Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1461
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Almendro Vanessa - - 2006
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has previously been shown to have important effects on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, particularly influencing the rate of the de novo fatty acid synthesis. The results presented here show that chronic administration to rats (100 microg/kg body weight) has important effects on the metabolic fate of ...
Bower Joseph F - - 2006
We have reported that the rate of de novo triglyceride (TG) synthesis by omental, but not subcutaneous, adipose tissue was higher in African-American women (AAW) than in Caucasian women (CAW). The purpose of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this increase. Toward that end, we determined the ...
Frayn Keith N - - 2006
Fat is the largest energy reserve in mammals. Most tissues are involved in fatty acid metabolism, but three are quantitatively more important than others: adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. Each of these tissues has a store of triacylglycerol that can be hydrolysed (mobilized) in a regulated way to release ...
Sanjurjo Pablo - - 2006
There is a relationship between the fatty acid profile in skeletal muscle phospholipids and peripheral resistance to insulin in adults, but similar data have not been reported in infancy and childhood. The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue across ...
Westerberg Rolf - - 2006
During the recruitment process of brown adipose tissue, the mRNA level of the fatty acyl chain elongase Elovl3 is elevated more than 200-fold in cold-stressed mice. We have obtained Elovl3-ablated mice and report here that, although cold-acclimated Elovl3-ablated mice experienced an increased heat loss due to impaired skin barrier, they ...
Sakai Yuko - - 2005
Although hydrophilic acrylic resins including LR White have been widely utilized as embedding media for immunocytochemical use, the constituents of tissues are often extracted by the resin monomer during the infiltration process of the embedment, resulting in a discernible impairment of the ultrastructure when the tissue is weakly fixed only ...
Pence Valerie C - - 2005
Tissues of three species of in vitro grown liverworts, Riccia fluitans, Pallavicinia lyellii, and Marchantia polymorpha, were subjected to rapid drying with and without preculture for 1 week on medium containing 10 microM ABA. ABA preculture initiated total desiccation tolerance in R. fluitans, whereas control tissues were killed after 30 ...
Breen Eamon P - - 2006
Native uncoupling protein 1 (UCP 1) was purified from rat mitochondria by hydroxyapatite chromatography and identified by peptide mass mapping and tandem mass spectrometry. Native and expressed UCP 1 were reconstituted into liposomes, and proton flux through UCP 1 was shown to be fatty acid-dependent and GDP-sensitive. To investigate the ...
Nunes Ana Filipa - - 2006
Transthyretin (TTR) has access to the brain and nerve through the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. To investigate TTR function in nervous system homeostasis, differential gene expression in wild-type (WT) and TTR knockout (KO) mice was assessed. Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the rate-limiting enzyme in neuropeptide maturation, is overexpressed in the ...
Vernon Richard G - - 2005
Fatty acids are the major source of energy for most tissues during periods of negative energy balance; however, fatty acids can, in some circumstances, have pathological effects. Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerols (TAG), mostly in the various adipose tissue depots of the body. However, if blood unesterified fatty acid ...
Tsuzuki Tsuyoshi - - 2006
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which contains a conjugated double-bond system, and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are widely known to improve lipid metabolism. To examine the possibility that a fatty acid with a combination of these structural features might have stronger physiological effects, we prepared ...
Boni R - - 2006
D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) has been isolated from neuroendocrine tissues of many invertebrates and vertebrates. Recently, it has been demonstrated that this D-amino acid may be converted to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), a neuromodulator associated with sexual activity. In this study, we determined D-Asp and NMDA concentrations in endocrine glands and other ...
Van de Vijver Kristin Inneke - - 2005
Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are today widely distributed in the environment, even in remote arctic areas. Recently, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been identified in marine mammals all over the world, but information on the compound-specific tissue distribution remains scarce. Furthermore, although longer perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are used in industry and ...
Taha Ameer Y - - 2005
In contrast to humans, rats on a high-fat ketogenic diet seem incapable of maintaining plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate above 1 mmol/L for more than a week. Our goal was to determine whether fatty acid metabolism in rats changes despite the absence of sustained ketosis induced by the ketogenic diet. Fatty acid metabolism ...
Blaak Ellen E - - 2005
The present article addresses the hypothesis that inefficient skeletal muscle lipid utilization may relate to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. In practice, there is evidence of impaired muscle fatty acid utilization in the obese state, and studies indicate that differences in muscle fatty acid oxidative capacity might play ...
Furuchi Takemitsu - - 2005
D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid present in nervous and endocrine tissues in mammals. A high concentration of D-Asp is observed in embryos, which disappears in nervous tissues after delivery, but increases temporarily in endocrine glands, particularly in the pituitary, pineal and adrenal glands at the specific stages. In ...
