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Results 401 - 450 of 1461
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Drevon Christian A - - 2005
Adipose tissue has been recognised as the quantitatively most important energy store of the human body for many years, in addition to its functions as mechanical and thermic insulator. In mammals, the adipose organ is localised in several depots including white as well as brown adipose tissues. The largest depots ...
Luquet Serge - - 2005
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are lipid-activated transcription factors exerting several functions in development and metabolism. PPARalpha, activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids and fibrates, is implicated in regulation of lipid metabolism, lipoprotein synthesis and metabolism and inflammatory response in liver and other tissues. PPARgamma plays important roles in regulation of proliferation ...
Jiang Jingying - - 2004
Recently, the tissue optical clearing technique has shown great potential in enhancing the capabilities of non-invasive light-based diagnostic and imaging techniques due to increased light penetration into tissue. In order to facilitate the clinical availability of the tissue optical clearing technique by the use of hyperosmotic agents, this study introduces ...
Andriotis Vasilios M E - - 2005
Dormancy of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) seeds is alleviated by a chilling treatment during which cytological, hormonal, and biochemical changes occur. Phytic acid and phosphate mobilization have been examined during this treatment. Phytic acid accounted for 0.7% and up to 3.2% of dry weight in axiferous and cotyledonary tissue, respectively. ...
Li Xian - - 2004
Fully developed horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey., & Scherb.) roots from 27 accessions and leaves from a subset of 9 accessions were evaluated for glucosinolates and myrosinase enzyme activity. Eight different glucosinolates were detected (based on HPLC retention times as desulfoglucosinolates) in both root and leaf tissues. The sum of ...
Vane Christopher H - - 2005
Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterise the fatty acids from soils and associated tissues excavated from a 1967 Foot and Mouth burial pit. Subcutaneous fats were mainly comprised of 55-75% palmitic acid, 17-22% stearic acid and 3-16% oleic acid as well as 5-7% myristic acid. The distribution of fatty acids ...
Forbes Shari L - - 2005
Adipocere is a decomposition product comprising predominantly of saturated fatty acids which results from the hydrolysis and hydrogenation of neutral fats in the body. Adipocere formation may occur in various decomposition environments but is chiefly dependent on the surrounding conditions. In a soil burial environment these conditions may include such ...
Mamalakis George - - 2004
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid dietary intake and depression. The sample consisted of 90 adolescents from the island of Crete. There were 54 girls and 36 boys, aged 13-18. The ...
Naenni Nadja - - 2004
Necrotic soft-tissue remnants in root canals may provide a source of nutrition for surviving microbiota after root-canal therapy. This study assessed the necrotic tissue dissolution capacity of some popular and some potential root-canal irrigants: 1% (wt/vol) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 10% chlorhexidine, 3% and 30% hydrogen peroxide, 10% peracetic acid, 5% ...
Nguyen L Q - - 2004
We investigated whether the addition of either spinach or sweet-potato leaves to the diet of growing pigs, kept in small holdings in Central Vietnam, would improve growth performance. A control diet was formulated and mixed with each of the vegetables to a final concentration of 15% of the total dietary ...
Luquet Serge - - 2004
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are lipid-activated transcription factors playing important regulatory functions in development and metabolism. PPARalpha and PPARgamma are the most extensively examined and characterized, mainly because they are activated by marketed hypolipidemic and insulin sensitizer compounds, such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones. It has been established that the third ...
Baylin Ana - - 2004
Arachidonic acid (AA), a precursor of prothrombotic eicosanoids, is potentially atherogenic, but epidemiologic data are scarce. We evaluated the hypothesis that increased AA in adipose tissue is associated with increased risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (MI), and if so, whether this association is related to dietary or adipose tissue ...
Uranga Ana Paola - - 2005
Oxidation and adipose tissue uptake of dietary fat can be measured by adding fatty acid tracers to meals. These studies were conducted to measure between-study variability of these types of experiments and assess whether dietary fatty acids are handled differently in the follicular vs. luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. ...
Tzitzikas Emmanouil N - - 2004
In a five-step procedure, plants were regenerated from meristematic tissue initiated from nodal tissue in four pea cultivars ('Espace', 'Classic', 'Solara', and 'Puget'). In step 1, stem tissue with one node (1-cm size) was subcultured on medium containing thidiazuron. As a result multiple shoots were produced, appearing normal or swollen ...
Baar Rachel A - - 2005
The metabolic impact of the murine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP/aP2) on lipid metabolism was investigated in the AFABP/aP2(-/-) mouse and compared with wild-type C57BL/6J littermates. Mice were weaned on a high-fat diet (59% of energy from fat) and acclimated to meal feeding. Stable isotopes were administered, and indirect calorimetry ...
Large V - - 2004
Adipose tissue is considered as the body's largest storage organ for energy in the form of triacylglycerols, which are mobilized through lipolysis process, to provide fuel to other organs and to deliver substrates to liver for gluconeogenesis (glycerol) and lipoprotein synthesis (free fatty acids). The release of glycerol and free ...
