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Choi Jong-Hun - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to produce triacylglycerols (TAGs) enriched in pinolenic acid (PLA) at the sn-2 position using the principle of acyl migration, from the pine nut oil containing PLA esterified exclusively at the sn-3 position. Two types of lipase-catalysed reactions, i.e. redistribution and reesterification of fatty acids, ...
Lukasova Martina - - 2011
Nicotinic acid (niacin) has been used for decades to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. The well-documented antiatherogenic activity is believed to result from its antidyslipidemic effects, which are accompanied by unwanted effects, especially a flush. There has been renewed interest in nicotinic acid owing to the need for improved prevention of ...
Zhang Wei - - 2011
Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a homodimeric multidomain enzyme that catalyzes a series of reactions leading to the de novo biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids, mainly palmitate. The carboxy-terminal thioesterase (TE) domain determines the length of the fatty acyl chain and its ultimate release by hydrolysis. Because of the ...
Labuzek Krzysztof - - 2011
In this study, we compared the effects of atorvastatin and fenofibric acid, which were administered alone or in combination, on the secretory function of human adipocytes that were obtained from the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 19 mixed dyslipidemic patients and 19 subjects with a normal lipid profile. The ...
Al-Lahham Sa'ad - - 2011
Eur J Clin Invest 2011 ABSTRACT: Background  Adipose tissue is a primary site of obesity-induced inflammation, which is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Dietary fibre consumption appears to be protective. Short-chain fatty acids, e.g. propionic acid, are the principal products of the ...
Joensen Albert Marni - - 2011
Background- Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce coronary mortality. Previous data in relation to nonfatal coronary disease, however, have been inconsistent, which may be explained by the use of heterogeneous methods to assess the intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. We investigated the hypothesis that the content of ...
Vyas Diwakar - - 2012
Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to ...
Fielding Barbara - - 2011
Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary ...
Ali Asem H AH Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, - - 2011
Because direct adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) storage may contribute to body fat distribution, we measured FFA (palmitate) storage rates and fatty acid (FA) storage enzymes/proteins in omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat. Elective surgery patients received a bolus of [1-(14)C]palmitate followed by omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies to ...
Hansen Katrine B - - 2011
Objective: Dietary fat is thought to stimulate release of incretin hormones via activation of fatty acid receptors in the intestine. However, dietary fat (triacylglycerol) is digested to 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acids. Activation of G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release from the intestinal L-cells. We aimed to ...
Miegueu Pierre - - 2011
Background: Motilin is a circulating gastrointestinal peptide secreted primarily by duodenal mucosal M cells and recognized for its prokinetic effects on gastrointestinal tissues. Little information is available regarding effects on insulin/glucose homeostasis or adipocyte function. Aim: To evaluate the effects of motilin on adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, lipolysis and macronutrient uptake ...
Obsen Thomas - - 2012
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid metabolism. The lipid-lowering effects of 10,12 CLA were ...
Poudyal Hemant - - 2011
Epidemiological, human, animal, and cell culture studies show that n-3 fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. EPA and DHA, rather than ALA, have been the focus of research on the n-3 fatty acids, probably due to ...
Oh Da Young - - 2011
Chronic activation of inflammatory pathways mediates the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and the macrophage/adipocyte nexus provides a key mechanism underlying decreased insulin sensitivity. Free fatty acids are important in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, although their precise mechanisms of action have yet to be fully elucidated. Recently, a family of ...
González-Muniesa Pedro - - 2011
Background/Aims: Hypoxia occurs in white adipose tissue in obesity, modulating the expression and release of specific inflammation-related adipokines. ANGPTL4 (angiopoietin-like protein 4/fasting-induced adipose factor), which is implicated in angiogenesis, lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis, is a major hypoxia-sensitive gene; recent studies indicate that ANGPTL4 expression is also regulated by fatty ...
Ezure Tomonobu - - 2011
Subcutaneous adipose tissue lies just beneath the dermal layer, but the interaction between the two types of tissue remains obscure. Recently, we reported that obesity is associated with decreased dermal elasticity. To investigate the mechanism of the adipose tissue/dermal interaction, fibroblasts were cocultured with small or enlarged adipocytes, using a ...
Alexander-Aguilera Alfonso - - 2011
The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish ...
