Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1461
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Korekane Hiroaki - - 2007
The structures of acidic glycosphingolipids in colon adenocarcinoma have been analyzed extensively using a number of conventional methods, such as thin-layer chromatography and methylation analysis, and a variety of acidic glycosphingolipids present in the tissues have been reported. However, because of a number of limitations in the techniques used in ...
Wei Enhui - - 2007
Fatty acids released from adipose triacylglycerol stores by lipolysis provide vertebrates with an important source of energy. We investigated the role of microsomal triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) in the mobilization of adipocyte triacylglycerols through inactivation of the TGH activity by RNA interference or chemical inhibition. Attenuation of TGH activity resulted in ...
Mustonen Anne-Mari - - 2007
Previous studies on laboratory rodents, rabbits, and humans have demonstrated that adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) mobilization is selective, and its efficiency is related to the molecular structure of FAs. This study was undertaken to find out whether such preferences of FA mobilization are a general feature of mammalian white ...
Lichtenstein Kenneth - - 2007
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) is a fat accumulation disorder characterized by increases in visceral adipose tissue. Patients with HARS may also present with excess truncal fat and accumulation of dorsocervical fat ("buffalo hump"). The pathophysiology of HARS appears multifactorial and is not fully understood at present. ...
Nesaretnam Kalanithi - - 2007
Data on dietary exposure to vitamin E by plasma or adipose tissue concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) in observational studies have failed to provide consistent support for the idea that alpha-T provides women with any protection from breast cancer. In contrast, studies indicate that alpha, gamma, and delta-tocotrienols but not alpha-T ...
Bickerton Alex S T - - 2007
Despite consistent evidence that abnormalities of fatty acid delivery and storage underlie the metabolic defects of insulin resistance, physiological pathways by which fat is stored in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are not clear. We used a combination of stable isotope labeling and arteriovenous difference measurements to elucidate pathways of ...
Aldámiz-Echevarría Luis - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The fatty acid composition of membrane structural lipids, which is partly dependent on dietary intake, is associated with insulin action. AIM: To examine the association between fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle phospholipids with insulin resistance markers in a healthy pediatric population. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional ...
Salas Anna - - 2007
Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 ...
Nave Ruediger - - 2007
The therapeutic effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may be affected by the metabolism of the drug in the target organ. We investigated the in vitro metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), budesonide (BUD), ciclesonide (CIC), and fluticasone propionate (FP) in human lung precision-cut tissue slices. CIC, a new generation ICS, is ...
Jensen Signe Mølhøj - - 2007
Microdialysis is a technique that allows continuous sampling of compounds from the interstitial fluid of different tissues with minimal influence on surrounding tissues and/or whole body function. In the present study, the feasibility of using microdialysis as a technique to sample free fatty acids (FFA) was investigated both in vitro ...
Inaba Akitsugu - - 2007
The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of ...
Laplante Mathieu - - 2007
Agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) are insulin sensitizers that potently improve lipemia in rodents. This study aimed to determine the contribution of lipid secretion vs. clearance and the involvement of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the rapid hypolipidemic action of PPARgamma agonism. ...
Geiser Fritz - - 2007
Photoperiod and dietary lipids both influence thermal physiology and the pattern of torpor of heterothermic mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that photoperiod-induced physiological changes are linked to differences in tissue fatty acid composition of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus ( approximately 18-g body mass). ...
Korös A - - 2007
The extraction of ornithine, lysine, putrescine, cadaverine, 1,7-diaminoheptane, spermidine and spermine from biological tissues was optimized for HPLC quantitation as their o-phthalaldehyde/ethanethiol/fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (OPA/ET/FMOC) derivatives. In applying perchloric acid deproteinization two approaches have been followed: (i) deproteinization with subsequent neutralization by potassium hydroxide and lyophilization, and (ii) deproteinization without neutralization ...
Shinohara Hisami - - 2006
We have reported previously that randomly interesterified triacylglycerol containing medium- and long-chain fatty acids in the same glycerol molecule (MLCT) resulted in significantly lower body fat accumulation and higher hepatic fatty acid oxidation than from long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) in rats. To understand the metabolic changes occurring in white adipose tissue, ...
Xu Jun - - 2006
Fatty liver is a common feature of both obesity and lipodystrophy, reflecting compromised adipose tissue function. The lipin-deficient fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mouse is an exception, as there is lipodystrophy without a fatty liver. Using a combination of indirect calorimetry and stable-isotope flux phenotyping, we determined that fld mice exhibit ...
Oguzhan B - - 2006
Presently an insufficient supply of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acid is prevalent in Western populations leading to potential metabolic consequences. Based on this fact, this study deals mainly with various aspects of lipid metabolism in second generation female omega3-depleted rats. The parametrial fat and body weights were higher in omega3-depleted ...
