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Hildebrandt Alfred G - - 2007
This review goes back to spectral studies [see Hildebrandt et al., 1968]. The findings of apparent absolute spectra of two interconvertible forms of microsomal mixed function oxidases are looked back on to recall whether their impact sustained scrutiny or are rather remembered as of sentimental value only. The second part ...
McCarty Mark F - - 2007
Thirty years ago, Kurt Oster promulgated the avant-garde theory that bovine xanthine oxidase, absorbed intact from homogenized milk, promoted atherogenesis by oxidatively damaging membrane plasmalogens. Under the mistaken impression that folic acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, he administered high-dose folate (80 mg daily) to hundreds of patients afflicted with ...
Ding Ju - - 2007
To provide an insight into the mechanism of interspecific interactions mediated by allelochemicals, cucumber and figleaf gourd seedlings were compared on their response to cinnamic acid, an autotoxin from root exudates of cucumber. Reactive oxygen species metabolism and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity were examined in roots upon exposure to cinnamic ...
Moridera Nobukatsu - - 2007
A biotinylated glucose oxidase (bGOD)-immobilized glass disk was prepared for visualizing D-glucose fluxes in acute brain slices. A mouse hippocampal slice was placed on the bGOD disk and stimulated with a stimulant solution containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a substrate DA-64, followed by capturing digital images of Bindschedler's Green (BG), ...
Ralph Erik C - - 2006
Tryptophan 2-monooxygenase (TMO) from Pseudomonas savastanoi catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of l-tryptophan during the biosynthesis of indoleacetic acid. Structurally and mechanistically, the enzyme is a member of the family of l-amino acid oxidases. Deuterium and 15N kinetic isotope effects were used to probe the chemical mechanism of l-alanine oxidation by ...
Bendikov Inna - - 2007
Clinical trials demonstrated that D-serine administration improves schizophrenia symptoms, raising the possibility that altered levels of endogenous D-serine may contribute to the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor hypofunction thought to play a role in the disease. We hypothesized that cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) D-serine levels are decreased in the patients due to reduced ...
Wu Mei - - 2006
1. Many studies have shown that administration of d-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (D-dopa) produces contralateral rotation in hemi-parkinsonian animals comparable to L-dopa, with less potency and slower onset. It was postulated that D-dopa was converted to L-dopa to produce these effects. 2. To investigate the postulated chiral inversion of D-dopa to L-dopa ...
Morris Meredith T - - 2006
Trypanosoma brucei expresses two hexokinases that are 98% identical, namely, TbHK1 and TbHK2. Homozygous null TbHK2-/- procyclic-form parasites exhibit an increased doubling time, a change in cell morphology, and, surprisingly, a twofold increase in cellular hexokinase activity. Recombinant TbHK1 enzymatic activity is similar to that of other hexokinases, with apparent ...
Dai Z H - - 2007
The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on a hexagonal mesoporous silica modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated. The adsorbed GOD displayed a pair of redox peaks with a formal potential of -417 mV in 0.1 M pH 6.1 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The response showed a diffusion-controlled electrode ...
Yamamoto Yuji - - 2006
Numerous Streptococcaceae produce an H2O-forming NADH oxidase, Nox-2, which has been generally implicated in aerobic survival. We examined the roles of Nox-2 in Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a leading agent of neonatal infections. While nox2 inactivation caused an aerobic growth arrest, no improvement was seen by addition of antioxidants to ...
Muramatsu Hisashi - - 2006
L-Pipecolic acid is a chiral pharmaceutical intermediate. An enzymatic system for the synthesis of L-pipecolic acid from L-lysine by commercial L-lysine alpha-oxidase from Trichoderma viride and an extract of recombinant Escherichia coli cells coexpressing Delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase from Pseudomonas putida and glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis is described. A laboratory-scale process ...
Nanjo Yoko - - 2006
A flow-injection system with an enzyme reactor was proposed for the measurement of fructosyl amino acids and fructosyl peptides in protease-digested blood samples. A fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (FAOX-TE) and two fructosyl-peptide oxidases (FPOX-CE and FPOX-CET) were covalently immobilized onto an inert support. They were used as the enzyme reactor in ...
