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Naruhn Simone - - 2010
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) modulate target gene expression in response to unsaturated fatty acid ligands, such as arachidonic acid (AA). Here, we report that the AA metabolite 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) activates the ligand-dependent activation domain (AF2) of PPARbeta/delta in vivo, competes with synthetic agonists in a PPARbeta/delta ligand binding assay ...
Nash Sarah H - - 2009
The nitrogen isotope ratio (expressed as delta(15)N) of red blood cells (RBCs) is highly correlated with the RBC long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in Yup'ik Eskimos. Because delta(15)N can also be measured in hair samples, it could provide a noninvasive, retrospective biomarker for ...
Ramírez Ramsés E - - 2009
Absolute gas-phase acidities Delta(acid)G(0)(OH) and Delta(acid)G(0)(CH) were calculated at the B3LYP and MP2 levels using six different standard basis sets for the OH and CH heterolytic bond cleavage of ethanol and twelve derivatives of the type CH(3-n)F(n)CHX(r)OH, where n ranges from zero to three and represents the number of fluorine ...
Oriel Sarit - - 2010
The possibility of photoeradicating the prokaryotic microorganism Candida albicans by enhancing its endogenous porphyrin production and accumulation was investigated in this study. Induction of porphyrin synthesis was performed by the addition of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), or its hydrophobic derivative ALA methyl ester (m-ALA). Photoinactivation of C. albicans was performed under ...
Luengo Catherine - - 2009
We developed a complete method to measure low [(13)C] enrichments in glycogen. Fourteen rats were fed a control diet. Six of them also ingested either [U-(13)C] glucose (n=2) or a mixture of 20 [U-(13)C] amino acids (n=4). Hepatic glycogen was extracted, digested to glucose and purified on anion-cation exchange resins. ...
Santos Ana Filipa L O M - - 2009
This paper reports a combined thermochemical experimental and computational study of 2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid. Static bomb combustion calorimetry and Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique were used to determine the standard (p degrees = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, Delta(c)H(m) degrees, and sublimation, Delta(cr)(g)H(m) degrees, respectively, from which the ...
Lu Yandu - - 2009
The psychrotrophic Antarctic alga, Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7, grows under an extreme environment of low temperature and high salinity. In an effort to better understand the correlation between fatty acid metabolism and acclimation to Antarctic environment, we analyzed its fatty acid compositions. An extremely high amount of Delta(12) unsaturated fatty acids ...
Yoshioka Tadao - - 2009
Glucuronidation of carboxylic acid drugs has been found to be a metabolic activation pathway, possibly leading to covalent binding of the resultant 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides (beta GAs) to proteins. Previous studies on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the degradation rate constants (k values) of beta GAs have revealed that the electrophilicity ...
Homann Vanessa V - - 2009
A suite of amphiphilic siderophores, loihichelins A-F, were isolated from cultures of the marine bacterium Halomonas sp. LOB-5. This heterotrophic Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium was recently isolated from the partially weathered surfaces of submarine glassy pillow basalts and associated hydrothermal flocs of iron oxides collected from the southern rift zone of Loihi ...
Saikeur Angkana - - 2009
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and the biomass of photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris KG31, have very high potential for development and exploitation as bioherbicide and biofertilizer respectively. In this work, the effects of two precursors and an inhibitor of aminolevulinic dehydratase (ALAD) added to the VFA culture medium on the production of ...
Vysotsky Yu B - - 2009
In the framework of the semiempirical PM3 method, the thermodynamic parameters of cis isomers of unsaturated carboxylic acids at the air/water interface are studied. The model systems used are unsaturated cis fatty acid of the composition Delta = 12-15 and omega = 6-11, where Delta and omega refer to the ...
Li Yun-Tao - - 2009
Genes encoding Delta6 desaturase, Delta6 fatty acid elongase, and Delta5 desaturase from the alga, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were co-expressed in Pichia pastoris to produce arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4 Delta(5, 8, 11, 14)) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 Delta(5, 8, 11, 14, 17)). A panel of Pichia clones carrying progressively increasing copies ...
