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Eppendorfer W H - - 1994
In pot experiments with greatly differing rates of N, P, K, and S, and 3 levels of water, dry matter (DM) yields of tubers varied from 28 to 454 g/pot. Especially P-, K- and S-deficiency reduced the starch content of boiled potatoes, from P from 74 to 59% in DM. ...
Bourgeron T - - 1994
We report an inborn error of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fumarase deficiency, in two siblings born to first cousin parents. They presented with progressive encephalopathy, dystonia, leucopenia, and neutropenia. Elevation of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid and high fumarate excretion in the urine led us to investigate the activities of ...
Liu Y Y - - 1994
The relative proportions (% of total fatty acids) of odd-chain (15:0-29:0) and long-chain (22:0-30:0) saturated fatty acids in phospholipids of biotin-deficient rat lymphocytes were significantly increased as compared with biotin-supplemented rats, and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in the former was significantly decreased mainly due ...
Das U N - - 1994
Coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension and diabetes mellitus are more common in Indians compared to their incidence in the Western population. The exact reason for this is not known. One of the risk factors for the development of and complications due to CAD, hypertension and diabetes mellitus could be hyperinsulinemia ...
Sacks G S - - 1994
This case report describes the failure of topical vegetable oils containing esters of linoleic acid to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency in a critically ill patient with trauma. A 40-year-old black man injured in a motor vehicle accident developed essential fatty acid deficiency after being maintained on long-term, fat-free parenteral ...
Moore L V - - 1994
Cellular fatty acid profiles were determined for species in 33 genera of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli and were confirmed to be a useful taxonomic tool. Most of the genera could be differentiated by visual inspection of their profiles. The three genus pairs that were most difficult to distinguish visually (Bacteroides and ...
Cleland L G - - 1994
A female subject dependent on long-term total parenteral nutrition developed an aversion and noncompliance to a prescribed weekly lipid infusion designed to meet essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements. Fatty acids (FA) in the subject's plasma and isolated peripheral blood neutrophils were analyzed in search of biochemical evidence of EFA deficiency. ...
Tsao C Y - - 1994
Infantile acid maltase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease that invariably leads to death in the first 2 years of life. Debrancher deficiency, also an autosomal recessive disease, however, carriers a slowly progressive course. We report a hypotonic infant with a typical clinical course of infantile acid maltase deficiency in ...
Seiler N - - 1994
Mice with the X-chromosomal sparse-fur (spf) mutation are an animal model of some hereditary deficiencies of ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) in man. Orotic aciduria and hyperammonaemia are the most conspicuous metabolic changes in these diseases. Selective inactivation of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) by 5-fluoromethylornithine raises endogenous ornithine concentrations so that citrulline formation ...
Gerr F - - 1994
Because of its favorable side effects profile, the oral chelating agent dimercaptosuccinic acid is often used for treatment of lead intoxication. We report a case of a 45-year-old black male with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and a 17 year history of occupational lead exposure who developed hemolysis during treatment with dimercaptosuccinic ...
Marklová E - - 1994
Biotinidase deficiency is an inherited, autosomal recessive disorder involving gluconeogenesis, synthesis of fatty acids and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. As the cutaneous manifestations have been described to be a prominent part of the clinical picture, we tested a group of children and adults with various skin lesions. The ...
Sardesai V M - - 1993
Molybdenum is found in most foods, with legumes, dairy products, and meats being the richest sources. This metal is considered essential because it is part of a complex called molybdenum cofactor that is required for the three mammalian enzymes xanthine oxidase (XO), aldehyde oxidase (AO), and sulfite oxidase (SO). XO ...
Noda H - - 1993
The characteristic effects of sulfatide and its derivatives on the stability of small unilamellar vesicles of egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes in phosphate-buffered saline were investigated by measuring the leakage of carboxyfluorescein that had been entrapped in these vesicles. We found that both the sulfate group and a long acyl chain, such ...
Rizzo W B - - 1993
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of congenital ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spastic diplegia or tetraplegia. The ichthyosis is generalized in distribution, and histological features of the skin include hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, acanthosis, and a mildly thickened granular layer. Electron microscopy shows lamellar membranous inclusions ...
Leichsenring M - - 1993
Scaly skin alterations on the surface of the legs are frequently found in African children. Because similar signs occur in essential fatty acid deficiency, the fatty acid status of a group of African children with (n = 10) and without (n = 27) such skin alterations was determined. Analysis of ...
Harington A - - 1993
We have analysed a new gene, CEM1, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Inactivation of this gene leads to a respiratory-deficient phenotype. The deduced protein sequence shows strong similarities with beta-keto-acyl synthases or condensing enzymes. Typically, enzymes of this class are involved in the synthesis of fatty acids or similar molecules. An analysis ...
Back A L - - 1993
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a genetic disease characterized clinically by severe bacterial infections, and biochemically by a deficiency in the surface expression of the CD11/CD18 leukocyte integrins. We studied a teenage girl with the moderate deficiency phenotype of LAD. B-lymphoblastoid cells from this patient displayed approximately 5% of normal ...
Horrobin D F - - 1993
Linoleic acid is the main dietary essential fatty acid (EFA). To be fully utilized by the body, it must be metabolized to a range of other substances. The first step in this pathway is delta-6-desaturation to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). This step is slow and rate-limiting, particularly in humans. If delta-6-desaturation ...