Ande Sudharsana Rao - - 2006
L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) from the Malayan pit viper induces both necrosis and apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Cell death by necrosis is attributed to H2O2 produced by oxidation of alpha-amino acids. In the presence of catalase that effectively scavenges H2O2, a switch to apoptosis is observed. The major factors contributing ...
Watts Colin - - 2006
Activation of proteases in the phagosomes of neutrophils occurs by neutralization of the phagosomal pH by NADPH oxidase. In this issue, Savina et al. (2006) show that dendritic cell phagosomes also recruit NADPH oxidase but with different results. Here, the neutralization of phagosomal pH reduces protease activity, which preserves antigens ...
Cheriot Sophie C - - 2006
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant was extracted and partially purified by a two-step fractionation-precipitation using ammonium sulfate and phenylsepharose hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The eggplant PPO extract was characterized concerning its kinetic properties. Optimal conditions to obtain Maillard reaction products (MRPs) with a maximal inhibitory potency (IP) toward PPO activity were ...
Kapoor Ranjna - - 2006
Preliminary investigations, studying gene expression and biochemical activities of enzymes d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and kynurenine aminotransferase-1 (KAT-1), revealed elevated cerebellar KAT-1 and DAAO activities in post-mortem brain samples from schizophrenic versus normal individuals. In addition, we have identified a transcript of DAAO, which was expressed in significantly higher quantities ...
Miscoria Silvia A - - 2006
The work proposed here deals with the design and characterization of biorecognition layers for the amperometric glucose determination based on the self-assembling of new chitosan derivatives, Nafion and glucose oxidase onto thiolated gold electrodes. The supramolecular multistructure is obtained by deposition of a layer of chitosan derivative (quaternized or hydrophobic) ...
Nicholson Jay - - 2006
The digestive properties of Australian elapid snake venoms have not been studied to any great extent. To address this, the in vitro digestive properties of Oxyuranus scutellatus (Australian Coastal Taipan) venom were investigated in a simulation of the in vivo conditions using the parameters reported for the stomach of snakes ...
Bernard Olivier - - 2006
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a standard immunosuppressive drug approved for clinical use in the prevention of acute allograft rejection after organ transplantation. This study examines the role of the genetic variants of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A8 and 2B7 enzymes involved in the formation of ...
Gaitanaki Catherine - - 2006
We investigated the effects of different antioxidants such as L-ascorbic acid, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), on the p38-MAPK activation induced by oxidative stress in the isolated perfused amphibian heart. Oxidative stress was exemplified by perfusing hearts with 30 microM H(2)O(2) for 5 min or with the enzymatic system of ...
Tõnismägi Külli - - 2006
The L-amino acid oxidase from Vipera lebetina venom was purified to homogeneity using combination of size exclusion, ion exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The monomeric molecular mass of the homodimeric enzyme is 60.9kDa. The N-terminal and the tryptic peptides share high homology with other snake venom L-amino acid oxidases. The enzyme ...
Bittner S - - 2006
Quinones and amino acids are usually compartmentally separated in living systems, however there are several junctions in which they meet, react and influence. It occurs mainly in wounded, cut or crushed plant material during harvest, ensiling or disintegrating cells. Diffusing polyphenols are oxidized by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) to quinonic compounds, ...
Manda K - - 2006
We have studied the enzymatic derivatization of amino acids by use of the polyphenol oxidase laccase. Derivatization of L-tryptophan was achieved by enzymatic crosslinking with the laccase substrate 2,5-dihydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-benzamide. The main product (yield up to 70%) was identified as the quinoid compound 2-[2-(2-hydroxy-ethylcarbamoyl)-3,6-dioxo-cyclohexa-1,4-dienylamino]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)- propionic acid and demonstrates that laccase-catalyzed C-N-coupling ...
Jo Su-Hyun - - 2006
We investigated the effects of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), an amino-group reagent, on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) K+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. TNBS neutralizes the positively charged amino-groups of peptide N-terminal and lysine residues. External application of TNBS at 10 mM for 5 min irreversibly shifted the curves ...
Sonawane Vijay Chintaman - - 2006
Semisynthetic cephalosporins are important antibacterials in clinical practice. Semisynthetic cephalosporins are manufactured by derivatizing 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) and its desacetylated form. Microbial enzymes such as D-amino acid oxidase, glutaryl-7-ACA acylase and cephalosporin esterase are being used as biocatalysts for the conversion of cephalosporin C (CEPH-C) to 7-ACA and its desacetylated ...