Palmquist D L - - 2004
Proportions of vaccenic (trans-11 18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) acids in mesenteric adipose, subcutaneous adipose, and longissimus muscle tissue lipids from lambs fed varying proportions of forages and concentrates were used to develop a mathematical model to predict exogenous and endogenous contributions to rumenic acid (RA) in the several ...
Fortier Mélanie - - 2004
In white adipose tissue, lipolysis can occur by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-dependent or HSL-independent pathways. To study HSL-independent lipolysis, we placed HSL-deficient mice in conditions of increased fatty acid flux: beta-adrenergic stimulation, fasting, and dietary fat loading. Intraperitoneal administration of the beta(3)-adrenergic agonist CL-316243 caused a greater increase in nonesterified fatty ...
Nikolaidis M G - - 2004
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term wheel running on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) in rat serum, skeletal muscle (soleus and extensor digitorum longus) and heart. METHODS: To this end, the relevant tissues of 11 trained male Wistar ...
Klein Samuel - - 2004
Increased plasma fatty acid concentrations may be responsible for many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with abdominal obesity. Excessive visceral fat is associated with insulin resistance and other metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease. A study reported in this issue of the JCI evaluates the relative contribution of fatty ...
Menegus Faustino - - 2004
An unknown signal at 2.93 ppm in 1H-NMR spectra of rice, Oryza sativa, was assigned to the methyl groups of sulphur-methylmethionine (SMM), thereby devising a new method for the determination of this compound. Rice seedlings growing aerobically in the dark and in the light engaged for the synthesis of SMM ...
Chang Yen - - 2004
A cell extraction process was employed to remove the cellular components from bovine pericardia. Various porous structures of the acellular tissues were then created, using acetic acid and collagenase, and subsequently fixed with genipin. The biological response and tissue regeneration pattern for each studied group were evaluated in a growing ...
Forbes Shari L - - 2004
Adipocere is a postmortem decomposition product which forms from a body's adipose tissue. This study aimed to chemically demonstrate the process of conversion from adipose tissue to adipocere. Samples of adipocere were collected from pig cadavers that were allowed to decompose for varying intervals. Samples of soil were collected from ...
Salehi Payam - - 2004
An amino acid-based solution has been recently developed and has demonstrated significant protective effects during cold storage of small bowel (SB). This study was designed to examine the role of this novel solution in ameliorating intestinal injury in an in vivo model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The impact of luminal treatment ...
Nakano Takuo - - 2004
The porcine infrapatellar fat pad is a structure composed of adipocytes and adipose connective tissues. Limited information is available concerning its chemical composition. Samples of the fat pad collected from young hogs were dissected into two portions: a relatively hard core of the pad with cushioning properties (inner tissue), and ...
Christoffolete Marcelo A - - 2004
The Dio2 gene encodes the type 2 deiodinase (D2) that activates thyroxine (T4) to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3), the disruption of which (Dio2(-/-)) results in brown adipose tissue (BAT)-specific hypothyroidism in an otherwise euthyroid animal. In the present studies, cold exposure increased Dio2(-/-) BAT sympathetic stimulation approximately 10-fold (normal approximately 4-fold); as ...
Azain M J - - 2004
Fat is typically added to diets as a source of energy. The alternative aspects considered here are the use of specific fats to alter the fatty acid profile of adipose tissue toward creation of value-added products and the potential for individual fatty acids to alter gene expression and control adipose ...
Rial Eduardo - - 2004
Fatty acids activate the uncoupling protein UCP1 by a still controversial mechanism. Two models have been put forward where the fatty acid operates as either substrate ("fatty acid cycling hypothesis") or prosthetic group ("proton buffering model"). Two sets of experiments that should help to discriminate between the two hypothetical mechanisms ...
Freedman Steven D - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis have altered levels of plasma fatty acids. We previously demonstrated that arachidonic acid levels are increased and docosahexaenoic acid levels are decreased in affected tissues from cystic fibrosis-knockout mice. In this study we determined whether humans with mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ...
Hazel J R - - 2004
Antarctic fishes of the suborder Notothenioidei characteristically possess large stores of neutral lipids that have been shown to be important both in conferring buoyant lift and as a caloric resource for energy metabolism. Previous work has established that the aerobic energy metabolism of Antarctic fish is fueled predominantly by the ...
Stachowska Ewa - - 2004
Dietary fatty acids are incorporated into atheromatous plaques mainly in the form of cholesterol esters. Physicochemical properties of the plaque (e. g. mechanical strength) depend on its fatty acid composition. Trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) are known to reduce the availability of fatty acid precursors for the synthesis ...
Mattacks Christine A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study explores the role of lymphatics-associated adipocytes in determining the lipid composition of dendritic cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult male rats were fed plain chow, or chow supplemented with 20% sunflower or fish oil. Chronic local inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20 microg lipopolysaccharide three times ...
Radcliffe J D - - 2004
There have been few studies on the effect of cottonseed oil (CSO), one of the most commonly used vegetable oils in the United States, on indices of lipid status either in the rat or in any other species. Previous studies with rats have focused on the effect of CSO, versus ...