Xu Mo - - 2011
The lipid-binding protein (LBP) family is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals and essential for fatty acid homeostasis. RNAi-mediated knockdown of nine C. elegans lbp family members revealed that lbp-5 regulates fat accumulation. C. elegans LBP-5 bound directly to various fatty acids with varying affinities. lbp-5 expression in nhr-49(nr2041) worms ...
Sato Daisuke - - 2011
It is currently believed that metabolic syndrome, in general, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in particular, depend more on visceral than on subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, the relationship between insulin resistance and fatty acid composition in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues remains to be clarified. In the present study, we ...
Liu Pin P Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, - - 2011
Until recently, dietary fat was considered to be tasteless, and its primary sensory attribute was believed to be its texture (Rolls et al., 1999; Verhagen et al., 2003). However, a number of studies have demonstrated the ability of components in fats, specifically free fatty acids, to activate taste cells and ...
Uemoto Y - - 2012
The fatty acid composition and melting point of fatty tissue are among the most important economic traits in pig breeding because of their influence on the eating quality of meat. Identifying the quantitative trait locus (QTL) of these traits may help reveal the genetic structure of fatty acid composition and ...
Prieto N - - 2011
This study examined the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseed. Subcutaneous fat samples at the 12th rib of 62 cows were stored at -80°C, thawed, scanned over a ...
Rathgeber B M - - 2011
Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid ...
Park Mi-Young - - 2011
The dietary intake of whole grains is known to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. To investigate whether there are anti-adipogenic activities in various Korean cereals, we assessed water extracts of nine cereals. The results showed that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with ...
Pietiläinen Kirsi H KH Department of Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, and Department of Psychiatry, Obesity Research Unit, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, - - 2011
Identification of early mechanisms that may lead from obesity towards complications such as metabolic syndrome is of great interest. Here we performed lipidomic analyses of adipose tissue in twin pairs discordant for obesity but still metabolically compensated. In parallel we studied more evolved states of obesity by investigating a separated ...
Hiller Beate - - 2011
Changes in fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of German Holstein bulls induced by a grass-silage/n-3 fatty acid based intervention diet versus a maize-silage/n-6 fatty acid based control diet were analyzed and related to shifts in lipogenic gene expression, protein expression, and enzyme activity patterns. Significantly ...
Kroustallaki Penelope - - 2011
Thirty-one brands of margarines from the Greek market were analyzed for their fatty acid composition including trans-fatty acids by gas chromatography. Trans fatty acids (TFAs) were found within the range of 0.16-0.97% of total fat content, with no sample found to have TFA in a concentration more than 1% of ...
Brinkman Maree T MT Department of General Practice, Academisch Centrum voor Huisartsgeneeskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 33 Blok J, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. - - 2011
The role of dietary fat in bladder cancer aetiology is currently unclear due to few studies, equivocal findings and a lack of information on important dietary fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the intake of major dietary fats and fatty acids and ...
Narukami Takahiro - - 2011
Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue has been recognized as an important carcass trait because of its relationship with eating quality such as favorable beef flavor and tenderness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms of liver X receptor, alpha (LXR), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), Fatty acid synthase (FASN), and ...
Chakravorty Jharna - - 2011
We identified nutritionally relevant fatty acids and macro- and micronutrient content in Aspongopus nepalensis Westwood 1837 (Hemiptera), an insect used as food by the ethnic people of Arunachal Pradesh (North East India). Regarding macronutrients, crude lipids made up 38.35 %, fibre 33.47 %, protein 10.6 %, moisture 41.9 %, and ...
ChoromaƄska Barbara - - 2011
Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and ...
Pilch Paul F - - 2011
The abundance of caveolae in adipocytes suggests a possible cell-specific role for these structures, and because these cells take up and release fatty acids as their quantitatively most robust activity, modulation of fatty acid movement is one such role that is supported by substantial in vitro and in vivo data. ...
Beaulieu Aurore - - 2011
It is suspected that bone marrow (BM) microenvironmental factors may influence the evolution of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). In this study, we postulated that adipocytes and lipids could be involved in the progression of CML. To test this hypothesis, adipocytes were co-cultured with two BCR-ABL positive cell lines (PCMDS and ...
Dahm Christina Catherine - - 2011
Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in ...
Bouwman Aniek C - - 2011
Identifying genomic regions, and preferably individual genes, responsible for genetic variation in milk fat composition of bovine milk will enhance the understanding of biological pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis and may point to opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. An association study of 50,000 single nucleotide ...