Suzuki Atsushi - - 2006
Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol found in coffee, has antihypertensive actions, but epidemiologic data on the effects of coffee on blood pressure are controversial. Specific coffee components that inhibit the hypotensive effect of chlorogenic acid and the physiologic mechanisms underlying the effects of coffee without these components were investigated. One component, ...
Lutz-Wahl S - - 2006
The activity and stability of free and immobilized D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO, EC 1.4.3.3) from Trigonopsis variabilis CBS 4095 in different water-soluble and water-insoluble ionic liquids (ILs) as well as in organic solvents were studied for comparison. The most promising ILs ([BMIM][BF(4)] and [MMIM][MMPO(4)]) were investigated in detail. The kinetic ...
Errico Francesco - - 2006
Free D-aspartic acid and NMDA are present in the mammalian central nervous system and endocrine glands at significant concentrations, but their physiological role is still matter of debate. The only enzyme known to metabolize in vitro selectively these D-amino acids is D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). To clarify the role in vivo ...
Chun Byon-Wa - - 2006
The present work attempted to utilize xylose by converting it to an aldonic acid. In the present study, xylose was converted to xyloni acid by using commercial glucose oxidase enzyme, palladium catalysis, and microbial bioconversion. The enzyme conversion was successfully done using a commercial glucose oxidase. The microbial conversion with ...
Faust Annette - - 2006
L-Amino-acid oxidases (EC 1.4.3.2) catalyse the stereospecific oxidative deamination of an L-amino-acid substrate to an alpha-keto acid with the production of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a bacterial L-amino-acid oxidase from Rhodococcus opacus (RoLAAO) is described. RoLAAO is a dimeric protein ...
Ro Dae-Kyun - - 2006
Diterpene resin acids are prominent defense compounds against insect pests and pathogens in conifers. Biochemical and molecular analyses in grand fir (Abies grandis), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) have identified two classes of genes and enzymes that generate much of the structural diversity of terpenoid defense ...
Samel Mari - - 2006
An L-amino acid oxidase was isolated from the venom of the common viper Vipera berus berus by a three-step procedure combining gel filtration, ion exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The enzyme is a non-covalently bound homodimer with a monomeric molecular mass of 57.7 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and the ...
Tiwari Sudhanshu - - 2006
Piscicidal activities of aqueous extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli were very well established, but their ultimate mode of action on fish metabolism was not yet known. Exposure of fishes over 24h or 96h to sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC(50)) of aqueous extract of E. tirucalli stem-bark and latex, significantly ...
Ogel Z B - - 2006
Scytalidium thermophilum produces an extracellular phenol oxidase on glucose-containing medium. Certain phenolic acids, specifically gallic acid and tannic acid, induce the expression of the enzyme. Production at 45 degrees C in batch cultures is growth-associated and is enhanced in the presence of 160 microM CuSO4 x 5 H2O and 3 ...
Panoutsopoulos Georgios I - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: 3,4-Dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine is catalyzed to its aldehyde derivative by monoamine oxidase B, but the subsequent oxidation into the corresponding acid has not yet been studied. Oxidation of aromatic aldehydes is catalyzed mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. METHODS: The present study examines the metabolism of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine in vitro and ...
Ghosh Sisir - - 2006
The mature root nodules of Phaseolus mungo (L.), a leguminous pulse, contain higher amount of indole acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. The tryptophan pool present in the mature nodule and young roots might serve as a precursor for the IAA production. Presence of IAA metabolising enzymes - IAA oxidase ...
Howard-Jones Annaleise R - - 2005
During the biosynthesis of the fused six-ring indolocarbazole scaffolds of rebeccamycin and staurosporine, two molecules of L-tryptophan are processed to a pyrrole-containing five-ring intermediate known as chromopyrrolic acid. We report here the heterologous expression of RebO and RebD from the rebeccamycin biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli, and tandem action of ...
Cantu Dario - - 2006
Uronic acid oxidase activity was found in an extract from harvested peaches that was incubated with citrus pectin at pH 8.5. The product of this reaction was identified by GC-MS analysis to be galactaric acid. The reaction was linear at 37 degrees C for up to 20 h, and the ...