Jezek P - - 2004
Instead of a comprehensive review, we describe the basic undisputed facts and a modest contribution of our group to the fascinating area of the research on mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. After defining the terms uncoupling, leak, protein-mediated uncoupling, we discuss the assumption that due to their low abundance the novel mitochondrial ...
Stachowska E - - 2004
The linoleic C18:2 (n-6) and linolenic C18:3 (n-3) are recognized as essential components of the diet. Free radical peroxidation of essential fatty acids (EFAs) present in lipoproteins produces oxidized low-density lipoproteins which play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. The accumulation of EFAs in the vascular wall and ...
Daniel Z C T R - - 2004
Sheep adipose tissue explants were maintained in culture for 24 h in the presence of insulin, dexamethasone, or insulin and dexamethasone, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and fatty acid synthesis were measured. Insulin increased SCD mRNA levels (P = 0.008) and synthesis of both saturated (P = ...
Nikolaidis Michalis G - - 2004
This article reviews the effects of acute and chronic exercise on the fatty-acid composition of animal and human tissues (plasma, skeletal muscle, heart, adipose tissue, liver, artery and erythrocytes), as reported in 68 studies spanning four decades. The most consistently observed effect has been an increase in the relative amount ...
Konishi Yotaro - - 2004
The distribution of minerals in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seed was examined using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phosphorus, K, and Mg coincided in localization in embryonic tissue. Since phytin globoids have been known to localize in protein bodies in embryonic cells of ...
Müller Günter - - 2003
For facilitation of the experimental analysis of the mechanism and regulation of mobilization of fatty acids from adipose triacylglycerol (TAG) stores, which also represents important targets for pharmacological intervention with the pathogenesis of diabetes and obesity, we developed a convenient and reliable non-radioactive cell-based assay. Isolated rat adipocytes are incubated ...
Plantinga E A - - 2003
The present study was carried out to ascertain whether linoleic acid intake and the content of this fatty acid in adipose tissue are correlated in cats. The linoleic acid intake, as estimated from a food intake questionnaire, was indeed correlated with the linoleic acid content of the abdominal body fat ...
Forest C - - 2003
FA (fatty acid) recycling in adipose tissue appears to be an important pathway for regulating FA release into the blood during fasting. Re-esterification requires G3P (glycerol 3-phosphate), which cannot be synthesized from glucose because glycolysis is much reduced under such circumstances. In addition, G3P can scarcely originate from glycerol since ...
Soriguer F - - 2003
To investigate the role of the monounsaturated n-9 fatty acids (MUFA) in the lipolytic activity of adipocytes, a study was carried out in which an increase in MUFA was produced in the tissues by two different methods; by the dietary enrichment of oleic acid or by producing an essential fatty ...
Chin S-F - - 2003
AIMS: To describe a robust pretreatment protocol for preparing paraffin wax embedded tissues on tissue microarrays for fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). The newly developed pretreatment protocol described here was compared with the commonly used sodium thiocyanate based protocol and two different heating methods used in standard antigen unmasking protocols ...
Westman W - - 2004
The physiological signal for torpor initiation appears to be related to fuel availability. Studies on metabolic fuel inhibition in placental heterotherms show that glucose deprivation via the inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) initiates a torpor-like state, whereas fatty acid deprivation via mercaptoacetate (MA) does not. As previous studies using inhibitors were limited ...
Jensen Michael D - - 2003
Two protocols were performed to study meal fatty acid metabolism. In protocol 1, 14 patients scheduled for elective intra-abdominal surgery (11 undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity) consumed a meal containing [3H]triolein in the evening before surgery. This allowed us to measure adipose tissue lipid specific activity (SA) in mesenteric ...
Blaak E E - - 2003
Disturbances in pathways of lipolysis and fatty acid handling are of importance in the aetiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is evidence that a lowered catecholamine-mediated lipolytic response may play a role in the development and maintenance of increased adipose tissue stores. Increased adipose tissue stores, a ...
Guo Chuan-Bin - - 2003
PURPOSES: Inhibition of cerulenin on the endogenous fatty acid synthetic activities of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral mucosa was assayed. METHODS: Squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa were collected fresh from surgical specimens. The collected tissues were minced in RPMI 1640 and divided into 3 groups: ...
Viswanadha, Srikant
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adipose mass in several species. Studies were conducted to determine: 1) the effect of dietary trans10,cis12-CLA on growth, tissue fatty acid profile, mRNA expression for stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in adipose and liver, and mRNA expression for fatty acid synthase (FAS) in adipose of mice, 2) ...
Whitney Heather M - - 2003
The Ranunculaceae are known to accumulate a wide range of unusual fatty acids in their seed lipids, and this variability has been advocated as a taxonomic marker. The Anemone species, Anemone leveillei L. and Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham., have previously been reported to accumulate Delta5-desaturated fatty acids in their seed tissue ...
Horton Jay D - - 2003
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of membrane-bound transcription factors that regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. In mammals, three SREBP isoforms designated SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c, and SREBP-2 have been identified. SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c are derived from the same gene by virtue of alternatively spliced first exons. SREBP-1a has ...
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