ), a toxic chemical implicated in benzene toxicity, was used as a reference compound. Both BQ and BTQ showed comparable toxicity toward A549 cells, with ...
Harkewicz Richard - - 2007
Eicosanoids, including the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and related compounds, are biosynthetic, bioactive mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA), a 20:4(n-6) fatty acid. We have developed a comprehensive and sensitive mass spectral analysis to survey eicosanoid release from endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells that is capable of detecting ...
Cantor Louis B - - 2007
AIM: To determine the aqueous humour concentration of the acid hydrolysis products of bimatoprost and latanoprost after a single topical dose of bimatoprost 0.03% or latanoprost 0.005% in humans. METHODS: Randomised, controlled, double-masked, prospective study. 48 eyes of 48 patients scheduled for routine cataract surgery were randomised in an 8:2:2 ...
Tsaplina L A - - 2006
Prostaglandin-H-synthase (PGHS, EC 1.14.99.1) catalyzes the first committed step in biosynthesis of all prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins by converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)). PGHS exhibits two enzymatic activities: cyclooxygenase activity converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G(2) (PGG(2)) and peroxidase activity reducing the hydroperoxide PGG(2) to the corresponding alcohol, ...
Pan Huaizhong - - 2006
A novel bone targeting, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer based, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) delivery system was designed, synthesized and characterized. PGE1 was bound to the polymer backbone via a spacer, composed of a cathepsin K sensitive tetrapeptide (Gly-Gly-Pro-Nle) and a self-eliminating 4-aminobenzyl alcohol structure. The HPMA copolymer conjugates were prepared by photo-initiated ...
Zeidan Youssef H - - 2006
Sphingolipids are well established effectors of signal transduction downstream of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor. In a previous study, we showed that the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway couples TNF receptor to induction of the cyclooxygenase 2 gene and prostaglandin synthesis (Pettus, B. J., Bielawski, J., Porcelli, A. M., ...
Fang Xiang - - 2006
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite synthesized by cytochrome P-450 omega-oxidases, is reported to produce vasoconstriction in the cerebral circulation. However, we find that like 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), 20-HETE produces dilation of mouse basilar artery preconstricted with U-46619 in vitro. Indomethacin inhibited the vasodilation produced by 20-HETE but ...
Toriniwa Yasufumi - - 2006
We examined the effect of saikogenin D on arachidonic acid metabolism in C6 rat glioma cells to clarify its anti-inflammatory mechanism. Incubation of C6 cells with saikogenin D for 20 min resulted in the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) production and the accumulation of an arachidonic acid metabolite that was found ...
Yoshikawa Keisuke - - 2006
Kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure in rat involves eicosanoid production in the brain, but their production mechanism and biological functions are poorly understood. We profiled the eicosanoid production during KA-induced seizure by a comprehensive lipidomics analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Systemic KA administration caused production of large amounts of prostaglandin ...
Arkhipova O V - - 2006
Arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 decreased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials with producing any changes in the their amplitude-time parameters. Arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 decreased the quantum composition of endplate currents and the amplitude of the third phase of the nerve ending response, which reflects currents though potential-dependent ...
Stanley David - - 2006
Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These compounds are well known for their important actions in mammalian physiology and disease. Recent work has revealed the presence and biological actions of eicosanoids in insects and many other invertebrate animals. In insects, eicosanoids mediate cellular immunity ...
Wang Hong - - 2005
Bradykinin dilates efferent arterioles via release of efferent arteriole epoxyeicosatrienoic acids when perfused retrograde (no glomerular autacoids). However, when efferent arterioles are perfused orthograde through the glomerulus, bradykinin-induced dilatation is caused by a balance between: (1) the glomerular vasoconstrictor 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and vasodilator prostaglandins, and (2) epoxyeicosatrienoic acids from the ...
Cheng Zhangrui - - 2005
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) has variously been found to increase or inhibit synthesis of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs), derived from arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) containing oils are promoted to women for a variety of reproductive problems. Little is known concerning their actual effects on reproduction. We investigated ...
Lee Jean - - 2005
Currently available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin are directed at the cyclooxygenase (COX) site, but not the peroxidase (POX) activity of prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS). They are thus unable to inhibit the free-radical induced tissue injury associated with PGHS peroxidase activity, which can occur independently of the COX ...
Munsterman Amelia S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of pretreatment with alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on equine synovial explants challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ANIMALS: 8 mature mixed-breed horses (4 mares and 4 geldings). PROCEDURE: Synovial explants were assigned to receive 1 of 7 concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid, ranging from 0 ...
Neeraja S - - 2005
AIM: To analyze the role of cytosolic glutathione S-transferases cGSTs and membrane-associated cytosolic GSTs macGSTs in prostaglandin biosynthesis and to evaluate the possible interaction between glutathione S-transferases GSTs and cyclooxygenase (COX) in vitro. METHODS: SDS-PAGE analysis was undertaken for characterization of GSTs, thin layer chromatography (TLC) to monitor the effect ...
Tan Hui-Ning - - 2005
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is shown to be essential for female reproduction. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis from arachidonic acid and exists in two isoforms: COX-1 and COX-2. Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) is a terminal prostanoid synthase and can catalyse the isomerization of the COX product PGH2 ...
Milne Ginger L - - 2005
Cyclopentenone (A2/J2) isoprostanes (IsoPs) are a group of prostaglandin (PG)-like compounds generated in vivo from the free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Unlike other classes of IsoPs, cyclopentenone IsoPs contain highly reactive unsaturated carbonyl moieties on the prostane ring analogous to cyclooxygenase-derived PGA2 and PGJ2 that readily adduct relevant biomolecules ...
Rowley Andrew F - - 2005
Prostaglandins (PG) are oxygenated derivatives of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. In mammals, these compounds have been shown to play key roles in haemostasis, sleep-wake regulation, smooth muscle tone, and vaso-, temperature and immune regulation. In invertebrates, PGs have been reported to perform similar roles and ...
Chen Ping - - 2005
Anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist, is a potent vasodilator in the cerebral microcirculation. AEA is converted to arachidonic acid (AA) by fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH), and the conversion of AA to prostaglandins has been proposed as a potential mechanism for the vasodilation. Although AEA stimulated prostaglandin production by ...
Bansal Vishal - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Trauma increases the enzyme arginase, thus depleting arginine necessary for producing nitric oxide. Arginine and omega-3 fatty acids are components in immune-enhancing diets. These diets decrease infections in surgical patients, perhaps by preventing arginine deficiency. This study examines whether omega-3 fatty acids alter the metabolic fate of arginine. Thus, ...
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