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Results 501 - 550 of 1457
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van Loon A A W M - - 2002
Reverse genetics technology offers the possibility to study the influence of particular amino acids of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on adaptation to tissue culture. Genomic segments A and B of the very virulent (vv) IBDV field strain UK661 were completely cloned and sequenced, and the strain was rescued from ...
Jensen Michael D - - 2002
It is now clear that there are major regional differences in adipose tissue function as regards the uptake and release of fatty acids. Visceral adiposity is a good predictor of abnormal regulation of adipose tissue fuel export, but it is not the source of excess systemic FFA in humans. Regional ...
Gesta S - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to study the influence of fatty acids on the adrenergic control of lipolysis both in vitro and in vivo. Human subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 100 microM bromopalmitate (BrPal), and lipolysis was measured in isolated ...
Jan J - - 2001
The bioconcentration of lipophilic organochlorines in ovine dentine in comparison to adipose tissue was examined. Sheep were given a single dose (0.2-1.4 mg/kg body wt) of individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (tetrachlorobiphenyls IUPAC Nos. 54 and 80, and hexachlorobiphenyls IUPAC Nos. 155 and 169) and organochlorine pesticides 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene) (4,4'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene ...
Haemmerle Guenter - - 2002
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is expressed predominantly in white and brown adipose tissue where it is believed to play a crucial role in the lipolysis of stored triglycerides (TG), thereby providing the body with energy substrate in the form of free fatty acids (FFA). From in vitro assays, HSL is known ...
Dulloo A G - - 2001
A role for uncoupling protein (UCP) 3 in fatty acid metabolism is reviewed within the context of our proposal, first put forward in 1998, that this homologue of UCP1 may be involved in the regulation of lipids as fuel substrate rather than in the mediation of thermogenesis. Since then, the ...
Garaulet M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is associated with coronary risk, although causality is not well established. OBJECTIVE: In an obese Mediterranean population, we measured the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue, its relation with dietary fatty acids and central fat deposition, and its influence on plasma lipids and insulin. DESIGN: Adipose tissue ...
Branen J K - - 2001
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small (9 kD) acidic protein that is an essential cofactor in plant fatty acid biosynthesis. Most plants have several isoforms of ACP, some of which are expressed constitutively and others that appear to be more tissue specific. Although the critical role of ACP in ...
Flechtner-Mors M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Acipimox is a hypolipidaemic agent reducing serum concentrations of triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids. Acipimox may reduce triglyceride synthesis by decreasing non-esterified fatty acid availability from adipocytes, but this effect has yet to be demonstrated in vivo. Lipolysis after acipimox treatment was examined in subcutaneous adipose tissue of severely ...
Luiken J J - - 2001
Giant vesicles were used to study the rates of uptake of long-chain fatty acids by heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue of obese and lean Zucker rats. With obesity there was an increase in vesicular fatty acid uptake of 1.8-fold in heart, muscle and adipose tissue. In some tissues only ...
Dabrosin C - - 2001
In this study a technique for insertion of microdialysis catheters and the influence of the position of the catheters within normal human breast tissue were evaluated by measuring amino acids. Moreover, to assess variability over time, the levels of amino acids were measured during a period of 3 h. In ...
Berthelot V - - 2001
The aim of the present work was to study the relationships between lamb growth performance, soft adipose tissue and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of intensively reared lambs, and to determine if the occurrence of soft fat, and of odd numbered (Odd FA) and methyl-branched-chain fatty acids in ...
Diczfalusy M A - - 2001
Elevated fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations have been detected in postmortem organs from alcoholics and patients acutely intoxicated by alcohol, and FAEE have been implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage. The formation of FAEE is catalyzed by acyl-coenzyme A:ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT) and by FAEE synthase, which utilize acyl-CoA ...
van Wachem P B - - 2001
Calcification limits the long-term durability of xenograft glutaraldehyde (GA)-crosslinked heart valves. Previously, a study in rats showed that epoxy-crosslinked heart valves reduced lymphocyte reactions to the same extent as the GA-crosslinked control and induced a similar foreign-body response and calcification reaction. The present study was aimed at reducing the occurrence ...
Bergmann R - - 2001
After synthesis of fluorine-18 labelled analogues by [18F]fluorobenzoylation at the alpha-amino group, biodistribution and elimination of individual advanced glycation endproducts, namely N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine and N epsilon-carboxyethyllysine, were studied in comparison to lysine in rats after intravenous injection using positron emission tomography (PET). The [18F]radiofluorinated amino acids were fast distributed via ...
Wischral A - - 2001
Fetal membrane retention is one of the most common problems in Holstein cattle after parturition. To investigate mechanisms involved, the following parameters were studied in the peri-parturition period: plasmatic concentrations of estradiol-17beta (E2) and PGFM (PGF2alpha metabolite), activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reagent ...
