Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1460
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Raclot Thierry - - 2003
Adipose tissue triacylglycerols represent the main storage of a wide spectrum of fatty acids differing by molecular structure. The release of individual fatty acids from adipose tissue is selective according to carbon chain length and unsaturation degree in vitro and in vivo in animal studies and also in humans. The ...
Bavelaar F J - - 2003
Atherosclerosis is a common disease among parrots, but little is known about possible risk factors. Important risk factors in humans are an elevated plasma cholesterol concentration and increased platelet aggregation; high intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects. In this study, we tried to establish a relationship, if any, ...
Houseknecht Karen L - - 2003
Leptin is a 16 kDa protein synthesized and secreted primarily from adipocytes. Leptin acts centrally to regulate appetite and energy expenditure and has peripheral effects to coordinate whole-body energy metabolism. Leptin acts as an energy balance and nutrient sensor; its expression and function are regulated by endocrine and dietary factors. ...
Schaffer Jean E - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will provide the reader with an update on our understanding of the adverse effects of fatty acid accumulation in non-adipose tissues, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Recent studies will be reviewed. Cellular mechanisms involved in the lipotoxic response will be discussed. Physiologic responses to lipid ...
Klingler M - - 2003
Data on FA contents in the human placenta are limited. Different methods have been used for the FA analysis, and only percentage results have been presented. We developed and evaluated a method for the determination of FA concentrations in placental tissue. Lipids were extracted from placental tissue with a chloroform/methanol ...
Swanson K C - - 2003
Our objectives were to determine the effects of neuroendocrine challenge and substrates on in vitro alpha-amylase and trypsin release in pancreatic tissue collected from Holstein calves (n = 24; 88 +/- 3 kg) abomasally infused for 10 d with tap water (control), partially hydrolyzed starch (SH; 4 g/[kg of BW ...
Baylin Ana - - 2003
Trans-fatty acid intake is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), but the atherogenic potential of individual trans-fatty acids (FA) from partially hydrogenated oils (18:1 and 18:2) or meat and dairy products (16:1 and 18:1) is unclear. Incident cases (n = 482) of a first nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were matched ...
Kark Jeremy D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The Jewish population of Israel consumes a diet rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), principally linoleic acid. The consequences of this diet for ischemic heart disease (IHD) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association of adipose tissue n-6 fatty acids, which are derived entirely from the diet, with ...
Sung Hsing-Wen - - 2003
The study was undertaken to examine the degree of tissue fixation by reuterin, a natural compound produced by Lactobacillus reuteri, at distinct fixation conditions (pH, temperature, and fixative concentration). Additionally, the rate of tissue fixation by reuterin was investigated using glutaraldehyde as a control. It was found by the Fourier ...
Tordjman Joan - - 2003
Thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus because they decrease plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and fatty acid levels. Thiazolidinediones are agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in fat tissue. We identify glyceroneogenesis as a target of thiazolidinediones in cultured adipocytes and ...
Baylin Ana - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Alpha-linolenic acid may protect against cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based case-control study in Costa Rica. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 482 case patients with a first nonfatal acute MI and 482 population control subjects were ...
Beer André M - - 2003
Peat and various peat extracts have been successfully applied for a variety of clinical indications. Quite apart from the physico-thermal effects, new studies point towards the so-called "chemical effects" of peat containing substances. These effects include a stimulatory response of the spontaneous contractile activity (SCA) of smooth muscle (SM) tissue. ...
Pond Caroline M - - 2003
To explore the hypothesis that proliferating lymphoid cells in immune-stimulated lymph nodes obtain nutrients locally from adjacent adipose tissue, adult guinea pigs were fed for 6 weeks on standard chow or on chow supplemented with 100 g suet, sunflower oil or fish oil/kg. All the guinea pigs ate standard chow ...
Szabo Joseph - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of dietary protein quality (casein [CA] vs corn gluten [CG]) and dietary lipids (corn oil [CO] vs oil blend [OB] rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [LCPUFAs]) on fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue after weight loss in overweight cats. ANIMALS: 24 ovariohysterectomized adult ...
Cona Alessandra - - 2003
Exogenously supplied auxin (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) inhibited light-induced activity increase of polyamine oxidase (PAO), a hydrogen peroxide-producing enzyme, in the outer tissues of maize (Zea mays) mesocotyl. The same phenomenon operates at PAO protein and mRNA accumulation levels. The wall-bound to extractable PAO activity ratio was unaffected by auxin treatment, either ...
Knutsen Synnøve F - - 2003
PURPOSE: To calibrate and compare intake of different fats and individual fatty acids as assessed with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against that estimated with (i) a series of dietary recalls and; (ii) the relative fat concentration in an adipose tissue biopsy. The FFQ was specially designed for use in ...
Rauchová Hana - - 2003
Data presented in this paper show that the size of the endogenous coenzyme Q (CoQ) pool is not a limiting factor in the activation of mitochondrial glycerophosphate-dependent respiration by exogenous CoQ(3), since successive additions of succinate and NADH to brown adipose tissue mitochondria further increase the rate of oxygen uptake. ...
