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Results 201 - 250 of 1460
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Fincham J R - - 2009
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus feedlot finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred steers (n = 24). Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingredient samples were ...
Kaspera Rüdiger - - 2009
BACKGROUND: CYP enzymes from the CYP2C and CYP2J subfamilies metabolize arachidonic acid in a regiospecific and stereoselective manner to eight epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Various EETs have been detected in the liver, as well as in many extrahepatic tissues, and have been implicated in numerous physiological functions from cell signaling to ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2009
Fatty acids derived from the hydrolysis of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle triacylglycerol (TG) are an important energy substrate at rest and during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) was long considered to be the rate-limiting enzyme for adipocyte and skeletal muscle TG lipolysis. However, the understanding of TG ...
Bezaire Véronic - - 2009
Lipolysis is the catabolic pathway by which triglycerides are hydrolyzed into fatty acids. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) have the capacity to hydrolyze in vitro the first ester bond of triglycerides, but their respective contributions to whole cell lipolysis in human adipocytes is unclear. Here, we have ...
Berkemeyer Shoma - - 2009
Obesity is associated with ever increasing social costs posing a general public health challenge. The most obvious reason for obesity, given healthy body functioning, is a positive calorie balance. This article delves into the lesser studied realm of the relationship of weight gain, in particular adipose tissue gain, with increased ...
Pezeshkian Masoud - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue has special properties that distinguish it from the more widely studied depots of adipose tissue. OBJECTIVES: We undertook this study to investigate regional differences between epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue fat composition, as well as associations between these measures and metabolic variables. METHODS: Epicardial and subcutaneous ...
Magkos Faidon - - 2009
Understanding lipid metabolism and its regulation requires information on the rates at which lipids are produced within the body, absorbed (dietary lipids) into the body, transported within the body, and utilized by various tissues. This article focuses on the use of stable isotope-labeled tracers for the quantitative evaluation of major ...
Pérez de Heredia F - - 2009
The objective of the present work is to analyse the relationships between changes in adiponectin and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in rats. Samples from serum and different adipose depots (periovarian, mesenteric and subcutaneous) were obtained from ageing rats (14- and 20-month-old) to determine fatty acid composition ...
Roberts R - - 2009
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous studies have shown relationships between fatty acid ratios in adipose tissue triacylglycerol (TG), adipocyte size and measures of insulin sensitivity. We hypothesised that variations in adipose tissue de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in relation to adiposity might explain some of these observations. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, subcutaneous abdominal ...
Karimzadeh Hadi - - 2009
Alkaptonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism. A defect in tyrosine metabolism that results in accumulation of homogentisic acid in connective tissue, especially cartilage, has long been known. Degenerative arthropathy, especially of the knee and spine, develops at a relatively early age in adults. Accumulation also occurs in ...
Martysiak-Zurowska Dorota - - 2009
The fatty acid (FA) composition of depot adipose tissues in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides) and the European beaver (Castorfiber) differs from that reported for the lipids of other monogastric animals, especially with regard to the presence of trans-octadecenoic acids. The concentrations of pentadecanoic acid 15:0 (PA) and heptadecanoic acid 17:0 ...
Wesson Donald E - - 2009
The combination of an acid-inducing diet and reduced nephron mass is associated with a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that can be corrected by dietary alkali. Here we determined whether the higher tissue acid content mediates the decline in GFR. Using Munich-Wistar rats we induced sub-total nephrectomy and ...
Liaset Bjørn - - 2009
Conjugation of bile acids (BAs) to the amino acids taurine or glycine increases their solubility and promotes liver BA secretion. Supplementing diets with taurine or glycine modulates BA metabolism and enhances fecal BA excretion in rats. However, it is still unclear whether dietary proteins varying in taurine and glycine contents ...
Pezeshkian Masoud - - 2009
Abstract Background: Epicardial adipose tissue has special properties that distinguish it from the more widely studied depots of adipose tissue. Objectives: We undertook this study to investigate regional differences between epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue fat composition, as well as associations between these measures and metabolic variables. Methods: Epicardial and ...
Ahmadian Maryam M Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California, - - 2009
To investigate the role of desnutrin in adipose tissue triacylglycerol (TAG) and fatty acid metabolism. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing desnutrin (also called adipose triglyceride lipase [ATGL]) in adipocytes (aP2-desnutrin) and also performed adenoviral-mediated overexpression of desnutrin in 3T3-L1CARDelta1 adipocytes. aP2-desnutrin mice were leaner with decreased adipose tissue TAG content ...
Chen Yu-Xiang - - 2009
The title compound, pimaric acid, C(20)H(30)O(2), was isolated from a mixture of resin acids. There are three rings in the structure. The two cyclo-hexane rings have classical chair conformations with trans-fused ring junctions. The cyclo-hexene ring appears as a semi-chair.
Herring Roselle - - 2009
A case of severe rhabdomyolysis caused by an interaction between fusidic acid and simvastatin is described. Fusidic acid significantly reduces the excretion of simvastatin resulting in increased plasma levels thereby increasing the side effect profile. Simvastatin treatment should be temporarily withheld during treatment with fusidic acid.