Toyama Marcos H - - 2006
A novel l-amino acid oxidase (LAO) (Casca LAO) from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom was purified to a high degree of molecular homogeneity using a combination of molecular exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography system. The purified monomer of LAO presented a molecular mass of 68 kDa and pI estimated in 5.43, which ...
Kerimoglu Servet - - 2005
Alkaptonuria is a metabolic disorder in which homogentisic acid oxidase is absent. Therefore, homogentisic acid accumulates in cartilage and connective tissues. We can diagnose ochronotic arthropathy, a manifestation of long standing alkaptonuria, through careful radiological, physical, and laboratory examination. In this report, we describe 4 cases of ochronotic arthropathy to ...
Girish K S - - 2006
Hyaluronidase is present virtually in all snake venoms and has been known as a "spreading factor." The enzyme damages the extracellular matrix at the site of the bite, leading to severe morbidity. In this study, the benefits of inhibiting the hyaluronidase activity of Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom have been ...
Butzke Daniel - - 2005
The purple ink of the sea hare Aplysia punctata contains a 60 kDa protein with tumoricidal activity. This A. punctata ink toxin (APIT) kills tumor cells within 6--8h in an apoptosis independent manner by the production of high amounts of hydrogen peroxide which induce a necrotic form of oxidative stress. ...
Cui Donghui - - 2005
The agricultural fungicide N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)succinimide (NDPS) is nephrotoxic in rats. Due to the involvement of NDPS metabolism in its mechanism of toxicity, the detailed biotransformation of 14C-NDPS in rats was previously evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In the present report, we describe the identification of two novel amino metabolites ...
Hamase Kenji - - 2006
A sensitive assay for D-amino-acid oxidase (DAO) activity in mammalian tissues has been established. D-Tryptophan (D-Trp) analogs were tested as substrates for DAO, and 5-fluoro-D-tryptophan (D-FTP) was found to be the best substrate. By the enzymatic reaction, D-FTP was converted to 5-fluoroindole-3-acetic acid (FIAA), a highly fluorescent product, and the ...
Abe Hiroki - - 2005
Aquatic crustaceans and some bivalve mollusks contain a large amount of free D-alanine (up to 100 mumol/g wet wt.) in their tissues. Under high salinity stress, crustaceans and bivalve mollusks largely accumulate D- and L-alanine irrespective of species examined, together with L-glutamine, L-proline, and glycine of which increases are species ...
Yang Hsiuchin - - 2005
A 60 kDa monomeric protein isolated from the defensive purple ink secretion of the sea hare Aplysia californica was cloned and sequenced, and is the first sea hare antimicrobial protein to be functionally expressed in E. coli. Sequence analysis suggested that this protein is a flavin-containing l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), ...
Hamase Kenji - - 2005
The determination of small amounts of D-amino acids in mammalian tissues is still a challenging theme in the separation sciences. In this review, various gas-chromatographic and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods are discussed including highly selective and sensitive column-switching procedures. Based on these methods, the distributions of D-aspartic acid, D-serine, D-alanine, ...
Cheng Qi - - 2005
The industrial yeasts Candida tropicalis or Candida cloacae are able to grow on a variety of long chain alkanes and fatty acids as the sole carbon source. The complete oxidation of these substrates involves two sequential oxidative pathways: omega-oxidation, comprising the P450 alkane oxidase, a flavin-dependent membrane-bound long chain fatty ...
Lee Young-Mee - - 2006
When oxygen sensing cells are excited by hypoxia, background K+ currents are inhibited. TASK-1, which is commonly expressed in oxygen sensing cells and makes a background K+ current, is inactivated by hypoxia. Thus TASK-1 is a candidate molecule responsible for hypoxic excitation. However, TASK-1 per se cannot sense oxygen and ...
Mohammadi Mahmood - - 2005
Although the metabolism of dibenzofuran by the biphenyl catabolic enzymes had been inferred in previous reports, the metabolic pattern has never been determined unambiguously. In this work, we describe the evolved biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO) RR41 that exhibits a higher turnover rate of metabolism toward dibenzofuran and chlorodibenzofurans than the parental ...
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