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Zinjarde Smita S - - 2008
The morphogenetic behavior of a tropical marine Yarrowia lipolytica strain on hydrophobic substrates was studied. Media containing coconut oil or palm kernel oil (rich in lauric and myristic acids) prepared in distilled water or seawater at a neutral pH supported 95% of the cells to undergo a transition from the ...
Cao Fenghua - - 2008
Transesterification of waste cooking oil with high acid value and high water contents using heteropolyacid H3PW12O40 x 6H2O (PW12) as catalyst was investigated. The hexahydrate form of PW(12) was found to be the most promising catalyst which exhibited highest ester yield 87% for transesterification of waste cooking oil and ester ...
Kim Byung Hee - - 2008
Structured lipids (SLs) for formulating trans-free margarines were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed interesterification of the blends of canola oil (CO), palm stearin (PS), and palm kernel oil (PKO) in weight ratios (CO/PS/PKO) of 40:60:0, 40:50:10, 40:40:20, 40:30:30, 50:30:20, and 60:25:15. The atherogenicity was determined using fatty acid profiles. We also determined ...
Leonova Svetlana - - 2008
Oil quality and content were analyzed in 33 accessions from 13 wild species and 10 accessions of cultivated oat. Wild oat species tended to have higher oil and 18:1 fatty acid (FA) contents and lower amounts of 18:2 and 18:3 FAs as compared to cultivated oats. In addition to common ...
Ramos María Jesús - - 2009
The aim of this work was the study of the influence of the raw material composition on biodiesel quality, using a transesterification reaction. Thus, ten refined vegetable oils were transesterificated using potassium methoxide as catalyst and standard reaction conditions (reaction time, 1h; weight of catalyst, 1 wt.% of initial oil ...
Yang Fang-Xia - - 2008
To reduce the cost of biodiesel production, the feasibility of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed oil (ZBMSO) was studied to produce biodiesel. A methyl ester biodiesel was produced from ZBMSO using methanol, sulfuric acid, and potassium hydroxide in a two-stage process. The main variables that affect the process were investigated. The ...
Jain Vishal P - - 2008
Photoirradiation processing can be used to rapidly synthesize conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in large quantities in soy oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of refining of soy oil on CLA yields and oxidative properties after photoirradiation. Crude, alkali-refined, alkali-refined bleached, and alkali-refined ...
Meyer Marjolaine D - - 2008
Methods devised for oil extraction from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) mesocarp (e.g., Soxhlet) are usually lengthy and require operation at high temperature. Moreover, methods for extracting sugars from avocado tissue (e.g., 80% ethanol, v/v) do not allow for lipids to be easily measured from the same sample. This study describes ...
Liu W H - - 2008
The formation of trans fatty acids in chicken legs during frying in unhydrogenated and hydrogenated soybean oil was studied. Frying was conducted at 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C and 200 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 min, with the various cis and trans fatty acids being ...
Fabiani Roberto - - 2008
Our aim in this study was to provide further support to the hypothesis that phenolic compounds may play an important role in the anticarcinogenic properties of olive oil. We measured the effect of olive oil phenols on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and ...
Thaniyavarn Jiraporn - - 2008
Biosurfactant production by Pichia anomala PY1, a thermotorelant strain isolated from fermented food, was examined as grown in media containing various carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimal conditions for biosurfactant production included 4% soybean oil as carbon source at pH 5.5 at 30 degrees C for 7 d. Under these ...
Pérez-Camino María del Carmen Mdel - - 2008
Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) are a family of natural neutral lipids present in olive oils and formed by esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) with low molecular alcohols. Inappropriate practices during the olive oil extraction process and bad quality of the olive fruits promote their formation. Quantification can be ...
Tres Alba - - 2008
This study evaluates the effects of replacing beef tallow added to rabbit feeds (3% w/w) by different doses (0%, 1.5% and 3% w/w) of n-6- or n-3-rich vegetable fat sources (sunflower and linseed oil, respectively) and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation (0 and 100 mg/kg) on the fatty acid composition, alpha-tocopherol content, ...
Mestdagh Frédéric - - 2008
This study investigates the importance of selected oil degradation components and some analogues in the formation of acrylamide. For this, a model system containing silica gel, PBS buffer, and oil was heated in a closed tubular reactor, under practically relevant heating conditions. Several probable acrylamide precursors were mixed together with ...
Granvogl Michael - - 2008
On the basis of a stable isotope dilution assay and derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid, the presence of the carcinogenic glycidamide ( 2) in processed foods was verified for the first time. Using (13)C-labeled 2 as the internal standard and the formation of the thioether derivatives, a new stable isotope dilution ...
Burgal Julie - - 2008
A central goal of green chemistry is to produce industrially useful fatty acids in oilseed crops. Although genes encoding suitable fatty acid-modifying enzymes are available from many wild species, progress has been limited because the expression of these genes in transgenic plants produces low yields of the desired products. For ...
