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Results 251 - 300 of 1460
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Reid Brendan N - - 2008
Hepatic steatosis is often associated with insulin resistance and obesity and can lead to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. In this study, we have demonstrated that hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), two enzymes critical for lipolysis in adipose tissues, also contribute to lipolysis in the liver and can mobilize ...
García-Escobar Eva - - 2008
Although various studies have noted fatty-acid-mediated regulation of adipocyte lipolysis, determining the isolated effect of a single fatty acid is more difficult. We examined the influence of dietary oleic acid on adipose cell lipolytic activity and the tissue fat content independently of the variation in other dietary fatty acids. We ...
Velasco Maria Valéria Robles - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cellulite is a physiological condition that presents etiologic plurality. Caffeine and its derivatives are used in anticellulite cosmetics due to their lipolytic activity on fatty cells. Siloxanetriol alginate caffeine (SAC) is a silanol derived from organic silicon. Radicals primarily from SAC are caffeine and the mannuronic acid. AIMS: This ...
Paillard François - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In an animal model VLDL-triglyceride secretion is highly dependent on stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD) activity and could explain abdominal fattening. The aim was to assess the relationship of plasma palmitoleic acid content, a product of SCD activity, with triglyceridemia and abdominal adiposity in humans. METHODS: We evaluated 134 ...
McCarron Pearse - - 2008
Using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, the influence of conventional steaming and another heat treatment on the level of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in mussels (Mytilus edulis) was investigated. Concentration increases correlated with water loss during steaming, and increased distribution of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 from the digestive glands ...
Aguilera Concepción M - - 2008
The MS (metabolic syndrome) is a cluster of clinical and biochemical abnormalities characterized by central obesity, dyslipidaemia [hypertriglyceridaemia and decreased HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol)], glucose intolerance and hypertension. Insulin resistance, hyperleptinaemia and low plasma levels of adiponectin are also widely related to features of the MS. This review focuses on ...
Almendro Vanessa - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-15 (IL-15) plays an important role in lipid metabolism as its administration to rats causes a marked depletion of white adipose tissue (WAT). This reduction in fat mass seems to be caused by and related to hipotriglyceridemia as a result of a lower hepatic lipogenesis and an increased fatty ...
Jenschke B E - - 2008
Beef knuckles (n = 160) were obtained from source-verified cattle finished on 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles enriched with varying levels of alfalfa hay (4 or 8%), corn silage (6 or 12%), or corn stalks (3 or 6%) based on NDF. Proximate analysis, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, fatty acid composition, ...
Nagle Cynthia A CA Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2008
Elucidation of the metabolic pathways of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis is critical to the understanding of chronic metabolic disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) catalyze the first and second steps in de novo TAG synthesis. AGPAT6 is one of eight AGPAT isoforms ...
Price Edwin R - - 2008
During times of high energy demand, stored fatty acids are mobilized from adipocytes. This mobilization has previously been shown to be a non-random process, with more hydrophilic fatty acids being mobilized most readily. The objectives of this study were to characterize the relative mobilization of fatty acids from adipocytes in ...
Pilz Stefan - - 2008
Free fatty acids (FFAs) serve as physiologically important energy substrates and their release from the adipose tissue by lipolysis is regulated according to the energy demands of the body. FFAs are increased in obese patients and contribute to type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis and several cardiovascular diseases. In patients with ...
Mattila Ismo - - 2008
Role of specific reactive lipids as well as amino acids in control of insulin signalling in adipose tissue is well recognized. Since it is practically impossible to measure the levels of all metabolites in the biological sample simultaneously with a single analytical platform, we utilize multiple platforms to study the ...
Wong Wai Hing - - 2008
By analysis of the fatty acid profiles in mussel tissues and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in water, the present study showed a significant relationship of the trophic linkage between mussels and the SPM. At seven locations from inner to outer areas along the eutrophic Tolo Harbour and Tolo Channel, Hong ...
Wang Jian - - 2008
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) catalyzes the formation of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids. It plays a key role in lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in mammals. In mice, four SCD isoforms (SCD1-4) have been identified. Here we report the identification of cDNA sequences corresponding to SCD1, SCD2 and SCD3 ...
Fabbrini Elisa E Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, - - 2008
Steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is due to an imbalance between intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) production and export. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TG metabolism in adipose tissue and liver in NAFLD. Fatty acid, VLDL-TG, and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB100) kinetics were assessed by using ...
Sjögren P - - 2008
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fatty acid desaturases introduce double bonds into growing fatty acid chains. The key desaturases in humans are Delta5-desaturase (D5D), Delta6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Animal and human data implicate hepatic desaturase activities in insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidaemia. However, the role of desaturase activity in adipose tissue is ...