Sadick N S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether autologously transferred human adipose tissue maintains viability in vivo for prolonged periods. DESIGN: Six healthy female patients (mean age, 61.5 years; mean body mass index, 23.4 kg/m2) received autologous fat transplants from the gluteus to the nasolabial folds. Subcutaneous fat was sampled from facial and gluteal ...
Wischral A - - 2001
Fetal membrane retention is one of the most common problems in Holstein cattle after parturition. To investigate mechanisms involved, the following parameters were studied in the peri-parturition period: plasmatic concentrations of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and PGFM (PGF2alpha metabolite), activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reagent ...
Nielsen S - - 2001
Type 2 benign symmetric lipomatosis (BSL) is characterized by abnormal growth of adipose tissue in the upper back, deltoid region, upper arms, hips, and upper thigh region. Studies of lipomatous tissue in vitro have suggested that defective lipolysis may account for excess fat accumulation; however, in vivo adipose tissue metabolism ...
Vale P - - 2001
The presence of domoic acid (DA) in Portuguese shellfish is a recurrent event that affects shellfish resources several times a year, mainly in spring and autumn. Levels of domoic acid as high as twice the regulatory level of 20 microg DA/g tissue are not unusual. When several shellfish species are ...
Sauer L A - - 2001
Melatonin inhibits fatty acid uptake and linoleic acid-dependent growth in hepatoma 7288CTC in vivo in Buffalo rats. In this study we measured the effects of melatonin on arteriovenous differences for fatty acids across inguinal fat pads in fed and fasted rats to determine if fatty acid transport in white adipose ...
López-Villalobos A - - 2001
Intact coconuts were germinated in situ and compared with excised zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. The growth of the embryonic tissue and their fatty acid compositions were measured. Haustoria, plumules and radicles of coconuts germinated in situ grew continuously and proportionately throughout the 120 d experiment with haustauria increasing to ...
Ullrich N F - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Lipid stores in human adipose tissue are maintained primarily by incorporating lipid from circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglyceride from these lipoprotein particles to facilitate their entry into adipocytes for storage. Subjects deficient in LPL still have normal adiposity, and this ...
Coburn C T - - 2001
The transmembrane glycoprotein CD36 has been identified in isolated cell studies as a putative transporter of long-chain fatty acids. To examine the physiological role of CD36, we studied FA uptake and metabolism by tissues of CD36 null mice after injection with two fatty acid analogs. Compared to controls, uptake was ...
Freeman V L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Dietary fatty acids may influence prostate carcinogenesis. Although the standard for assessing dietary effects in humans is the semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, the extent to which self-reported intake correctly ranks prostatic exposure is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the correlation between reported intakes of different fatty acids and ...
Kotsaki-Kovatsi V P - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the administration of phytic acid on copper (Cu) concentrations in several different rat tissues. The animals used were divided into three groups: Group A (received a diet supplemented with 2% phytic acid), group B (received a diet supplemented ...
Berthelot V - - 2001
The aim of the present trial was to study the effect of dietary propionate supplementation on growth performance, intake patterns and on the proportion of odd-numbered and methyl-branched chain fatty acids in internal or in subcutaneous adipose tissues. These fatty acids are responsible, in part, for abnormally soft subcutaneous adipose ...
Yli-Jama P - - 2001
Background: Adipose tissue is a storage organ for dietary fat. During fasting, fatty acids are released into serum as free fatty acids (FFA). Experimental studies indicate that fatty acids are selectively mobilised from adipose tissue into serum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the composition of the ...
Al-Makdissy N - - 2001
We recently demonstrated that the sphingomyelin (SM) content of adipocyte membranes was negatively correlated with the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women with variable degrees of insulin resistance. We have now investigated whether SM really does have an impact on the expression ...
Li B - - 2001
A novel plant tissue-based chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor for glycolic acid combined with flow injection analysis is proposed in this paper. The spinach tissue acts as the molecular recognition element. Glycolic acid is oxidized by oxygen under the catalysis of glycolate oxidase in the tissue column to produce hydrogen peroxide, which ...
Mathesius U - - 2001
It was tested whether flavonoids that specifically accumulate in cells undergoing early nodule organogenesis could affect auxin turnover by a peroxidase to explain local changes in auxin distribution that occur during nodule formation in white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Haifa). A fluorometric assay was developed to determine the kinetics of ...
Fu Z - - 2001
A recent study on the metabolism of 1-14C-alpha-linolenic acid in the guinea pig revealed that the fur had the highest specific activity of all tissues examined, 48 h after dosing. The present study investigated the pattern of tissue lipid labeling following an oral dose of 1-14C-linoleic acid after the animals ...
Caserta F - - 2001
Regional differences in free fatty acid (FFA) handling contribute to diseases associated with particular fat distributions. As cultured rat preadipocytes became differentiated, FFA transfer into preadipocytes increased and was more rapid in single perirenal than in epididymal cells matched for lipid content. Uptake by human omental preadipocytes was greater than ...