Schröder Heinz-Christoph - - 2002
Sessile marine animals, such as sponges, are prone to infection by prokaryotic as well as by eukaryotic attacking organisms. Using the sponge Suberites domuncula we document for the first time that in its apoptotic tissue a toxic compound is produced that very likely controls the elimination of the dying tissue. ...
Fietz J - - 2003
In temperate species, hibernation is enhanced by high levels of essential fatty acids in white adipose tissue. Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by mammals, thus nutritional ecology should play a key role in physiological adaptations to hibernation. Tropical hibernators are exposed to different physiological demands than hibernators in temperate ...
Mamalakis G - - 2002
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid dietary intake, and depression. The sample consisted of 247 healthy adults (146 males, 101 females) from the island of Crete. The number of subjects with ...
Lee S H E - - 2002
The current study examined the acute effects of intravenous propionate infusion on plasma hormones and metabolites and the expression of adipose tissue lipogenic genes. Four yearling rams were assigned to one oftwo groups (saline or propionate infusion) in a crossover design. All sheep were cannulated in both jugular veins and ...
Smith S A - - 2002
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors. Three PPAR subtypes, PPARalpha, PPARdelta (PPARbeta) and PPARgamma, have been described in mammals. The tissue distribution of PPARs is heterogeneous: PPARalpha is highly expressed in liver and skeletal muscle, PPARgamma is preferentially expressed in adipose tissues, ...
Bedu E - - 2002
Thermogenic endurance and development of metabolic cold adaptation in birds may critically depend on their ability to synthesize and use fatty acids (FA) as fuel substrates. Hepatic lipogenesis and the capacity to oxidize FA in thermogenic tissues were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) ducklings (Cairina moschata) showing original mechanisms of metabolic ...
Burstein Sumner H - - 2002
N-arachidonylglycine (NAGly), the carboxylic analog of the endocannabinoid anandamide, occurs in rat and bovine brain as well as in peripheral sites and shows activity against tonic, formalin-induced pain. It was also observed, using cell membrane preparations, that it inhibits the hydrolytic activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) on anandamide ...
Baylin Ana - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers can provide a more accurate measure of long-term intake than can dietary questionnaires. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to identify which adipose tissue fatty acids are suitable biomarkers of intake as assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. DESIGN: Costa Rican men with a mean (+/- SD) age of 56 ...
Evans Kevin - - 2002
Using stable isotopic labeling of dietary fatty acids in conjunction with arteriovenous difference measurements, we have assessed the regulation of lipoprotein lipase-derived fatty acid entrapment in subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm muscle in healthy subjects in the postprandial state. Eight volunteers fasted overnight and were then given a mixed meal ...
Frederick Clay B - - 2002
Numerous inhalation studies have demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of a wide range of volatile acids and esters results in cytotoxicity to the nasal olfactory epithelium. Previously, a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) dosimetry model was constructed to estimate the regional tissue dose of ...
Lyngsø Dorthe - - 2002
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was infused intravenously for 2.5 h in seven healthy human volunteers at a dose giving rise to a circulating IL-6 concentration of approximately 35 ng l(-1). The metabolic effects of this infusion were studied in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the anterior abdominal wall and in the splanchnic tissues ...
Jenni-Eiermann Susanne - - 2002
This study examines fuel use and metabolism in a group of long-distance migrating birds, red knots Calidris canutus (Scolopacidae), flying under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel for up to 10 h. Data are compared with values for resting birds fasting for the same time. Plasma levels of free fatty ...
Smith S B - - 2002
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to have an effect on subcutaneous fatty acid composition and has been reported to decrease stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity by decreasing mRNA expression and(or) catalytic activity in rodents and rodent cell lines. This investigation was designed to study the effects of ...
Tracy R E - - 2002
AIMS: To develop a method to preserve lipids in formalin-fixed tissues for staining in paraffin sections, and to illustrate its use in lung and brain of a fat embolism case, and in examples of fatty liver and atheroma. METHODS AND RESULTS: A saturated solution of linoleic acid in 70% ethylene ...
Ames Audra L - - 2002
The position, porosity and oil-filled nature of the zygomatic process of the squamosal bone (ZPSB) of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, suggest that it may have a similar sound conduction function to that of the intramandibular fat body (IMFB) of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, and other odontocetes. To ...
Korotkova Marina - - 2002
We have previously shown that maternal intake of essential fatty acids during late gestation and lactation affects the level of serum leptin in pups. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary essential fatty acids on leptin content in the milk of rat dams and ...
Kunesová M - - 2002
We have reported strong intrapair resemblances (IPRs) in serum phosphatidylcholine (PC) fatty acid composition within adult monozygotic twins living apart. This study assessed the contribution of genetic factors to changes in serum and adipose tissue fatty acids resulting from weight loss and followed by a subsequent year of weight maintenance. ...
Soppela Päivi - - 2002
We studied the effect of moderate undernutrition on the fatty acid composition of adipose tissues in reindeer calves (<1 year) between early winter and late spring. Calves studied in early winter (December) had grazed on natural pastures and were in good condition, while the calves in spring (April) had been ...