Strobel Klaus - - 2008
We describe a localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) method for in vivo measurement of lipid composition in very small voxels (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) in adipose tissue in mice. The method uses localized point-resolved spectroscopy to collect (1)H spectra from voxels in intra-abdominal white adipose ...
Cummins K A - - 2008
A feeding trial was designed to examine the effects of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4).5H(2)O) on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability in muscle and adipose tissues of Boer x Spanish goat kids. Fifteen (n = 5 per treatment) goats were fed 0, 100, or 200 mg of supplemental Cu ...
Mamalakis George - - 2008
Studies have shown that depression relates to biomarkers of both short-term and long-term polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. However, it is not known which of these two biomarkers is more closely related to depression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of depression with both adipose tissue and ...
Griessbach Maria - - 2008
The banning of specified risk materials (SRMs) from food chain is one of the most important measures to protect the consumer against any exposition with the agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In order to control the SRM-ban, suitable methods for the detection of SRMs have to be developed. In ...
Yamada Tetsuya - - 2008
The global rate of obesity is rising alarmingly, exerting a major adverse impact on human health by increasing the prevalences of disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To maintain systemic energy homeostasis, metabolic information must be communicated among organs/tissues. Obesity-related disorders can be thought of as resulting from ...
Costford Sheila R - - 2007
Despite almost a decade of research since the identification of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), the molecular mechanisms and physiological functions of this mitochondrial anion carrier protein are not well understood. Because of its highly selective expression in skeletal muscle and the existence of mitochondrial proton leak in this tissue, early reports ...
Fernández-Quintela Alfredo - - 2007
Energy intake and expenditure tend on average to remain adjusted to each other in order to maintain a stable body weight, which is only likely to be sustained if the fuel mix oxidised is equivalent to the nutrient content of the diet. Whereas protein and carbohydrate degradation and oxidation are ...
Miles J M - - 2007
Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for ...
Hücking Katrin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that free fatty acid (FFA) release is pulsatile and that this pattern is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. It is, then, necessary to understand and characterize adipose tissue lipolysis to elucidate its effect on metabolism. In this study, we introduce deconvolution as a method ...
Lin Yu Hong - - 2007
Little is known about the uptake or metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFAs) in various mammalian organs. Thus, the distribution of deuterated alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and their metabolites was studied using a stable isotope tracer technique. Rats were orally administered a single dose of a mixture ...
Zhou Qiugen - - 2007
Illnesses associated with insulin resistance exhibit increases in whole-body protein degradation and amino acid oxidation. However, the mechanisms stimulating muscle catabolism under these conditions are not clear. Because insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of lipids in muscle, we measured protein degradation in muscles of mice fed a high-fat diet. ...
Huang Dongyue - - 2008
TREK-2, a new member of the mechanosensitive tandem-pore K+ channel family, share 65% amino acid sequence identity and some similar basic electrophysiological and pharmacological properties with TREK-1. It also has some specific regulatory pathway and tissue distribution contrasted with TREK-1 and TRAAK. TREK-2 distributes extensively in CNS and periphery tissue. ...
Denise Robertson M - - 2007
Until recently, a glance at a standard undergraduate textbook would have given the impression that the colon was merely a storage organ for faeces and maybe something about the absorption of electrolytes and water. In reality, the colon is a highly-metabolically-active organ, the function of which has implications not only ...
Maurice D - - 2007
The consequences of chronic corticosterone-induced stress (CCIS) on ascorbic acid (AsA) metabolism in chickens, an animal that syntheses the vitamin, are not known. This study was conducted to determine whether CCIS alters AsA synthesis, as measured by l-gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) activity, tissue AsA, lipid peroxides and tissue total antioxidant capacity ...
Berthiaume Magalie - - 2007
Tissue-specific alterations in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 activity, which amplifies glucocorticoid action, are thought to contribute to some of the metabolic complications of obesity. The present study tested whether hypertriglyceridemia is one such complication by investigating the effects of an 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor (compound A, 3 mgxkg(-1)xday(-1), 21 days) on ...
McCarron Paul A - - 2008
PURPOSE: Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) diffusion through both keratinised and non-keratinised tissue, used as a model tissue substrates, was evaluated, together with the depth of permeation and the concentration achieved following delivery from bioadhesive patch and proprietary cream formulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Moisture-activated, bioadhesive patches loaded with 5-ALA at concentrations of ...
Borzacchiello Assunta - - 2007
In this study the attention has been focused on the ester derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA), HYAFF11, as a potential three-dimensional scaffold in adipose tissue engineering. Different HYAFF11 sponges having different pore sizes, coated or not coated with HA, have been studied from a rheological and morphological point of view ...
Nicolaysen Anne - - 2007
The adipocyte does not only serve as fuel storage but produces and secretes compounds with modulating effects on food intake and energy homeostasis. Although there is firm evidence for a centrally mediated regulation of adipocyte function via the autonomous nervous system, little is known about signaling between adipocytes. Amino acid ...
