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- - 2000
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or the regurgitation of gastric content into the esophagus, is an acid-peptic disorder that has a significant impact on both health and the quality of life. Because gastric acid plays a major role in the pathophysiology of this disease, acid neutralization/suppression has emerged as the cornerstone ...
Agastya G - - 2000
We postulated omeprazole inhibition of the neutrophil proton pump, impairing phagocytosis and phagolysosomal acidification. Neutrophils from healthy human beings were treated with omeprazole prodrug 0.5 mM/l or acid activated omeprazole 0.5 mM/l, then incubated with killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae stained with bromcresol purple. Wet mounts were done at 10, 30 and ...
Bercík P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Omeprazole produces a higher intragastric pH during Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection than after cure. We tested the hypothesis that this difference is due to the production of ammonia by H. pylori. METHODS: Gastric acidity and acid output (AO) were measured overnight in 12 subjects, with and without omeprazole, ...
Temple M E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the palatability, acid neutralizing capability, and costs of different antacids. METHODS: Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 60 years were given 22 antacids. All antacids were given during a 4-h period in two groups of 11 antacids each. Subjects sampled each antacid in a manner similar ...
Bai Y F - - 2000
AIM: To study the effects of piperine (Pip) on several experimental gastric ulcers in rats and mice. METHODS: The gastric mucosa damage was induced by stress, indometacin, HCl, and pyloric ligation in rats or mice. The number of gastric ulcers, the volume and acidity of gastric juices, and pepsin A ...
Shah S - - 2000
Gastric acid prevents bacterial colonization of the stomach and suppression of its secretion might predispose to Clostridium difficile (CD) diarrhoea. We retrospectively studied elderly patients admitted to medical wards of an acute hospital to determine whether the incidence of CD diarrhoea was greater among those previously treated with gastric acid ...
Haruma K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Whether gastric acid secretion decreases with age is still controversial. With the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, the association of this bacterium with gastric acid secretion has also been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gastric acid secretion, age and H. pylori infection. METHODS: ...
Yeomans N D - - 2000
This article responds to controversial issues about the long-term use of acid suppression raised in a recent article in this journal by Waldum & Brenna. Although rebound acid secretion occurs following proton pump inhibitor therapy, the clinical significance of this is unclear, but the proposal that this is a major ...
Tashiro A - - 2000
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DHEA-ST) is a key enzyme in the formation of Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and is thought to be involved in the conversion of various substances such as bile acids and cholesterol. The existence of DHEA-ST in the small intestine in addition to the adrenal gland and liver in adult ...
Moncur P H - - 2000
It is well established that atrophic gastritis, pernicious anaemia and partial gastrectomy are associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. These conditions all result in a low acid output state. Although the mechanism of gastric carcinogenesis is not known, the model proposed by Correa has provided the most attractive ...
Stevenson T H - - 2000
This study focused on important factors related to the potential of cattle and beef products to transmit Helicobacter pylori to humans. Mucosal samples were collected from the rumen and abomasum of 105 cattle and were plated on a selective medium to isolate Helicobacter spp.; none of the samples examined contained ...
Zhu Li - - 2000
AIM:To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS:A rat model with 30% TBSA full thickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production,together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge (EC) were measured serially within 48h ...
McColl K E - - 2000
Duodenal ulcer patients are characterized by an antrum-predominant, body-sparing, nonatrophic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis, which results in increased gastrin release and increased acid secretion. The increased gastrin release is caused by the infection impairing the acid-mediated inhibitory control of gastrin release. The elevated levels of the gastrin stimulate the ...
Dixon M F - - 2000
Peptic ulcers are accompanied by different patterns of chronic gastritis and duodenitis that generally run parallel to the topography of colonization by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Duodenal ulcers arise on a background of a gastroduodenitis; the gastritis is antrum-predominant while the duodenitis requires acid-induced gastric metaplasia in the duodenal mucosa ...
Weeks D L - - 2000
Acidic media trigger cytoplasmic urease activity of the unique human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Deletion of ureI prevents this activation of cytoplasmic urease that is essential for bacterial acid resistance. UreI is an inner membrane protein with six transmembrane segments as shown by in vitro transcription/translation and membrane separation. Expression ...
Bastaki S M - - 2000
Lansoprazole(L), pantoprazole (P), rabeprazole and RO-18-5364 (RO) are new benzimidazole derivatives which rival omeprazole (O) as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for treatment of ulcer disease. In this study, we compared the effects of these compounds on acid secretion and determined their relative potencies in relation to their effect on [14C]-aminopyrine ...
Metz D C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Gastric analysis is useful for diagnosing and monitoring the control of hypersecretory conditions and to distinguish appropriate from inappropriate causes of hypergastrinaemia. Pentagastrin, used to measure maximal acid output (MAO), is no longer available in the USA. METHODS: We examined the University of Pennsylvania Health System gastric analysis database, ...