Aarnio Vuokko V Functional Genomics and Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Department of Neurobiology, A. I. Virtanen Institute, Biocenter Finland, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, - - 2011
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are mono-oxygenases that metabolize endogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and lipid signaling molecules, and furthermore have a role in metabolism of xenobiotics. In order to investigate the role of CYP genes in fat metabolism at the molecular level, four Caenorhabditis elegans mutants lacking functional CYP-35A1, CYP-35A2, ...
Anekonda Thimmappa S TS Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA. - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive, age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunction leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and ...
Jiménez Sergio - - 2011
Iron deficiency induces several responses to iron shortage in plants. Metabolic changes occur to sustain the increased iron uptake capacity of Fe-deficient plants. We evaluated the metabolic changes of three Prunus rootstocks submitted to iron chlorosis and their different responses for tolerance using measurements of metabolites and enzymatic activities. The ...
Baráth Gábor - - 2010
In this communication we describe the first example of a biomimetic mononuclear iron complex, [Fe(III)(Salen)Cl] (Salen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-ethylenediaminato), that highly selectively and efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCH), α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBH), and alanine (ALAH) to ethylene or the corresponding carbonyl compounds, mimicking the action of the non-heme iron ...
Byard Roger W - - 2010
To determine whether routine decalcification may reduce the amount of stainable iron that is visible on tissue sections, samples of liver and lung tissue with excessive iron stores were placed in three standard decalcifying solutions (i) formic acid [33%], formaldehyde [4%], and NaCl [0.85%]; (ii) formic acid [30%], formaldehyde [4%], ...
Beck Kathryn - - 2011
Ascorbic acid, and more recently, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to enhance Fe absorption. However, it is not clear whether Fe status improves when foods high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids are consumed with Fe-fortified meals. The present study aimed to investigate whether consuming high v. low ...
Menezes Carlyle T B - - 2011
Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well-established separation process employing micro bubbles as a carrier phase. The application of this technique in the treatment of acid mine drainage, using three yeast biosurfactants as alternative collectors, is hereby analyzed. Batch studies were carried out in a 50-cm high acrylic column with ...
Du Feihu - - 2011
This paper deals with the removal of iron from silica sand in aqueous oxalic acid, in the absence and presence of ultrasound. The parameters investigated were the reaction temperature, stirring speed, ultrasound power, acid concentration and reaction time. The optimum conditions for the maximum removal of 75.4% of iron with ...
Rosa João N - - 2010
NHC-iron complexes prepared in situ very efficiently afforded benzoates via the aerobic oxidative aromatic esterification of aldehydes with boronic acids. This method uses equimolar amounts of both the aldehyde and the boronic acid allowing the preparation of benzoates in yields up to 97%.
Sanghvi Tina G - - 2010
BACKGROUND: According to a World Health Organization (WHO) review of nationally representative surveys from 1993 to 2005, 42% of pregnant women have anemia worldwide. Almost 90% of anemic women reside in Africa or Asia. Most countries have policies and programs for prenatal iron-folic acid supplementation, but coverage remains low and ...
Katz Joanne - - 2010
A community-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily zinc and/or iron+folic acid supplementation was conducted in rural southern Nepal to examine motor milestone attainment among 3264 children 1-36 mo of age between 2001 and 2006. Treatment groups included placebo, zinc (10 mg), iron+folic acid (12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic ...
Lavin Shana R - - 2010
Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodstuffs ...
Ou Keqin - - 2010
Effects of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey protein concentrates (WPC) on iron absorption were studied using in vitro digestion combined with Caco-2 cell models for improved iron absorption. Neutrase- and papain-treated WPC could improve iron absorption; especially hydrolysates by Neutrase could significantly increase iron absorption to 12.8% compared to 3.8% in ...
Namba Kosuke - - 2010
Iron acquisition of graminaceous plants is characterized by the synthesis and secretion of iron-chelating compounds, mugineic acids (MAs), and by a specific uptake system for MAs-iron(III) complexes. We identified a transporter, HvYS1 (Hordeum vulgare L. yellow stripe 1), that is highly specific for MAs-iron(III) in barley roots. In this article ...
Bruno-Bárcena Jose M - - 2010
Growth in aerobic environments has been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to cause oxidative stress in most organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutases and hydroperoxidases) and DNA repair mechanisms provide protection against ROS. Acid stress has been shown to be associated with the induction of Mn superoxide ...
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