Sharma Kamalesh K - - 2009
The nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 from Caenorhabditis elegans is activated by dafachronic acids, which derive from sterols upon oxidation by DAF-9, a cytochrome P450. DAF-12 activation is a critical checkpoint in C. elegans for acquisition of reproductive competence and for entry into adulthood rather than dauer diapause. Previous studies implicated ...
Ramirez Armando P - - 2009
Treatment of gamma,delta-unsaturated ketones with hydrogen peroxide and acid provides a rapid entry into the medicinally important 1,2,4-trioxane structure. Alkene substitution that stabilizes carbocationic intermediates proved to be important for the success of this transformation.
Zhou Yuan E - - 2009
Desaturase 9 (Delta 9), which converts saturated fatty acids (SFAs) into monounsaturated fatty acids, is an important component in leptin-mediated energy homeostasis in rodent models. Few human studies, however, have been performed regarding the clinical relevance of Delta 9, particularly whether Delta 9 is involved in the relationship between blood ...
Baba Akiko - - 2009
1-beta-O-Acyl glucuronides (betaGAs) are potentially reactive metabolites capable of binding to proteins, and they have been implicated in adverse drug reactions of the carboxylic acid drugs. To explore their electrophilic reactivity, we studied structure-activity relationships (SARs) to characterize the factors affecting the degradation rate constants (k values) of betaGAs and ...
Kamio Michiya - - 2009
Escapin is an L-amino acid oxidase in the ink of a marine snail, the sea hare Aplysia californica, which oxidizes L-lysine (1) to produce a mixture of chemicals which is antipredatory and antimicrobial. The goal of our study was to determine the identity and relative abundance of the constituents of ...
Ohlendorf Birgit - - 2009
Myxobacteria are gliding bacteria of the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria and known for their unique biosynthetic capabilities. Two examples of a new class of metabolites, myxotyrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a Myxococcus sp. The myxotyrosides have a tyrosine-derived core structure glycosylated with rhamnose and acylated with ...
Sauveplane Vincent - - 2009
An approach based on an in silico analysis predicted that CYP77A4, a cytochrome P450 that so far has no identified function, might be a fatty acid-metabolizing enzyme. CYP77A4 was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (WAT11) engineered for cytochrome P450 expression. Lauric acid (C(12:0)) was converted into a mixture ...
Liu Min - - 2008
The gas-phase acidity and proton affinity of thymine, cytosine, and 1-methyl cytosine have been examined using both theoretical (B3LYP/6-31+G*) and experimental (bracketing, Cooks kinetic) methods. This paper represents a comprehensive examination of multiple acidic sites of thymine and cytosine and of the acidity and proton affinity of thymine, cytosine, and ...
Thammachat Siriya - - 2008
Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa toxin is a mosquito-larvicidal and cytolytic delta-endotoxin, which is synthesized as a protoxin and forms crystalline inclusions within the cell. These inclusions are solubilized under alkaline conditions and are activated by proteases within the larval gut. In order to assess the functions of the N-and C-terminal regions ...
Agusa Tetsuro - - 2009
This study investigated the status of arsenic (As) exposure from groundwater and rice, and its methylation capacity in residents from the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from <1.8 to 486 microg/L. Remarkably, 86% of groundwater samples exceeded WHO drinking water guideline of 10 microg/L. Also, estimated ...
Yu Shanlin - - 2008
Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase gene has been targeted as a logical candidate controlling the high oleate trait in peanut seeds. By RT-PCR method, the full-length cDNAs of Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase gene were isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes with normal and high ratio of oleic to linoleic acid, ...
Moreels Iwan - - 2008
Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is used to identify and quantify the organic capping of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals (Q-PbSe). We find that the capping consists primarily of tightly bound oleic acid ligands. Only a minor part of the ligand shell (0-5% with respect to the number of oleic acid ...
Dietrich Matthias - - 2009
Cytochrome P450 BM-3 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium (CYP102A1) catalyzes the subterminal hydroxylation of fatty acids with a chain length of 12-22 carbons. Wild-type P450 BM-3 oxidizes saturated fatty acids at subterminal positions producing a mixture of omega-1, omega-2 and omega-3 hydroxylated products. Using a rational site-directed mutagenesis approach, three new ...