Argyropoulos George - - 2002
Energy balance in animals is a metabolic state that exists when total body energy expenditure equals dietary energy intake. Energy expenditure, or thermogenesis, can be subcategorized into groups of obligatory and facultative metabolic processes. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), through the activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), is responsible for nonshivering ...
Schluter Agatha - - 2002
The phytol derivatives phytanic acid and pristanic acid may activate nuclear hormone receptors and influence gene expression and cell differentiation. Phytanic acid induces brown adipocyte differentiation. It was determined that brown fat and brown adipocytes are sites of high gene expression of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, the enzyme required for initiation of ...
de Zentella Piña M - - 2002
Acute ethanol intoxication increased triacylglycerides (TAG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and promoted the liberation of epinephrine. Four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)--aspirin, naproxen, nimesulide and piroxicam--prevented this increase in TAG and TBARS. Because fatty acids provided by adipose tissue contribute substantially to elevated hepatic TAG in ethanol-intoxicated ...
Lee Jung-Suck - - 2002
The influence of dietary tung oil, containing a high level of alpha-eleostearic acid (cis-9, trans-11, trans-13-octadecatrienoic acid, EA) on growth, egg production, and lipid and fatty acid compositions in tissues and egg yolks of laying hens was studied in White Leghorn hens. Forty-week-old hens were divided into three groups of ...
Pond C M - - 2002
Adipose depots that contain lymph nodes, and probably intermuscular fat in skeletal and cardiac muscle, are specialized to provision adjacent tissue in a paracrine mode. Perinodal adipocytes respond selectively to various cytokines and incorporate proportionately more polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipolysis in the adipocytes of node-containing depots can be stimulated via ...
Tulio Artemio Z AZ - - 2002
The formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide in crushed, homogenized, and frozen-thawed tissues of broccoli florets was investigated. These volatile sulfur compounds were produced in crushed florets, but their formation was inhibited in frozen-thawed tissues. Only dimethyl disulfide was formed in homogenized tissues. High pH treatment triggered the release of ...
Bolte M R - - 2002
Our objective was to determine effects of dietary high-oleate (Oleate; 76% 18:1) or high-linoleate (Linoleate; 78% 18:2) safflower seeds on fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissue of feedlot lambs. White-faced ewe lambs (n = 36) were fed a beet pulp, oat hay, and soybean meal basal diet (Control), blocked ...
Saito Megumi - - 2002
We have recently demonstrated that the common squid Todarodes pacificus express acidic lipids that were reactive with a monoclonal antibody A2B5. In the present study, two A2B5-reactive acidic lipids were isolated from squid hepatopancreatic tissue and characterized for their structures by methods including glycolipid overlay analysis, product analysis after sialidase ...
Celik Sait - - 2002
This study was performed to determine whether vitamin E supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with insulin could affect the levels of fatty acid composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) of brain, liver and muscle tissues. Thirty Wistar albino rats were used during the experiments. They were randomly divided into three groups, ...
Cordain L - - 2002
HYPOTHESES: Consumption of wild ruminant fat represented the primary lipid source for pre-agricultural humans. Hence, the lipid composition of these animals' tissues may provide insight into dietary requirements that offer protection from chronic disease in modern humans. METHOD: We examined the lipid composition of muscle, brain, marrow and subcutaneous adipose ...
Tissié G - - 2002
The effect of alginic acid addition to 1% or 2% carteolol solutions on the ocular penetration of the drug has been evaluated in the pigmented rabbit. During single dose studies, an increase in bioavailability ranging from 40% to 60% was observed in the aqueous humor and in the iris-ciliary body. ...
Xie Yi - - 2002
In the present study, we characterized the effects of peroxisome proliferators (PP) on adipose tissue in mice. Treatment with potent PP, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 2-methyl-2-(p(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-naphthyl)-phenoxy)propionic acid, (4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)2-pyrimidinylthio) acetic acid, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, caused dramatic decreases in adipose tissue weight, whereas the moderately potent PP, acetylsalicylic acid, had a relatively ...
Pline Wendy A - - 2002
Measurement of shikimic acid accumulation in response to glyphosate inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase is a rapid and accurate assay to quantify glyphosate-induced damage in sensitive plants. Two methods of assaying shikimic acid, a spectrophotometric and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, were compared for their accuracy of recovering known amounts ...
Echtay Karim S - - 2002
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) diverts energy from ATP synthesis to thermogenesis in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue by catalysing a regulated leak of protons across the inner membrane. The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated. UCP2 and UCP3 are present at much lower ...
Jaime Laura - - 2002
Onion tissues of three varieties were evaluated for dietary fiber (DF) composition. Insoluble (IDF) and soluble (SDF) dietary fibers were subjected to acid hydrolysis, and the resultant neutral sugars, uronic acids, and Klason lignin were quantified. Brown skin exhibited the highest total dietary fiber (TDF) content (65.8%) on a dry ...
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