Gabrielson E W - - 2001
Many common human cancer tissues express high levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the primary enzyme for the synthesis of fatty acids, and the differential expression of FAS between normal and neoplastic tissues has led to the consideration of FAS as a target for anticancer therapy. To investigate the potential ...
Gondret F - - 2001
Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a key lipogenic enzyme, is expressed in the two major sites of fatty acid production in the body, that is, the liver and the adipose tissue. Surprisingly, the relative contribution of these sites to lipogenesis is highly variable among species. For example, besides the situation in ...
Cowan D S - - 2001
Limited penetration of anticancer drugs through tumour tissue is an important factor that may limit therapeutic effects against solid tumours. Here we report studies of the penetration of radiolabelled methotrexate through multicellular layers (MCL) of murine EMT-6 and human MCF-7 cells grown on semiporous teflon membranes. The penetration of methotrexate ...
Tavares E - - 2001
The effect of ethanol exposure on the fatty acid composition of brown and white adipose tissue in three successive rat progenies at the end of an experimental period (24 weeks) was studied. Ethanol-treated rats received a standard rat chow diet and 5, 10 and 15% ethanol in the ad libitum ...
Vázquez M - - 2001
Rats treated with bezafibrate, a PPAR activator, gain less body weight and increase daily food intake. Previously, we have related these changes to a shift of thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue to white adipose tissue attributable to bezafibrate, which induces uncoupling proteins (UCP), UCP-1 and UCP-3, in rat white adipocytes. ...
Bastie C - - 2000
Fatty acids have been postulated to regulate adaptation of adipose mass to nutritional changes by controlling expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism via activation of nuclear receptors. Ectopic expression of the nuclear receptors PPARgamma or PPARdelta promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cells exposed to thiazolidinediones or long-chain fatty acids. To ...
Kalant D - - 2000
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased fatty acid trapping by subcutaneous adipose tissue might contribute to the development and/or maintenance of obesity. To do so, venoarterial (V-A) gradients across subcutaneous adipose tissue for triglycerides, glycerol, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), and acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) were ...
Lafontan M M Unité INSERM 317, Institut Louis Bugnard, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. - - 2000
In man, the major hormones controlling the lipolytic function are insulin (inhibition of lipolysis) and catecholamines (stimulation of lipolysis). Catecholamines are of major importance for the regulation of lipid mobilization in human adipose tissue and for the increase of non-esterified fatty acid supply to the working muscle. In vitro studies ...
Wilentz R E - - 2000
Endogenous fatty acid synthesis has been observed in some rapidly proliferating cells and tissues, both normal and neoplastic, and probably supports membrane synthesis. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes for both cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. The inactive precursor form resides ...
Guo C B - - 2000
We measured the synthesis of endogenous fatty acids in oral squamous cell carcinoma, its adjacent tissue, and normal oral tissues that were collected fresh from surgical specimens. The tissues were minced in Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium 1640 (RPMI 1640) and incubated in [1(2)-(14)C] acetic acid, sodium salt ((14)CH(3)(14)CO(2)Na). Total ...
Pérez-Enciso M - - 2000
Three Iberian boars were bred to 31 Landrace sows to produce 79 F1 pigs. Six F1 boars were mated to 73 F1 sows. The F2 progeny from 33 full-sib families (250 individuals) were genotyped for seven microsatellites spanning the length of chromosome 4. Least squares procedures for interval mapping were ...
Tisdale M J - - 2000
An increased glucose requirement by many solid tumors produces an increased metabolic demand on the liver, resulting in an increased energy expenditure. In addition, several cytokines and tumor catabolic products have been suggested as being responsible for the depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal-muscle mass in cachexia. A sulphated glycoprotein ...
Pénicaud L - - 2000
In most mammals, two types of adipose tissue, white and brown, are present. Both are able to store energy in the form of triacylglycerols and to hydrolyze them into free fatty acids and glycerol. Whereas white adipose tissue can provide lipids as substrates for other tissues according to the needs ...
Hause B - - 2000
A crucial step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is the formation of its correct stereoisomeric precursor, cis(+)12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA). This step is catalysed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which has been recently cloned from tomato. In stems, young leaves and young flowers, AOC mRNA accumulates to a low ...
Moibi J A - - 2000
To gain insights into the regulation of fat synthesis, we have investigated the effect of cold environmental exposure and feed restriction of sheep on activity and immunodetectable protein content of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues were collected at slaughter from ...
Gowri M S - - 2000
Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a lipoxygenase inhibitor isolated from the creosote bush, has been shown to decrease adipose tissue lipolytic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the decrease in lipolytic activity by masoprocol resulted from modulation of adipose tissue hormone-sensitive ...
Jehl-Pietri C - - 2000
Nutritional long-chain fatty acids control adipose tissue mass by regulating the number and the size of adipocytes. It is now established that peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play crucial functions in the control of gene expression and the level of cell differentiation. PPARgamma, which is activated by specific prostanoids, is a key ...
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