Matousková Petra - - 2008
The knowledge of the molecular basis of communication in bumblebee communities is limited. None of the enzymes that participate in pheromone production have been characterized. Here, we cloned the gene encoding the Delta(9) desaturase from cDNA prepared from the total RNA of the pheromone gland and fat bodies of Bombus ...
Orrling Kristina M - - 2008
A fast and acid-free one-pot 0.2-30 mmol microwave methodology for direct ionic liquid-mediated preparation of lactams from lactones and primary amines has been developed. The protocol was investigated with a wide range of primary amines and a handful of lactones, including substrates with acid-sensitive substituents. Both gamma-lactams and delta-lactams were, ...
Imai Hiroyasu - - 2008
The binding of amino acids to water-soluble zinc porphyrins in basic aqueous solution was spectrophotometrically analyzed. The amino acids were bound to the porphyrins through the coordination of the N atom with the central zinc ion. Additional attractions arise due to Coulomb interactions between the -COO(-) anion of the amino ...
Cernusak Lucas A - - 2008
Leaf gas exchange and leaf water (18)O enrichment (Delta(18)O(L)) were measured in three Clusia species under field conditions during dry and wet seasons and in Miconia argentea during the dry season in the Republic of Panama. During the dry season, all three Clusia species used crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM); during ...
Huang Tzou-Chi - - 2008
2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) was identified as the major flavor compound in aromatic rice varieties Tainung 71 and 72. In order to understand the mechanism of 2-AP biosynthesis in aromatic rice, we studied the formation of putative precursors, Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid and methylglyoxal. The endogenous Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid contents of Tainung 71 and 72 ...
Chow Alex T - - 2008
The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is the major drinking water source for 23 million California residents. Consequently, many studies have examined disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in relation to Delta dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. However, DOC characteristics within the Delta are not the same as those entering downstream water treatment facilities. ...
Hagemann Andrea - - 2008
Sponges are sessile suspension-feeding organisms whose internal phylogenetic relationships are still the subject of intense debate. Sterols may have the potential to be used as independent markers to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Twenty representative specimens of calcareous sponges (class Calcarea, phylum Porifera) with a broad coverage within both subclasses Calcinea and ...
Malowicki Sarah M M - - 2008
Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) causes a significant reduction in yield and quality in raspberry and raspberry-blackberry hybrid. Genetic modifications were made to 'Meeker' red raspberries to impart RBDV resistance. The RBDV-resistant transgenic and wild type 'Meeker' plants were grown in Oregon and Washington, and the fruits were harvested in ...
Warensjö Eva - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Desaturase indexes, as markers of endogenous fatty acid desaturation, and a characteristic serum fatty acid (FA) composition are related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the relation to mortality is poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the relation between dietary fat biomarkers, desaturase indexes, and mortality. DESIGN: ...
Verniest Guido - - 2008
Difluoropiperidines attract considerable interest from organic and medicinal chemists, but their synthesis is often problematic. This paper describes a new synthetic pathway toward valuable 3,3-difluoropiperidines starting from suitable delta-chloro-alpha,alpha-difluoroimines. The latter imines can be synthesized via electrophilic fluorination of the corresponding delta-chloroimines using NFSI (N-fluorodibenzenesulfonimide) in acetonitrile. After hydride reduction ...
Takeda Shuso - - 2008
In the present study it was revealed that cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity with an IC(50) value (50% inhibition concentration) around 2 microM, having 9-fold higher selectivity than COX-1 inhibition. In contrast, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Delta(9)-THCA) was a much less potent inhibitor of COX-2 (IC(50) > 100 microM). ...
Dungait Jennifer A J - - 2008
The leaves of 37 grass, herb, shrub and tree species were collected from a mesotrophic grassland to assess natural variability in bulk, fatty acid and monosaccharide delta(13)C values of leaves from one plant community. The leaf tissue mean bulk delta(13)C value was -29.3 per thousand. No significant differences between tissue ...
Rogerson Fraser M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To characterize aggrecan catabolism and the overall phenotype in mice deficient in both ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 (TS-4/TS-5 Delta-cat) activity. METHODS: Femoral head cartilage from the joints of TS-4/TS-5 Delta-cat mice and wild-type mice were cultured in vitro, and aggrecan catabolism was stimulated with either interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) or retinoic acid. ...