Kitessa Soressa M - - 2009
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) and stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) are on the biosynthetic pathway of EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The n-3 fatty acid in rapeseed oil is ALA while Echium oil contains both ALA and SDA. To determine the comparative efficacy ...
Vanag Vladimir K - - 2008
We describe an improved Taylor dispersion method for four-component systems, which we apply to measure the main- and cross-diffusion coefficients in an Aerosol OT water-in-oil microemulsion loaded with one of the reactants of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, water(1)/AOT(2)/R(3)/octane(4) system, where R is malonic acid or ferroin. With [H(2)O]/[AOT] = 11.8 ...
Sealls Whitney - - 2008
Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are promoted as beneficial in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In general, dietary omega 3 fatty acids are derived from plant sources as linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 omega3) the precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 omega3). However, ...
Hatzakis Emmanuel - - 2008
A nondestructive analytical method based on NMR spectroscopy was developed for the determination of phospholipids in olive oil. The phospholipids extracted from virgin olive oil with a mixture of ethanol/water (2:1 v/v) were identified and quantified by high resolution (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The main phospholipids found in olive oil were ...
Lee Min Kyung - - 2008
The oil in mackerel viscera was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and the fatty acids composition in the oil was identified. Also the off-flavors removal in mackerel viscera and the storage improvement of the oils were carried out. As results obtained, by increasing ...
Pantini Giovanni - - 2008
Formulating at acidic pH is a route to improve the chemical or biological stability and the performances of cosmeceuticals. Unfortunately, its potential is limited by the poor differentiation of available acidic agents, and by the risk of skin irritation. Recently, a perfluoropolyether phosphate was proposed to formulate acidic gels and ...
Kamvissis Vassilis N - - 2008
The Oxitester method, a novel, simple, and fast photometric method for the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of olive oils, was validated and compared to the official oil stability index (Rancimat) method. The Oxitester method appeared to be a good alternative to the Rancimat method with adequate correlation for a ...
Katsuda Marly S - - 2008
The oxidation of fatty acids can be inhibited by engineering the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets to decrease interactions between aqueous phase prooxidants and lipids. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether emulsions stabilized by a multilayer emulsifier systems consisting of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus or sugar beet pectin ...
Leskinen Heidi - - 2008
Gamma-linolenic acid (Gla) and oils containing Gla have evident positive effects on a variety of disorders, and therefore, the structure of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing Gla is of special interest. The regioisomeric structures of TAGs 18:3(n-3)/18:2/18:2 (Ala/L/L) and 18:3(n-6)/18:2/18:2 (Gla/L/L) in blackcurrant seed oil were determined by Ag-HPLC/APCI-MS and Ag-HPLC/ESI-MS/MS techniques. ...
Dayrit Fabian M - - 2008
Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( (31)P NMR) was used to differentiate virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached, deodorized coconut oil (RCO). Monoglycerides (MGs), diglycerides (DGs), sterols, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in VCO and RCO were converted into dioxaphospholane derivatives and analyzed by (31)P NMR. On the average, ...
Qian Junfeng - - 2008
The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG) in cottonseeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of cottonseed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 99% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve ...
Conde Carlos - - 2008
Since ancient times the olive tree (Olea europaea), an evergreen drought- and moderately salt-tolerant species, has been cultivated for its oil and fruit in the Mediterranean basin. Olive is unique among the commercial important oil crops for many reasons. Today, it ranks sixth in the world's production of vegetable oils. ...
Biswas Atanu - - 2008
An environmentally friendly water-based pathway to form the azide derivatives of soybean oil and fatty esters is reported. This entails first the formation of epoxides and then the azidization of the epoxides. The azidization reaction is carried out at high yields in water with only a small amount of an ...
Zhang Junhua - - 2008
A technique to produce biodiesel from crude Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (ZSO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) was developed. The acid value of ZSO was reduced to 1.16mg KOH/g from 45.51mg KOH/g by only one-step acid-catalyzed esterification with methanol-to-oil molar ratio 24:1, H(2)SO(4) 2%, temperature 60 degrees C and ...
Lin Jiann-Tsyh - - 2008
A method of regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetable oils and animal fats is reported here using the electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (MS(3)) of TAG-lithiated adducts. The fragment ions of the MS(3) from the loss of fatty acids at the sn-2 position as alpha,beta-unsaturated fatty acids were used for regiospecific ...
Annarao Sanjay - - 2008
Seed development in Jatropha curcas L. was studied with respect to phenology, oil content, lipid profile and concentration of sterols. Seeds were collected at various stages of development starting from one week after fertilization and in an interval of five days thereafter till maturity. These were classified as stage I ...
Takaç Serpil - - 2008
An isolate exhibiting high extracellular lipolytic activity was identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The enzyme activity of the isolate was improved by using different concentrations of lipidic carbon sources such as vegetable oils, fatty acids and triglycerides. Lipolytic activity was assayed spectrophotometrically using p-nitrophenyl palmitate. ...