Fekete S Gy - - 2007
Nutrigenomics examines nutrient-gene interactions on a genome-wide scale. Increased dietary fat or higher non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) from starvation-induced mobilisation may enhance hepatic oxidation and decrease esterification of fatty acids by reducing the expression of the fatty acid synthase gene. The key factors are the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Dietary ...
Wheelock Craig E - - 2007
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists are anti-hyperlipidemic drugs that influence fatty acid combustion, phospholipid biosynthesis and lipoprotein metabolism. To evaluate impacts on other aspects of lipid metabolism, we applied targeted metabolomics to liver, heart, brain and white adipose tissue samples from male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to a 5 ...
Williams Eric S - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Arachidonic acid, a precursor to a series of inflammatory mediators, may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. We examined the association between adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica, a country in which the metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent. METHODS: The 484 ...
Evans Kevin - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The metabolic defects underlying familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCHL) are not clearly understood. We used stable isotope techniques combined with tissue-specific measurements in adipose tissue and forearm muscle to investigate fatty acid handling by these tissues in the fasting and postprandial states. RESULTS: Patients were insulin resistant as shown by ...
Hajri Tahar T Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, - - 2007
Leptin plays an important role in regulating energy expenditure in response to food intake, but nutrient regulation of leptin is incompletely understood. In this study using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we examined the role of fatty acid uptake in modulating leptin expression and production. Leptin levels are doubled ...
Hernandez-Morante Juan Jose - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between adiponectin plasma circulating levels and its gene expression in two abdominal fat depots (subcutaneous and visceral) with the fatty acid composition of plasma and adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects. METHODS: 20 patients (10 women and 10 men) ...
Tsuboi Kazuhito - - 2007
Bioactive N-acylethanolamines, including anandamide (an endocannabinoid), N-palmitoylethanolamine (an anti-inflammatory substance), and N-oleoylethanolamine (an anorexic substance) are enzymatically hydrolyzed to fatty acids and ethanolamine. Fatty acid amide hydrolase plays a major role in this reaction. In addition, we cloned cDNA of an isozyme termed "N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA)" [K. Tsuboi, Y.-X. ...
Mustonen Anne-Mari - - 2007
Fatty acid (FA) composition in the intraabdominal (IAB), subcutaneous (SC) and peripheral adipose tissues of the semiaquatic American mink (Mustela vison) was examined in comparison to the diet by gas-liquid chromatography. There was a clear compositional gradient from the IAB via SC to peripheral adipose tissues and the anatomically different ...
Noci F - - 2007
The effects of the type of grass silage and dietary inclusion of fish oil (FO) on the fatty acid profile of bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue were investigated. Eighty Friesian steers were assigned (n 10) to unwilted or wilted silage, and to one of four rations which contained, per ...
O'Brien Tyler G - - 2007
When postmortem environmental conditions are "just right," according to the "Goldilocks Phenomenon," soft tissues (and associated fatty acids) are converted into and preserved as adipocere. To better understand this conversion process and the development of adipocere three human cadavers were immersed in outside, water-filled pits for over 3 months to ...
Hadas Yoav - - 2007
ABSTRACT The contribution of gluconic acid secretion to the colonization of apple tissue by Penicillium expansum was analyzed by modulation (increase or decrease) of gluconic acid accumulation at the infection court. P. expansum isolates that express the most gox2 transcripts and concomitant glucose oxidase (GOX) activity and that secrete the ...
Liu Li-Fen - - 2007
Dysfunctional cross talk between adipose tissue and liver tissue results in metabolic and inflammatory disorders. As an insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (Rosi) improves insulin resistance yet causes increased adipose mass and weight gain in mice and humans. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adipose mass and body weight gain but induces hepatic ...
Holmes M D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To validate selected nutrients assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Harvard cohort studies in an African-American group. DESIGN: Blood aliquots were pooled for each decile of intake of two carotenoids and alpha tocopherol as measured by FFQ. These pooled samples were analyzed for nutrient content, ...
Lopes Carla - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between intake and adipose tissue composition of fatty acids and acute myocardial infarction in Portuguese men. DESIGN: Case-control study. Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. In 49 case and 49 control subjects, adipose tissue composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Population-based; ...
Baylin Ana - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Delta(6)-Desaturase (FADS2) is the rate-limiting step in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthetic pathway. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to test whether the common deletion [T/-] in the promoter of FADS2 affects the PUFA biosynthetic pathway and consequently modifies the effect of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: ...
Korekane Hiroaki - - 2007
The structures of acidic glycosphingolipids in colon adenocarcinoma have been analyzed extensively using a number of conventional methods, such as thin-layer chromatography and methylation analysis, and a variety of acidic glycosphingolipids present in the tissues have been reported. However, because of a number of limitations in the techniques used in ...
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