Taugbøl O - - 2008
Results indicated that the dual marker system of Yb-acetate and Co-EDTA supplied per os reduced the proportion of fatty acids in bovine milk that were products of Delta (9)-desaturase. To verify this effect and identify the responsible marker component, 18 cows (3 cows per treatment) were administered per os a ...
Meesapyodsuk Dauenpen - - 2008
Claviceps purpurea, a fungal pathogen responsible for ergot diseases in many agriculturally important cereal crops, produces high levels of ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) in its sclerotia. It has been believed for many years that the biosynthesis of this fatty acid in C. purpurea involves a hydration process with linoleic acid ...
Dagenais Taylor R T - - 2008
Oxygenated fatty acids, or oxylipins, play an essential role in physiological signaling and developmental processes in animals, plants, and fungi. Previous characterization of three Aspergillus fumigatus dioxygenases (PpoA, PpoB, and PpoC), similar in sequence to mammalian cyclooxygenases, showed that PpoA is responsible for the production of the oxylipins 8R-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid ...
Sakaguchi Hiroshi - - 2008
A total synthesis of (-)-kainic acid starting from the commercially available 2-azetidinone is described. The key delta-lactone intermediate was concisely prepared from the commercially available azetidinone through the Reformatsky-type reaction and an introduction of a glycine moiety. The construction of the functionalized pyrrolidine ring was executed by a one-pot sequential ...
Pohlmann Verena - - 2008
The nonribosomally produced hydroxamate siderophore coelichelin from Streptomyces coelicolor contains the nonproteinogenic amino acids N(5)-hydroxyornithine and N(5)-hydroxyformylornithine that are important for iron assembly. The hydroxylation of the delta-amino group of L-ornithine is catalyzed by the flavin-dependent monooxygenase CchB. During the redox reaction nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and molecular oxygen ...
Busetto Maria L - - 2008
Fatty acid composition and stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) were determined in muscle tissue of turbot (Psetta maxima). The multivariate analysis of the data was performed to evaluate their utility in discriminating wild and farmed fish. Wild (n=30) and farmed (n=30) turbot of different geographical origins ...
Ardais Ana P - - 2008
This study was designed to examine if ebselen, an organoselenium compound with antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase-mimetic properties, attenuates testicular injury caused by intraperitoneal administration of CdCl(2). A number of toxicological parameters were evaluated in the testes of mice, such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid levels ...
Kauppila Tiina J - - 2008
The feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) in the direct analysis of illicit drugs was demonstrated by the analysis of confiscated drug samples of various forms such as tablets, blotter paper, and plant resin and bloom. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), amphetamine, phenazepam, and buprenorphine were detected from the analyzed tablets, lysergic ...
Weimin Shi - - 2008
The synthesis of a series of modularized porphyrins bearing bioactive molecule is described. Starting with meso-tetraphenylporphyrin, the compounds with two nitro functional groups were synthesized via regiospecific nitration reaction. After reduction to the amino group and subsequent coupling with l-phenylalanine or 1-carboxylmethyl-5-fluorouracil (5-Fu acid), the functionalized porphyrins were metallized with ...
Pandey Usha - - 2008
The growing interest in natural food has raised the global demand for nutraceuticals. We studied enhanced production of biomass, delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA), bili pigments and antioxidant capacity of a food alga Nostochopsis lobatus in a full-factorial (three level) design with supplemental Zn, glutamine, and Zn + glutamine in batch culture. ...
Pérez Marta - - 2008
The development of aquaculture along the Mediterranean coastline degrades the marine environment, in particular Posidonia oceanica meadows, which, in extreme cases, show high mortality. Here we studied the effects of organic matter and nutrient input from the effluents of three fish farms, located along the Mediterranean coast, on P. oceanica ...
Minami Yuko - - 2008
To assess the contribution of singlet molecular oxygen [O(2) ((1)Delta(g))] to lipid peroxidation in vivo, this study combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with thin layer chromatography to analyse peroxidized lipids in the skin of hairless mice. Hydroxyoctadecenoate isomers and unconjugated hydroxyoctadecadienoate isomers derived from peroxidized oleic acid and linoleic acid, respectively, ...
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