Westcott Edward - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The physiological bases for roles of adipose tissue and fatty acids in the symptoms and dietary treatments of Crohn's disease (CD) are poorly understood. The hypothesis developed from experiments on rodents that perinodal adipocytes are specialized to provision adjacent lymphoid tissues was tested by comparing the composition of triacylglycerol ...
Bochicchio D - - 2005
The incorporation of fat in diets for heavy pigs may be necessary in order to increase their energy intake in the finishing period. Lard may be a good lipid source but it contains 10-13% of linoleic acid, which makes the subcutaneous fat less suitable for long term curing of raw ...
Frayn Keith N - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid and triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue may be involved in the generation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical companies are targeting adipocyte metabolism in their search for drugs for treating, or reducing the risk of, these conditions. We review new ...
Schilmiller Anthony L - - 2005
In many plants, localized tissue damage elicits an array of systemic defense responses against herbivore attack. Progress in our understanding of the long-distance signaling events that control these responses has been aided by the identification of mutants that fail to mount systemic defenses in response to wounding. Grafting experiments conducted ...
Baylin Ana - - 2005
Biomarkers could provide a more accurate measure of long-term intake than questionnaires. Adipose tissue is considered the best indicator of long-term essential fatty acid intake, but other tissues may prove equally valid. The authors evaluated the ability of fasting whole blood, relative to fasting plasma and adipose tissue, to reflect ...
Nkembo Kasidimoko Marguerite - - 2005
The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on isoprenoid production were evaluated in cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis. It was found that MeJA suppressed the accumulation of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phytol and beta-sitosterol in the tissues. MeJA, however, remarkably enhanced the production of scopadulcic acid B (SDB), with 10 microM being optimal ...
Ulven Stine Marie - - 2005
Liver X receptors (LXRalpha and LXRbeta) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and are activated by oxysterols and intermediates in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The pivotal role of LXRs in the metabolic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is well established. Analysis of gene expression in LXRalpha and LXRbeta ...
Zhou Zhaohui - - 2005
Most models of acute lung injury in mice have yet to be fully characterized. To directly compare and contrast endotoxin and oleic acid models of acute lung injury in mice in terms of their physiologic, biochemical, histopathologic, and imaging manifestations. Survival studies, lung weights, x-ray computed tomographic scanning, light and ...
Wolf George - - 2005
A new member of a family of proteins functioning in the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue has been discovered and named "desnutrin." Desnutrin is transiently induced by fasting and decreased by re-feeding. A close homolog, termed adiponutrin, has the opposite expression pattern, being induced by feeding and disappearing upon ...
Wei Hao-Ji - - 2005
In the study, a cell extraction process was used to remove the cellular components from bovine pericardia. Varying pore sizes and porosities of the acellular tissues were then created using acetic acid and collagenase and subsequently fixed with genipin. Biochemical analyses found that these acellular tissues with distinct porous structures ...
Plantinga E A - - 2005
A study was carried out to assess the qualitative risk of development of chronic renal failure (CRF) in young healthy, female cats as based on the content of arachidonic acid (AA) in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in adipose tissue. It has been suggested that the content ...
Forbes Shari L - - 2005
Adipocere is a soft white substance formed postmortem from fatty tissue in a decomposing body. In this preliminary study the formation of adipocere in soil was investigated for a number of animal species. Adipocere was formed from the fatty tissue of pig, cattle, sheep and rabbit. It was found that ...
Taira Toki - - 2005
We examined the tissue distribution, synthesis stage, and ethylene induction of three types of pineapple chitinase using chitinase activity gel and immunoblot analysis. Type A (acidic class III) exists in all tissues, while type B (weakly basic class I, which has strong antifungal activity) and type C (acidic class I) ...
Rosa R - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical changes that occur during sexual maturation of the squids Illex coindetii and Todaropsis eblanae. In both species, amino acids and protein content increased in the gonad throughout maturation, but the allocation of these nitrogen compounds from the digestive gland and ...
Petersen Gitte - - 2005
The endogenous levels of the two cannabinoid receptor ligands 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide, and their respective congeners, monoacyl glycerols and N-acylethanolamines, as well as the phospholipid precursors of N-acylethanolamines, were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) tissue and meningioma (WHO grade I) tissue and compared with ...
Fisher Rachel M - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disturbed fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis is associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this review, therefore, is to summarize recent developments relating to the relevance and importance of the fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) in the aetiology of insulin resistance. In particular, the potential differences between ...
Coort S L M - - 2005
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) increase tissue insulin sensitivity in diabetes. Here, we hypothesize that, in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart, alterations in protein-mediated FA uptake are involved in the effect of TZDs. As a model, we used obese Zucker rats, orally treated for 16 days with 5 mg rosiglitazone (Rgz)/kg body ...
Jiang Guoqiang - - 2005
Effective therapies for the treatment of obesity, a key element of metabolic syndrome, are urgently needed but currently lacking. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of saturated long-chain fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids, which are major components of triglycerides. In the current study, we tested ...