Egan L J - - 2000
Proton pump inhibitors are highly effective in the management of acid-peptic diseases. These drugs potently inhibit acid secretion from gastric parietal cells by irreversibly inhibiting activity of the H(+), K(+) ATPase (proton pump). Early studies of the pharmacokinetics of proton pump inhibitors demonstrated considerable variation in drug clearance rates among ...
Yoshikawa M - - 2000
Oleanolic acid glycosides from several medicinal foodstuffs were found to show potent inhibitory activity on the increase of serum glucose levels in oral glucose-loaded rats. By examination of the structure-activity relationships, the 3-O-glucuronide moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were required to exert the hypoglycemic activity. Oleanolic ...
Tsai S C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: To determine whether vegetable fats cause a slower or quicker rate of gastric emptying (GE) than animal fats, we evaluated the effect of animal butter and vegetable soybean oil on solid-phase GE in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with functional dyspepsia were enrolled in this study. Radionuclide-labeled ...
Baron J H - - 2000
In the early 20th century, the commonest surgical treatment of peptic ulcer was gastroenterostomy. Crohn and Wilensky demonstrated that this operation did not achieve its aim of markedly reducing gastric acidity or of accelerating motility. These results were highly controversial, but led to Lewisohn visiting Haberer in Austria in 1922, ...
Werther J L - - 2000
Most gastroduodenal ulcer disease results from a weakness in the normal gastric mucous barrier against the penetration of acid secreted by the stomach. Based on meticulous and insightful research, the distinguished physiologist Franklin Hollander hypothesized that the stomach is protected against its own acid secretion by a dynamic two-component mucus-mucosal ...
Icatlo F C - - 2000
Colonization by Helicobacter pylori partly depends on acid-dependent adherence by urease to gastric mucin. To further verify the relevance of urease adherence to colonization, the influence of acidity on the binding sites of H. pylori urease was investigated. When enzyme-based in vitro ligand capture assays were used, the effect of ...
Baron J H - - 2000
From the late 19th century, Mount Sinai gastroenterologists declared their scepticism of the efficacy of all recommended treatments of peptic ulcer, and looked forward to trials which could distinguish between sequence and consequence, between association and causation. The rationale of all the early studies was to reduce gastric acidity, but ...
Zarling E J - - 1999
Gastroesophageal reflux is a common condition caused mainly by motility disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The most effective therapy combines acid suppression with a promotility agent. Nizatidine is a well-tolerated and effective histamine-2 (H2)-receptor antagonist used to suppress gastric acid secretion. Animal and human studies have conclusively demonstrated that ...
Fraser A G - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Maori and Pacific Island ethnic groups in New Zealand have a high risk for gastric cancer. Low levels of gastric juice ascorbic acid (vitamin C) have been suggested to be a risk factor for gastric cancer. Previous studies have shown that gastric juice ascorbic acid may be independently associated ...
Vergnes L - - 1999
We have investigated the involvement of human apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in gastric acid secretion and ulcer formation in recently generated apoA-IV transgenic mice. Compared to control littermates, transgenic animals showed a gastric acid secretion decreased by 43-77% whereas only slight variations were observed in the different cell population densities within ...
Wendel G H - - 1999
Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene lactone (SQL) of the guaianolide type isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser, shows a pharmacological cytoprotective effect and significantly prevents the formation of gastric and duodenal lesions induced by various necrotising agents in rodents. The effects of DhL, on two models of experimental colitis were examined. Colitis ...
Sztaricskai F - - 1999
Starting from methyl 5-nitrosalicylate (20) the N- and O-beta-glucopyranosyl derivatives (24, 28) of 5-aminosalicylic acid were prepared. The LD50 values of these compounds were determined on mice, and the inhibitory effect of 24 (0.83 mmol/kg) and 28 (1.2 mmol/kg) on gastric ulcer on rats, induced by indomethacin was investigated.
Shibata H - - 1999
Chlorogenic acid prevented a stepwise conversion of plasmid pUC18 DNA, from I-->form II-->form III, induced by 3 mM monochloramine with a half inhibition of 67.4 microM. Chlorogenic acid reacted with monochloramine in a time-dependent manner, and the reaction rate increased with decreasing pH. These results suggest that chlorogenic acid prevents ...
Peters F T - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori exaggerates the effect of acid suppressive drugs on intragastric pH. It is unknown whether this is relevant for the treatment of GERD. AIM: To compare oesophageal acid exposure and symptoms in H. pylori-negative and H. pylori-positive GERD patients during low and profound acid suppression. METHODS: Barrett's oesophagus ...
Playford R J - - 1999
Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor which has recently had its clinical license extended to include maintenance therapy for the treatment of reflux oesophagitis, Helicobacter pylori eradication and short-term intravenous administration. This article reviews the history of gastric acid secretion and examines the role of proton pump inhibitors, particularly pantoprazole, ...
Richter J - - 1999
Numerous factors are important in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The anti-reflux barrier consists of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and crural portion of the diaphragm. Absolute LES pressure less than 6 mmHg is required for gastroesophageal reflux (GER), but this is more frequently associated with increased episodes ...