Wolins Nathan E NE Department of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave., Campus Box 8127, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2006
Lipid droplet proteins of the PAT (perilipin, adipophilin, and TIP47) family regulate cellular neutral lipid stores. We have studied a new member of this family, PAT-1, and found that it is expressed in highly oxidative tissues. We refer to this protein as "OXPAT." Physiologic lipid loading of mouse liver by ...
Martín Diana - - 2006
Three levels (0%, 1%, and 2%) of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were combined with two levels (low and high) of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for pig feeding. The activity of neutral lipase (NL), acid lipase (AL), phospholipase (PL), neutral esterase (NE), and acid esterase (AE) was measured in extracts from ...
Weber Patricia A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Durability remains the main problem of all bioprosthetic valves, and calcification is the major cause of failure. New tissue treatment processes are expected to reduce mineralization. A comparative animal study was undertaken to evaluate the behavior of a new-generation porcine bioprosthesis in contrast with a first-generation porcine bioprosthesis. The ...
Wang Minghan - - 2006
Lipolysis is an important pathway in maintaining energy homeostasis through the degradation of triglycerides in adipose tissue and the release of fatty acids into the circulation as an energy source. However, an elevated level of circulating fatty acids leads to unfavorable metabolic effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Cell ...
Zhang Huabei - - 2006
In this work, the tissue/blood partition coefficients of seven human tissues were calculated using a nonlinear regression analysis. The dataset contained 80 structurally diverse compounds distributing into the brain, kidney, muscle, lung, liver, heart, and fat, whose acidic and basic properties were also considered by introducing the three possible forms ...
Fosgerau Keld - - 2006
Lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, possibly due to aberrant partitioning of intracellular fatty acids between storage and oxidation. In the present study, we administered the non-metabolizable fatty acid analog [9,10-(3)H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate, and authentic (14)C-palmitate to conscious rats, in order to directly examine the initial ...
Ishizeki Kiyoto - - 2006
Chick serum (CKS) contains factors that stimulate adipocytes in Meckel's chondrocytes in vitro. In the present study, we analyzed levels of fatty acids in CKS, and further examined whether these had the potential to convert chondrocytes to adipocytes. Phenotypic changes were evaluated by light and electron microscopies, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, ...
Duflo Suzy - - 2006
Chemically modified hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin hydrogels have been documented to support attachment, growth, and proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and to facilitate repair and engineering of tissues in vivo. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal composition of a synthetic extracellular matrix (sECM) that would promote wound ...
Westcott Edward D A - - 2006
The physiological bases for roles of adipose tissue and fatty acids in the symptoms and dietary treatments of Crohn's disease are poorly understood. The hypothesis developed from experiments on rodents that perinodal adipocytes are specialized to provision adjacent lymphoid tissues was tested by comparing the composition of triacylglycerol fatty acids ...
Lake S L - - 2006
Three-year-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows, which were nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479 +/- 36 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (580 +/- 53 kg of BW) at parturition, were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of ...
Okazaki Hiroaki - - 2006
Molecular mechanisms underlying lipolysis, as defined by mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue, are not fully understood. A database search for enzymes with alpha/beta hydrolase folds, the GXSXG motif for serine esterase and the His-Gly dipeptide motif, has provided a previously unannotated gene that is induced during 3T3-L1 adipocytic ...
Finn Patrick F - - 2006
Mammals survive starvation by activating proteolysis and lipolysis in many different tissues. These responses are triggered, at least in part, by changing hormonal and neural statuses during starvation. Pathways of proteolysis that are activated during starvation are surprisingly diverse, depending on tissue type and duration of starvation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system ...
Ci Xiuli - - 2006
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hyperinsulinemia on myocardial and hepatic distribution and metabolism of 14(R,S)-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ([18F]FTHA). PROCEDURES: Mitochondrial retention and intracellular lipid incorporation of [18F]FTHA were compared to that of [14C]-2-bromopalmitate or [14C]palmitate during hyperinsulinemic clamp vs. saline infusion in male Wistar ...
Qi Ling - - 2006
During fasting, increased concentrations of circulating catecholamines promote the mobilization of lipid stores from adipose tissue in part by phosphorylating and inactivating acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we describe a parallel pathway, in which the pseudokinase Tribbles 3 (TRB3), whose abundance is increased ...
Man Weng Chi - - 2006
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that catalyzes the Delta9-cis desaturation of saturated fatty acids. Mice with targeted disruption in SCD1 (Scd1(-/-)) have significant reduction in the tissue content of triglycerides, suggesting that monounsaturated fatty acids endogenously synthesized by SCD1 are important for triglyceride synthesis. Acyl-coenzyme ...
Kim Yoo-Jeong - - 2006
Pinellia ternata is known as the herb effective in removing dampness-phlegm, one of the causes of obesity in traditional Korean medicine. Pinellia ternata water extract (PE) was fed to rats after mixing with diet once a day (400 mg x kg(-1)) for 6 weeks. We investigated its effect on the ...