Zilla Peter - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Bifunctional amines were previously found to act as bridging molecules between the terminal ends of incomplete glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-links. The additional cross-links thus formed between -NH2 groups of tissue were seen to significantly inhibit bioprosthetic calcification. In the current study, the potential ability of alpha-amino oleic acid (AOA) to ...
Tajima Daisuke - - 2005
Chronic administration of leptin has been shown to reduce adiposity through energy intake and expenditure. The present study aims to examine how acute central infusion of leptin regulates peripheral lipid metabolism, as assessed by markers indicative of their mobilization and utilization. A bolus infusion of 1 microg/rat leptin into the ...
Hoffmann Kristina - - 2005
To clarify the mechanism of the anticarcinogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), its intracellular distribution needs to be determined. Subcellular fractionation using centrifugation techniques is a method that is frequently used for isolation of cell organelles from different tissues. But as the size and density of the organelles differ, ...
Pu Lee L Q - - 2005
This study was conducted to evaluate the viability of fatty tissues within adipose aspirates after conventional liposuction and to examine their potential role as a source of donor material for possible future autogenous fat grafting. Samples of adipose aspirates (group I, n = 8) were obtained from adult female patients ...
Ciçek Yasin - - 2005
The balance of essential fatty acid is important for good health and normal development. Essential fatty acids (EFA) are the precursors of prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes and leukotrienes (LT). The aim of this clinical study was to determine the total fatty acid level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids ...
Ort Tatiana - - 2005
Human FIZZ3 (hFIZZ3) was identified as an ortholog of mouse resistin (mResistin), an adipocyte-specific secreted factor linked to insulin resistance in rodents. Unlike mResistin, hFIZZ3 is expressed in macrophages and monocytes, but is undetectable in adipose tissue. The profound macrophage infiltration of adipose that occurs during obesity suggests that hFIZZ3 ...
Fredenrich A - - 2005
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) mediate some of the transcriptional effects of fatty acids and control many physiological functions, especially in the field of development and metabolism. Three isotypes are known, alpha, gamma, and B/delta. Roles of PPAR alpha and PPARgamma are now quite well-known, particularly since their pharmacologic ligands have ...
Realini C E - - 2005
Fourteen Hereford steers were used to compare carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef from cattle grazing tall fescue infected with either wild-type (E+; n = 6) or novel, nil ergot alkaloid (AR542; n = 8) endophyte for 209 d. Average daily gain, live weight, and HCW ...
Ricquier Daniel - - 2005
Metabolic energy expenditure negatively regulates energy balance. Metabolic and catabolic pathways contribute to energy expenditure. Catabolic pathways split C-containing molecules into small molecules and generate reduced coenzymes and ATP. For a given amount of substrate, any increase in energy expenditure requires either increased ATP hydrolysis or decreased ATP synthesis. In ...
Cantwell Marie M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To validate a fat intake questionnaire (FIQ) developed to assess habitual dietary intake while focusing on the assessment of detailed fatty acid intake including total trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA). DESIGN: An 88 food item/food group FIQ was developed using a meal pattern technique. Validation was achieved by comparison ...
Petridou Anatoli - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of exercise training on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) in rat liver, skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius medialis), and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous fat). For this purpose, the relevant tissues of 11 ...
Dowell Paul - - 2005
Because energy balance is important for survival, a system is required to monitor energy status and to make appropriate adjustments in energy intake and energy expenditure. In higher animals, a centrally located system has evolved to accomplish this task. When caloric intake exceeds expenditure, the surplus is channeled into energy ...
Menendez Javier A - - 2005
The hyperactivation of fatty acid synthase (FAS)-catalyzed de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids is a molecular marker linked to tumor virulence in population studies of human malignancies. This activation appears to be linked to neoplastic transformation, since high levels of FAS have also been identified in pre-malignant lesions. This dependence ...
Cadoudal Thomas - - 2005
Elevated concentration of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) is now recognized as a key factor in the onset of insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. During fasting, circulating NEFAs arise from white adipose tissue (WAT) as a consequence of lipolysis from stored triacylglycerols. However, a significant part of these FAs ...
Grasso Emanuela - - 2005
There is increasing evidence that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved not only in the metabolism of xenobiotics, but also in vascular homeostasis. Among the CYP-derived vasoactive agents, special importance is assigned to endogenous products from arachidonic acid (AA). Specifically, the vasodilator epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), being linked to the CYP ...
Gondret Florence - - 2004
The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyses circulating triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Thereby, LPL acts as a metabolic gate-keeper for fatty acids partitioning between adipose tissue for storage and skeletal muscle primarily for energy use. Transgenic mice that markedly over-express LPL exclusively in muscle, show increases not only in LPL activity, but also in ...
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