Flachs Pavel - - 2009
Adipose tissue and its secreted products, adipokines, have a major role in the development of obesity-associated metabolic derangements including Type 2 diabetes. Conversely, obesity and its metabolic sequelae may be counteracted by modulating metabolism and secretory functions of adipose tissue. LC-PUFAs (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) of the n-3 series, namely ...
Jeyakumar Shanmugam M - - 2009
ABSTRACT: Microsomal stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) is the rate limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs); palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acid from their respective substrates palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids. The ratio of 18:1 to 18:0 has been implicated in the regulation membrane fluidity and ...
Ahrens Lutz - - 2009
Total body burden and tissue distribution of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German Bight in 2007. A total number of 18 individual PFCs from the following groups could be quantified in the different tissues: perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and ...
Zhang Meng - - 2009
The title compound, C(26)H(38)O(6)·H(2)O, is a mono-ester of a derivative of maleopimaric acid, an abietic-type acid. The two fused and unbridged cyclo-hexane rings adopt approximate chair conformations while the three other three six-membered rings have boat conformations.
Warensjö Eva - - 2009
Fatty acid composition of serum lipids and adipose tissue triacylglycerols (AT-TAG) partly reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The fatty acid composition is, besides the diet, also influenced by desaturating enzymes that can be estimated using product-to-precursor fatty acid ratios. The interrelationships between desaturase indices derived from different serum lipid fractions ...
Hughes David A - - 2009
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a mitochondrial anion carrier, expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of Eutherians. UCP1 is responsible for uncoupling mitochondrial proton transport from the production of ATP, thereby dissipating heat; it is essential for non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in mammalian BAT. UCP1 orthologs have been identified in non-Eutherian ...
Fujimoto Takahiro - - 2009
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality. KRAP (Ki-ras-induced actin-interacting protein) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein and a ubiquitous protein among tissues, originally identified as a cancer-related molecule, however, its physiological roles remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that KRAP-deficient (KRAP(-/-)) mice show enhanced metabolic ...
Ulanov Alexander - - 2009
Since the presence of glyphosate in maize tissue cultures of proprietary line L2 was very detrimental to plant regeneration, we determined metabolic changes associated with the glyphosate effects on plant regeneration in maize cultures. The polar fraction composition and soluble and cell-wall-bound phenolics were analyzed in the regenerable (R) and ...
Notter Stephanie J - - 2009
The early stages of adipocere formation in both pig and human adipose tissue in aqueous environments have been investigated. The aims were to determine the short-term changes occurring to fat deposits during decomposition and to ascertain the suitability of pigs as models for human decomposition. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from both ...
Fabbrini Elisa E Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, - - 2009
It has been hypothesized that excessive fatty acid availability contributes to steatosis and the metabolic abnormalities associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adipose tissue lipolytic activity and the rate of fatty acid release into plasma are increased in obese adolescents ...
Yamashita Hitoshi - - 2008
We investigated the contribution of fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) to adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. The expression of FABP3 mRNA in BAT was regulated discriminatively in response to alteration of the ambient temperature, which regulation was similar and reciprocal to the regulation of uncoupling protein ...
Nye Colleen - - 2008
The synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue and muscle is a crucial element of energy metabolism because it ensures that adequate fuel is available during starvation. Triglyceride turnover determines the availability of fatty acids for utilization by mammalian tissues, and any dysfunction in this process can lead to ...
Chalisova N I - - 2008
The effect of the larger molecular weight l-amino acids on the development of spleen explants from 1- and 21-day rats in organotypic tissue culture was studied. The amino acids asparagine, lysine, arginine, and glutamic acid inhibited the growth zone of explants of immature tissue from 1-day animals but had an ...
Tanaka Mayuki - - 2008
Boron (B) in soil is taken up by roots through NIP5;1, a boric acid channel, and is loaded into the xylem by BOR1, a borate exporter. Here, the function of Arabidopsis thaliana NIP6;1, the most similar gene to NIP5;1, was studied. NIP6;1 facilitates the rapid permeation of boric acid across ...
Begum Ghousia - - 2008
The effects of a sublethal concentration (7.66 mg/L) of carbofuran, were assessed on Clarias batrachus. The fish were exposed to 7.66 mg of carbofuran/L for 6 days. After 6 days, fish were released into carbofuran-free water in order to study the recovery pattern. Proteins were decreased in gill and kidney ...
Olsen Elisabeth Fjaervoll - - 2008
In order to predict omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of humans, seventy-three pork back fat adipose tissue samples were measured with Raman spectroscopy directly on adipose tissue and on melted fat. Melted fat samples were, in addition, measured with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Gas chromatography analyses ...
Kwetegyeka Justus - - 2008
The composition of the fatty acids in muscle and heart tissue of seven fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Lake Victoria squeaker (Synodontis victoriae), Bagrus docmas, and Tilapia zilli, from two locations in Lake Kyoga and one location ...