Gatenby Robert A - - 2006
The acid-mediated tumor invasion hypothesis proposes altered glucose metabolism and increased glucose uptake, observed in the vast majority of clinical cancers by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, are critical for development of the invasive phenotype. In this model, increased acid production due to altered glucose metabolism serves as a key intermediate by ...
Cha Dongmei - - 2006
In this article, a laboratory-made sol-gel derived fiber with butyl methacrylate/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (BMA/OH-TSO) coating was first used for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of medium and long chain fatty acids after derivatization and applied to the analysis of fatty acids in lung tissues by coupling to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ...
Landau Z - - 2006
Chronic surplus of dietary consumption, typical to obesity, results in overflow of fat to non-adipose tissues. Intracellular accumulation of fat in non-adipose tissues is associated with cellular dysfunction and cell death and ultimately contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. The influence of fat overflow on the exocrine pancreas is ...
Langin Dominique - - 2006
Adipose tissue lipolysis is the catabolic process leading to the breakdown of triglycerides stored in fat cells and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Recent work has revealed that lipolysis is not a simple metabolic pathway stimulated by catecholamines and inhibited by insulin. New discoveries on the regulation of ...
Siddiqui Rafat - - 2006
Cachexia represents progressive wasting of muscle and adipose tissue and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although anorexia usually accompanies cachexia, cachexia rarely responds to increased food intake alone. Our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms responsible for cachexia remains incomplete. However, most states of cachexia are associated with underlying ...
Drackley J K - - 2006
Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major ...
Takahashi Sadao - - 2006
The development of new treatments for metabolic syndrome is urgent project for decreasing the prevalence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus in the advanced countries. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and gamma agonists have shed light on the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Among PPARs, analysis ...
Langin Dominique - - 2006
Adipose tissue lipolysis is the catabolic process leading to the breakdown of triglycerides stored in fat cells and release of fatty acids and glycerol. Recent work has revealed that lipolysis is not a simple metabolic pathway stimulated by catecholamines and inhibited by insulin. There have been new discoveries on the ...
Leroyer Stéphanie N - - 2006
Control of fatty acid homeostasis is crucial to prevent insulin resistance. During fasting, the plasma fatty acid level depends on triglyceride lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification within fat cells. In rodents, Rosiglitazone controls fatty acid homeostasis by stimulating two pathways in the adipocytes, glyceroneogenesis and glycerol phosphorylation, that provide the ...
Richter Wolfgang F - - 2006
This study explored whether common rules exist for the distribution patterns across tissues in tissue distribution studies. To investigate this we tested whether tissue:plasma partition coefficients (PCs) of radioactivity are correlated with muscle:plasma PCs. The relationships between PCs of radioactivity in muscle and those in other tissues were investigated in ...
Matsui Kenji - - 2006
Fatty acid 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase (9/13-HPL) in cucumber is an enzyme that can cleave either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form C9- or C6-aldehydes, respectively, as products. In order to reveal the physiological function of 9/13-HPL, its expression profiles were analyzed, and it was found that 9/13-HPL expression ...
Mamalakis G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that depression relates to biomarkers of both short- and long-term polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake. However, it is not known which of these two biomarkers has the closest relationship to depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of depression with both adipose tissue and serum cholesteryl ester ...
Mamalakis G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Only one study has investigated the relationship of essential fatty acids in the adipose tissue with depression in adults and suggested an inverse relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) and depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, ...
Remme Jannicke Fugledal - - 2006
The lipid characterization in tissues from the three deep-sea sharks leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus), Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis) and black dogfish (Centrocyllium fabricii) captured at Hatton Bank in the North Atlantic were examined. The objective was to determine the lipid content and the fatty acid composition in different tissues. ...
Hubbard Amy F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adipose and red blood cell membrane lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are significantly correlated with phenotype in a family with autosomal dominant Stargardt macular dystrophy (gene locus STGD3). A mutation in the ELOVL4 gene is responsible for the ...
Kano Seiichiro - - 2006
The synthetic compound NO-1886 (ibrolipim, [4-(4-bromo-2-cyano-phenylcarbamoyl)-benzyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester, CAS 133208-93-2) is a lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-promoting agent that decreases plasma triglycerides, increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and prevents fat accumulation in high fat-fed rats. However, the effect of NO-1886 on body weight, fat accumulation, and energy expenditure in ovariectomized (OVX) ...
Vergnes Laurent L Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2006
Triglyceride synthesis in most mammalian tissues involves the sequential addition of fatty acids to a glycerol backbone, with unique enzymes required to catalyze each acylation step. Acylation at the sn-2 position requires 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) activity. To date, seven Agpat genes have been identified based on activity and/or sequence similarity, ...
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