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Hu Qiang - - 2008
Microalgae represent an exceptionally diverse but highly specialized group of micro-organisms adapted to various ecological habitats. Many microalgae have the ability to produce substantial amounts (e.g. 20-50% dry cell weight) of triacylglycerols (TAG) as a storage lipid under photo-oxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. Fatty acids, the building blocks ...
Adachi Tetsuya - - 2008
Recently, we found that unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (such as alpha-linolenic acid) promote the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) via G protein-coupled receptor GPR120, which is expressed predominantly in the colon. In order to ensure that the triglycerides or free fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid, reach the distal intestinal ...
Strijbosch Robert A M - - 2008
Fish oil, a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, has never been used as the sole source of lipid in clinical practice for fear of development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as it lacks the believed requisite levels of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. The objectives of this study ...
Panserat Stéphane - - 2008
Reducing the reliance on fishery by-products as amino acid and fatty acid sources in feeds for farmed fish is a major objective today. We evaluated the effect of dietary fish oil or dietary fishmeal replacement by vegetable oils and plant proteins respectively through analysis of hepatic transcriptomes in rainbow trout ...
Baumgartner Stephan - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the conditions for reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation through homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. METHODS: 4 batches of pea seed (Pisum sativum L. cv. Früher Zwerg; harvests from 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000) were tested regarding their reaction to gibberellic acid 17x and 18x (compared ...
Uysal K - - 2008
Fatty acid composition, conjugated linoleic acid and cholesterol contents in the muscles of three freshwater fish species (Barbus plebejus escherichi, Capoeta capoeta capoeta and Rutilus rutilus) were determined under natural extreme temperate (July) and cold (January) conditions. The aim of the study was to determine whether there were differences in ...
Torlakoğlu A - - 2009
Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin ...
Dong Qing-Feng - - 2008
In this study, chemical compositions of fatty oils and bioactivity of crude extracts from Holotrichia diomphalia larvae as Chinese materia medica were investigated for the first time. The chemical compositions of the fatty oils were obtained by two different methods and determined by GC/MS. In total, the petroleum ether extract ...
Brunborg Linn A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have modulating effects on inflammatory mechanisms. Seal and fish oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and possibly therefore high doses of nasoduodenally administered seal oil rapidly relieved inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated joint pain in two recent studies. In the present ...
Comlekcioglu N - - 2008
Native Crambe orientalis var. orientalis and Crambe tataria var. tataria collected from Kahramanmaras flora were morphologically examined and seed oil composition was determined. Volatile acid and fatty acid composition of seeds were examined with GC and GC/MS and the ratio of volatile acids to total oil was 3.49% in C. ...
Zhu Weiwei - - 2008
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential application of microemulsions as a dermal drug delivery loading penciclovir. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed for various microemulsion formulations composed of oleic acid (oil phase), Cremorphor EL (surfactant) and ethanol (cosurfactant). Composition of microemulsion systems was optimized using ...
Brunetti G - - 2008
The chemical changes occurring in an olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) sample digested catalytically with MnO2 for 30 and 60 days were evaluated comparatively with those occurring in the same OMW left standing for the same time in an open-air lagoon. Both treatments increased the pH and electrical conductivity and ...
Cicero Arrigo F G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage. METHODS: A multi-center randomized, cross-over, clinical trial with 3 similar types ...
Chung Kyong-Hwan - - 2008
The removal of free fatty acid (FFA) in waste frying oil by esterification with methanol was conducted using various zeolite catalysts. The ZSM-5 (MFI), mordenite (MOR), faujasite (FAU), beta (BEA) zeolites, and silicalite were employed with different Si/Al molar ratio in the reaction. The effects of acidic properties and pore ...
Ramli M R - - 2008
High-oleic palm oil (HOPO) with an oleic acid content of 59.0% and an iodine value (IV) of 78.2 was crystallized in a 200-kg De Smet crystallizer with a predetermined cooling program and appropriate agitation. The slurry was then fractionated by means of dry fractionation at 4, 8, 10, 12, and ...
Blasko Jaroslav - - 2008
A GC/MS procedure has been developed, optimized, and applied to characterization of oil binders in paintings. The procedure involves hydrolysis of lipids to fatty acids (FAs) and derivatization of FAs to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by a solution of sodium methanolate in methanol at an elevated temperature. FAMEs are ...
Skorić Dragan - - 2008
The sunflower is one of the four most important oilseed crops in the world, and the nutritional quality of its edible oil ranks among the best vegetable oils in cultivation. Typically up to 90% of the fatty acids in conventional sunflower oil are unsaturated, namely oleic (C 18:1, 16%-19%) and ...