Cianflone Katherine - - 2008
Various dietary factors affect postprandial metabolism yet precise mechanisms have not necessarily been pinpointed. The effects of various meal components on postprandial lipemia lead to the following question: do we need a standardized oral lipid tolerance test? A number of transporters, enzymes, receptors and hormones directly influence and act as ...
Larade Kevin - - 2008
Targeted ablation of the novel flavoheme reductase Ncb5or knock-out (KO) results in progressive loss of pancreatic beta-cells and white adipose tissue over time. Lipoatrophy persisted in KO animals in which the confounding metabolic effects of diabetes were eliminated by islet transplantation (transplanted knockout (TKO)). Lipid profiles in livers prepared from ...
Matsuzawa-Nagata Naoto - - 2008
Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiological feature of metabolic syndrome. However, the initial events triggering the development of insulin resistance and its causal relations with dysregulation of glucose and fatty acids metabolism remain unclear. We investigated biological pathways that have the potential to induce insulin resistance in mice fed a ...
Iankova Irena - - 2008
Circulating free fatty acids are a reflection of the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis that takes place mainly in adipose tissue. We found that mice deficient for regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-4 have increased circulating catecholamines, and increased free fatty acids. Consequently, RGS4-/- mice have increased concentration of circulating ...
Ghosh Ananda K - - 2008
cgi-58 (comparative gene identification-58) is a member of alpha/beta-hydrolase family of proteins. Mutations in CGI-58 are shown to be responsible for a rare genetic disorder known as Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, characterized by an excessive accumulation of triacylglycerol in several tissues and ichthyosis. We have earlier reported that YLR099c encoding Ict1p in ...
Frick Natasha Therese - - 2008
The potential importance of carbohydrates and amino acids as fuels during periods of fasting and aestivation in the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, were examined. No significant decreases in tissue glycogen levels were observed following 60 days of fasting or aestivation, suggesting lungfish may undergo 'glycogen sparing'. Yet glycogenolysis may be ...
Lafontan M - - 2008
Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with anomalies of blood glucose homoeostasis, elevation of plasma triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol that contribute to the later appearance of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular syndromes. Visceral adipose tissue releases a large amount of free fatty acids and hormones/cytokines in the portal ...
Cadoudal Thomas - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) serves as the metabolic switch between glucose and fatty acid utilization. PDC activity is inhibited by PDC kinase (PDK). PDC shares the same substrate, i.e., pyruvate, as glyceroneogenesis, a pathway controlling fatty acid release from white adipose tissue (WAT). Thiazolidinediones activate glyceroneogenesis. We studied the ...
Krieger Robert I - - 2008
Comparative biochemical studies are productive means to study factors that limit both beneficial and harmful effects of chemicals. Reactions such as aldrin epoxidation and dihydroisodrin hydroxylation are valuable assays of oxidative metabolism in scientific studies of chemical biology in insects, subhuman primates and other living things. The tissue distribution of ...
Lee Byung Chul - - 2008
We synthesized 16-cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl 99mTc 16-oxo-hexadecanoic acid (99mTc-CpTT-16-oxo-HDA, 1) and investigated its potential as a radiotracer for evaluating fatty acid metabolism in myocardium. Radiotracer 1 was synthesized in 22.6 +/- 6.3% decay-corrected yield by a double ligand transfer reaction between the ferrocene adduct of methyl hexadecanoate ( 2) and Na99mTcO ...
Banerjee Shashwat S - - 2008
A novel magnetic nanocarrier (CD-GAMNPs) was fabricated for targeted anticancer drug delivery by grafting cyclodextrin (CD) onto gum arabic modified magnetic nanoparticles (GAMNPs) using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a linker. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the product had a mean diameter of ...
Vural Burcak - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different clinical manifestations that are risk factors for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disorders. Fatty-acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2), which is highly expressed in adipocytes, specifically exerts intracellular lipid trafficking. A high level of fatty-acid-binding protein 4 expression present in obese subjects has also been found in ...
Palaniappan P L R M - - 2008
Catla catla fingerlings were reared in freshwater and exposed to 15.5 ppm concentration of lead for 60 days. The morphological changes on the gill of the C. catla fingerlings due to lead intoxication and the effect of DMSA (meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) on the affected tissues were observed using Scanning Electron ...
Suzuki Sayoko - - 2008
It has been demonstrated that the composition of molecular species of triacylglycerol (TG) in adipose tissue broadly reflects dietary TG molecular species composition. Medium-chain fatty acids (FAs) are not accumulated easily relative to long-chain FAs in body fat. The objective of the present study was to examine whether medium-chain FAs ...
Cvacka Josef - - 2008
Unusual fatty acids with 24, 26, and 28 carbon atoms were found in triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated from fat body tissue of bumblebee Bombus pratorum. The most abundant one was (Z,Z)-9,19-hexacosadienoic acid. Its structure was determined by mass spectrometry after derivatization with dimethyl disulfide and by infrared spectroscopy. ECL (equivalent chain ...
Bohrer Denise - - 2008
Four different procedures for the determination of aluminum in tissues by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were investigated. They consisted of conventional acid digestion carried out before and after sample drying, associated or not with fat extraction. Drying was carried out in a conventional oven at 65 degrees C for 24 ...
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