Dive A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: In order to prevent gastric microbial overgrowth, which may complicate nasogastric feeding, administration of nutrients more distally into the gut has been advocated in intensive care patients, as it offers the advantage of keeping the stomach empty and acid. In this study, we assessed the impact of jejunal feeding ...
Costa K - - 1999
The peptidoglycan (murein) of Helicobacter pylori has been investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric techniques. Murein from H. pylori corresponded to the A1gamma chemotype, but the muropeptide elution patterns were substantially different from the one for Escherichia coli in that the former produced high proportions of muropeptides with ...
Cuche G - - 1999
Colonic compounds, primarily short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), inhibit gastric tone in humans. However, since colonic compounds reflux into the ileum, SCFAs might act also at the ileal level. This study evaluates the effects of the contact of SCFAs with the ileum alone towards gastrointestinal motility in fasted conscious pigs. Gastrointestinal ...
Kaunitz J D - - 1999
A viscoelastic mucus gel layer covers the gastric mucosa in a continuous sheet. The functions of the mucus gel have been one of the least studied aspects of gastric barrier function. Although the role of gastric mucus in providing physical protection against ingested particles, and preventing contact between digestive enzymes ...
Verhagen M A - - 1999
AIM: To investigate the effect of the prokinetic drug, cisapride, on fasting and postprandial acid exposure in the proximal duodenum. METHODS: Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study design, 12 healthy male volunteers were studied. After 1 week of dosing (cisapride 20 mg b.d. orally or placebo), fasting and postprandial antroduodenal ...
Hamlet A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) can still be improved in terms of user-friendliness and accuracy during acid-suppression therapy. This study was designed to evaluate a novel, rapidly disintegrating 13C UBT tablet, which was supplemented with citric acid to facilitate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in the hypochlorhydric stomach. METHODS: The ...
Gillen D - - 1999
Omeprazole has a greater intragastric pH elevating effect in Helicobacter pylori positive than negative subjects. Ammonia production by H pylori has been suggested as a probable mechanism. To assess the effect of H pylori status on gastric acid secretion during omeprazole treatment, and to examine the possible role of ammonia ...
Holzer-Petsche U - - 1999
Traction of the mesentery is known to induce strong autonomic reactions in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. An experimental model using this stimulus in anaesthetized rats has been developed, which allows the comparison of noxious mechanical and chemical stimulation of the mesentery. Graded traction on a bundle of jejunal vessels with ...
Samsom M - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although acid is likely to play a role in the genesis of symptoms in dyspeptic patients, most studies have failed to show an increase in gastric acid secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate clearance of acid from the duodenum and its relationship with symptoms ...
Kolkman J J - - 1999
PURPOSE: The tonometric detection of a high intragastric regional P(CO2) (PrCO2) reflecting an elevated intramucosal P(CO2) can be helpful to diagnose mucosal ischemia, if acid secretion is suppressed to avoid intragastric CO2 production through buffering of acid by bicarbonate in the stomach. It is recommended to perform tonometry in the ...
Hirschowitz B I - - 1999
Esophagitis results from excessive exposure of the esophagus to gastric juice through an ineffective or dysfunctional lower esophageal sphincter mechanism. A possible role of pepsin in damaging the esophageal mucosa with consequent esophagitis may be examined directly by testing pepsin under various conditions in experimental models of esophagitis. Since gastric ...
Uchiyama K - - 1999
We studied the effects of TU-199, a novel H+, K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, on gastric acid secretion and gastroduodenal lesions in rats in comparison with those of omeprazole. TU-199 inhibited hog gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase activity and its potency was almost equal to that of omeprazole (IC50 = 6.2 and 4.2 microM, respectively). ...
Huang J Q - - 1999
Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are common and occur in all of us from time to time. In others, reflux may be associated with ulcerative esophagitis. The symptoms may be aggravated by large meals, coffee, smoking and position. Physiological and pathological reflux can be separated by the frequency and duration of the ...
Calam J - - 1999
Helicobacter pylori plays major causative roles in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Elevated acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcers (DUs) contributes to duodenal injury, and diminished acid secretion in patients with gastric cancer allows carcinogen-producing bacteria to colonize the stomach. Eradication of H. pylori normalizes acid secretion both ...
Van Klinken B J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Decreased synthesis of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin (MUC2) occurs during active ulcerative colitis. AIMS: To study possible alterations in mucin sulphation and mucin secretion, which could be the cause of decreased mucosal protection in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis, ulcerative ...
Gielkens H A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Patients on total parenteral nutrition have an increased risk of developing gallstones because of gall bladder hypomotility. High dose amino acids may prevent biliary stasis by stimulating gall bladder emptying. AIMS: To investigate whether intravenous amino acids also influence antroduodenal motility. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers received, on three separate ...
Shetty N - - 1999
The microbicidal activity of a new disinfectant Sterilox, a super-oxidized water, containing a mixture of oxidizing substances, was tested against Clostridium difficile spores, Helicobacter pylori, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species, Candida albicans and several Mycobacterium species using membrane filters. All tests were performed in duplicate with and without added horse serum ...
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