DiRienzo Maureen A - - 2008
High stearic, low alpha-linolenic acid soybean oil (HSLL) has been developed via traditional breeding to serve as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in food manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on fatty acid intake in the United States if HSLL were substituted ...
Chua Anna C N - - 2008
Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed that the contents stored in oil bodies isolated from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes were mainly neutral lipids (>90% triacylglycerols and approximately 5% diacylglycerols). Fatty acids released from the neutral lipids of achene oil bodies were highly unsaturated (62.65% alpha-linolenic acid, 18.24% linoleic acid, and ...
Han Quan-Bin - - 2008
The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica are popularly used in the treatment of arthritis. Being extremely toxic, the raw seeds are forbidden and must be processed before clinical use. The quality of crude and processed Strychnos seeds can be controlled by examining the toxic alkaloids using established HPLC methods. But this ...
Vu Phuong-Lan - - 2008
Recently, dietary oil with high diacylglycerol (DAG) contents, so called DAG-oil, was introduced in Japan and the USA. It was claimed that the oil mostly composed of DAG is metabolized differently from conventional triacylglycerol oil, reducing body weight and fat mass because DAG tends to be oxidized to provide energy ...
Neher Andreas - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In alternative and complementary medicine, the use of essential and fatty oils has become more and more popular. In addition to conventional medical therapies, self-medication is showing increasing popularity, using agents with unclear compounds and poorly controlled dosages. Among other disorders, these alternative treatments are used in bronchitis and ...
Failla Mark L - - 2008
The ratio of cis and all-trans lycopene (LYC) in human and animal tissues exceeds that in foods. The basis for this difference remains unknown, although differences in their stability, transport, and metabolism have been suggested. Here, we systematically compared the digestive stability, efficiency of micellarization, and uptake and intracellular stability ...
Smink W - - 2008
The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. Diets with either native or a ...
Marsudi Sidik - - 2008
Direct utilization of palm oil for the simultaneous production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and rhamnolipids was demonstrated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO3924. By secreted lipase, palm oil was hydrolyzed into glycerol and fatty acids. Fatty acids became favorable carbon sources for cell growth and PHA production via beta-oxidation and glycerol for rhamnolipid ...
Fregolente Patricia Bogalhos Lucente - - 2008
Five lipases were screened (Thermomyces lanuginosus free and immobilized forms, Candida antarctica B, Candida rugosa, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizomucor miehei) to study their ability to produce monoglycerides (MG) and diglycerides (DG) through enzymatic glycerolysis of soybean oil. Lipase from C. antarctica was further studied to verify the enzyme load (wt% ...
Koşar Müberra - - 2008
The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Satureja cuneifolia Ten., collected in three different maturation stages such as preflowering, flowering, and postflowering, were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (42.5-45.2%), p-cymene (19.4-24.3%), and carvacrol (8.5-13.2%) were identified as the main constituent ...
Yamamoto Kouhei - - 2008
An original gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for quantifying trace amounts of ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) is detailed. Data are presented on trace amounts of ricinoleic acid found in several common vegetable oils and oils extracted from common oil seeds: e.g., ca. 30 ppm in commercial olive oil was the lowest ...
Zheng Peizhong - - 2008
Plant oil is an important renewable resource for biodiesel production and for dietary consumption by humans and livestock. Through genetic mapping of the oil trait in plants, studies have reported multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with small effects, but the molecular basis of oil QTLs remains largely unknown. Here we ...
Aguedo Mario - - 2008
Lipozyme TL IM was used in a solvent-free batch and microaqueous system for enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milkfat (AMF) with linseed oil (LO) in binary blends and with rapeseed oil (RO) in one ternary blend. The aim was to obtain and characterize physicochemically fats enriched with unsaturated C 18 fatty ...
Garcia Camila Martins - - 2008
Two sulfated zirconias were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. They were used as catalysts in the alcoholysis of soybean oil and in the esterification of oleic acid. Using sulfated zirconia prepared by the solvent-free method (S-ZrO(2)) as catalyst, the alcoholysis conversions of soybean oil under optimized ...
Subramanian Sangeetha - - 2008
The mucus layer on the surface of fish consists of several antimicrobial agents that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. To date, little is known about the antimicrobial properties of the mucus of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), brook trout (S. fontinalis), koi carp (Cyprinus carpio sub sp. ...
Ashby Richard D - - 2008
Sophorolipids (SLs) were synthesized by fed-batch fermentation of Candida bombicola on glucose and either palmitic acid (SL-p), stearic acid (SL-s), oleic acid (SL-o) or linoleic acid (SL-l) and the structural distribution accurately determined by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The surfactant properties, including critical micelle concentration (CMC), minimum surface ...