Fayt J - - 2008
Spelt is a covered cereal with large glumellas. In experiment 1, it has been compared in terms of chemical composition with barley, oat and maize. Spelt is characterized by rather low protein and ether extract (EE) contents. The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content of spelt was slightly higher than that ...
Hanus Lumir Ondrej - - 2008
AIM: Identification of cyclopropyl fatty acids in walnut oil. METHOD: GC/MS method was developed for the determination of eight cyclopropyl fatty acids in walnut (Juglans regia) oil. RESULTS: Monocyclopropane acids: methyl 9-cyclopropyl-nonanoate, 6,7-methylene-, 8,9-methylene-, 9,10-methylene-, 11,12-methylene octadecanoates, and dicyclic acid - methyl 9,10,12,13-dimethylene octadecanoate, tricyclic acid - methyl 9,10,12,13,15,16-trimethylene octadecanoate, ...
Singh Surender - - 2008
Two groups of fatty acids are essential to the body, the omega6 (n6) series derived from linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and the omega3 (n3) series derived from alpha-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3). Fatty acids provide energy, are an integral part of the cell membranes and are precursors of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and ...
Jenkins David J A - - 2008
Randomized controlled trials of marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) have inconsistent outcomes, yet public health messages are uniformly positive. Originally, fish were seen as a low saturated fat protein source, and later as a valuable source of omega-3 fatty acids. Early trials indicated ...
Tranchida Peter Quinto - - 2008
The present research is focused on the use of comprehensive 2-D GC (GCxGC) for the thorough elucidation of fatty acid (FA) profiles contained in vegetable oils; the samples analysed consisted of extra-virgin olive oil and refined hazelnut oil. The enhanced sensitivity and the formation of group-type patterns provided by GCxGC ...
Kitazume Tatsuya - - 2008
Cytochrome P450foxy (P450foxy) is a fatty acid (FA) monooxygenase that is characterized by self-sufficient catalysis and high turnover numbers due to the fused structure of cytochrome P450 and its reductase. Here we found that resting recombinant Escherichia coli cells producing P450foxy converted saturated FA with a chain length of 7-16 ...
Windstam Sofia - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the temporal release of fatty acids and sugars from corn and cucumber seeds during the early stages of seed germination in order to establish whether sugars found in exudate can prevent exudate fatty acid degradation by Enterobacter cloacae. Both saturated (long-chain saturated ...
Lundry Denise R - - 2008
Developments in biotechnology and molecular-assisted breeding have led to the development of a second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788. The MON 89788 event was produced by direct transformation of a cp4 epsps (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene cassette derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 into an elite soybean germplasm known for its ...
Miraliakbari Homan - - 2008
The oxidative stability of selected tree nut oils was examined. The oils of almond, Brazil nut, hazelnut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut were extracted using two solvent extraction systems, namely, hexane and chloroform/methanol. The chloroform/methanol system afforded a higher oil yield for each tree nut type examined (pine nut ...
Bogevik A S - - 2008
Despite several studies aimed at evaluating the positional and fatty acid specificity of fish triacylglycerol (TAG) digestive lipases, there is still much uncertainty regarding these issues. The aim of the present study was therefore to address these questions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Crude luminal midgut extracts were collected ...
Virot Matthieu - - 2008
An improved process of Soxhlet extraction assisted by microwave, called microwave-integrated Soxhlet (MIS) is proposed for the extraction of oils and fats from different food matrixes such as oleaginous seeds, meat and bakery products. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology and reached from a central ...
Siew Chee Kiong - - 2008
The ability of sugar beet pectin to stabilize 20% w/w limonene oil-in-water emulsions has been investigated. The size of the oil droplets as determined by laser diffraction measurements decreased from about 15 mum to about 6 mum when the pectin concentration increased from 0.05% to 2% w/w but leveled off ...
Rashid Umer - - 2008
Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. ...
Dong Meidui - - 2008
Canola flake was investigated as a potential substrate for fungal conversion to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)-added oil in a 7l fermenter. The results showed that yields of total oil were reduced 9-22% compared to initial oil in the canola flake, but as high as 445mg/l arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n6) ...
Kodad O - - 2008
Oil content and fatty acid composition were determined for two years in the kernel oil of eight cultivars and 47 advanced self-compatible almond genotypes developed in an almond breeding program. Considerable variation between genotypes was found for all parameters. Oil content ranged from 48% to 67% of the total kernel ...
Dyer John M - - 2008
The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years there has been increasing use of these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, ...
Durrett Timothy P - - 2008
Triacylglycerols produced by plants are one of the most energy-rich and abundant forms of reduced carbon available from nature. Given their chemical similarities, plant oils represent a logical substitute for conventional diesel, a non-renewable energy source. However, as plant oils are too viscous for use in modern diesel engines, they ...
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