Flores Teresita - - 2008
RNA interference (RNAi) has been recently employed as an effective experimental tool for both basic and applied biological studies in various organisms including plants. RNAi deploys small RNAs, mainly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), to mediate the degradation of mRNA for regulating gene expression in plants. Here we report an efficient ...
Kaul Nalini - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The impact of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series on the cardiovascular system is well documented. To directly compare the effects of three dietary oils (fish, flaxseed and hempseed) given in concentrations expected to be self-administered in the general population on specific cardiovascular parameters ...
Boon Caitlin S - - 2008
Evidence that dietary lycopene decreases the risk for a number of health conditions has generated new opportunities for the addition of lycopene to functional foods. This work examined the potential of oil-in-water emulsions as a lycopene delivery system for foods. Oil-in-water emulsions containing lycopene were prepared using different kinds of ...
Chakraborty Kajal - - 2008
Lipase derived from Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 6824 was purified to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography on Amberlite IRA 410 (Cl-) and gel filtration using Sephadex G-100 as judged by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified lipase was used for hydrolysis of triacylglycerol in sardine oil to enrich Delta5-polyunsaturated fatty acids ...
Chilton Floyd H FH Center for Botanical Lipids, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC, USA. - - 2008
Changes in diet over the past century have markedly altered the consumption of fatty acids. The dramatic increase in the ingestion of saturated and n-6 fatty acids and concomitant decrease in n-3 fatty acids are thought to be a major driver of the increase in the incidence of inflammatory diseases ...
West Alex H - - 2008
Four continuous biodiesel processes were designed and simulated in HYSYS. The first two employed traditional homogeneous alkali and acid catalysts. The third and fourth processes used a heterogeneous acid catalyst and a supercritical method to convert a waste vegetable oil feedstock into biodiesel. While all four processes were capable of ...
Chorianopoulos N G - - 2008
AIMS: To assess the antimicrobial action of three natural-derived products (essential oil, decoction and hydrosol of Satureja thymbra) against biofilms, composed of useful, spoilage and pathogenic bacteria (formed as monoculture or/and mixed-culture), and to compare their efficiency with three standard acid and alkaline chemical disinfectants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two acids ...
Vasudevan Palligarnai T - - 2008
Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as ...
Bartelt Stine - - 2008
Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) are thought to have immune-modulating effects, but the specific effects and mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary n-3 LCPUFA could affect ex vivo oxidative burst in healthy young men. The study had a randomised 2 ...
Tattersall Amanda L - - 2008
Previous work has shown that interleukin 1 (IL-1) increases the activity of acid extruders in articular chondrocytes, while the H+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitor bafilomycin can prevent aggrecanase-mediated cartilage degradation. The H+ transport induced by IL-1 may therefore be required for proteinase activity. In the present study, the effects of hexosamines ...
Bozan Berrin - - 2008
Three seeds of Turkish origin, flax, poppy and safflower were analyzed for their proximate, fatty acids, tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and total phenolic composition, and oxidative stability of their oil. The major fatty acid in the flax oil was alpha-linolenic acid, comprising 58.3% of total fatty acids, whereas poppy and ...
Den Ruijter Hester M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Fish oil reduces sudden death in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Sudden death in heart failure may be due to triggered activity based on disturbed calcium handling. We hypothesized that superfusion with omega3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish inhibits triggered activity in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ventricular myocytes ...
Kawata Jyunichi - - 2008
The composition of the volatile oil from Lithospermi Radix, the dried roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (Boraginaceae), has been investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS. To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the oil, in-vitro inhibition of ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) activity by the oil was studied. Fifty-four components ...
Li Jie - - 2008
In the present study, novel less-painful tocol emulsions for the intravenous delivery of clarithromycin were prepared and optimized. The therapeutically effective concentration of clarithromycin, 5mg/ml, was achieved using tocopherol succinate (TS) combined with oleic acid as lipophilic counterions. The possibility of employing the microdialysis technique to investigate the distribution of ...
Yan Jin-yong - - 2008
An integrated optimization strategy involving a combination of different designs was employed to optimize producing conditions of cell-bound lipase (CBL) from Geotrichum sp. Firstly, it was obtained by a single factorial design that the most suitable carbon source was a mixture of olive oil and citric acid and the most ...
Thomas Freddy - - 2008
Variability within the stable isotope ratios in various lipidic fractions and the fatty acid composition of muscle oil has been analyzed for a large sample (171 fish) of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) from 32 origins within Europe, North America, and Tasmania. Sampling was extended over all ...
Dos Santos I C F - - 2008
Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating ...
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