Murphy M E - - 1993
Foraging birds finding foods containing protein of various quality could satisfy their amino acid needs by either 1) choosing only those foods that contain a suitable array of essential amino acids, or 2) choosing foods in amounts that permit complementation of constituent amino acids. We studied the abilities of sparrows ...
Florant G L - - 1993
We investigated the effect of an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient diet on hibernation patterns in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Fatty acid (FA) analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from animals maintained for 2 mo on the EFA-deficient diet suggested that little or no EFAs were present in the gonadal or ...
Gietzen D W - - 1993
Food intake is rapidly and reliably reduced when animals are offered diets that result in an essential amino acid deficiency, such as those used in the imbalanced amino acid diet (IMB) paradigm. There seem to be at least three phases in the responses of rats to IMB: 1) In order ...
Lee E J - - 1993
To determine the incidence of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency during short term fat-free parenteral nutrition, the authors investigated prospectively the EFA status of nine low birthweight (1145 +/- 343 g) preterm (28.2 +/- 1.9 weeks) infants, in whom delivery of dietary fat was delayed postnatally for 2-9 days. Serial ...
Coles A M - - 1993
The intracellular development of chlamydiae in McCoy cells incubated in Eagle's minimal essential medium lacking all 13 amino acids was examined both by fluorescence and electron microscopy and by infectivity titration. Aberrant development occurred in almost all inclusions of strains of Chlamydia trachomatis and C. psittaci with the production of ...
Marcelo C L - - 1992
The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) are essential for normal skin function and structure, both as eicosanoid precursors and as components of lipids forming cell membranes. Adult human keratinocytes grow optimally in serum-free medium (MCDB 153) that contains no fatty acids. These keratinocytes ...
Perper J A - - 1992
A case of sudden death associated with fatty liver and encephalopathy is described in a 4-year old white boy with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. The death was caused by hypoglycemia triggered by fasting and vomiting associated with a minor viral infection. The differential diagnosis of the hepatoencephalopathy is ...
Calingasan N Y - - 1992
This experiment assessed the importance of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) for feeding stimulated by blockade of glucose utilization (glucoprivic feeding) and fatty acid oxidation (lipoprivic feeding). The PVN was investigated because it is innervated by neurons residing in the area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract (AP/NTS) region ...
Furth E E - - 1992
A stable essential fatty acid-deficient cell type, known as HepG2-EFD, was derived from the lipoprotein-producing human hepatoma cell line HepG2. These cells are particularly useful for quantitative studies involving essential fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 fatty acids) in secreted lipoproteins. Radiolabeled essential fatty acids can be delivered to these cells ...
Darmstadt G L - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Three percent to 13% of patients with cystic fibrosis present with protein-energy malnutrition that is characterized by hypoproteinemia, edema, and anemia and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cutaneous manifestations of malnutrition are rare in patients with cystic fibrosis and have been attributed to deficiencies of protein, zinc, ...
Ramesh G - - 1992
An earlier study showed that essential fatty acids and their metabolites can kill tumor cells in vitro. This tumoricidal action can be correlated to an increase in generation of free radicals in the tumor cells. Evening primrose oil (EPO) is a rich source of linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. We ...
Dvorak B - - 1992
The paper describes an effect of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on the development of the rat thymus and pups' immune system. From birth until being weaned (22nd day), the pups were hand-fed artificial milk diets containing a low (EFA-D) or high (EFA-R) proportion of EFA in the lipid fraction. ...
Gateley C A - - 1992
Breast pain (mastalgia) and macroscopic breast cysts present commonly. Mastalgia may be improved by dietary manipulation to reduce saturated fat or supplement essential fatty acid intake. Fatty acid profiles were measured in women with mastalgia and breast cysts, before and during treatment with evening primrose oil, a rich source of ...
Das U N - - 1992
Psoriasis is a common disorder characterized by marked increases in keratinocyte proliferation, abnormal patterns of keratinocyte differentiation, prominent alterations in dermal capillary vasculature and the presence of dermal and epidermal T cells, monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. It is now known that psoriasis can occur due to abnormalities in essential fatty acid ...
Vaddadi K S - - 1992
There is good background evidence to suggest that essential fatty acids and their eicosanoid derivatives may play a role in schizophrenia and in with tardive dyskinesia. Trials involving treatment with essential fatty acids, or eicosanoids or drugs which stimulate eicosanoid synthesis have shown modestly promising results. Particularly favourable outcomes in ...
Prendiville J S - - 1992
Children, especially infants, require adequate calories and nutrients to meet the high demands of normal growth and development; protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals are all important in achieving this goal. Malnutrition results from deficiency in one or more of these basic nutrients. It may be caused by (1) ...
Levy E - - 1992
The structure and function of enterocyte membranes are particularly sensitive to the degree of fatty acid saturation. The objective of the present study was to assess intestinal fat transport in essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient animal models. Both the digestive and absorptive phases leading to the formation and the secretion of ...
Amin H J - - 1992
As a result of impaired fatty acid oxidation, a characteristic urinary dicarboxylic aciduria occurs in the riboflavin deficient animal. We compared the occurrence of riboflavin deficiency induced by phototherapy with changes in urinary organic acid profiles in 8 full-term, breast-fed neonates who received phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia, and in 10 full-term, ...
Santos C F - - 1992
1. To investigate the possible role of essential fatty acid deficiency in host cell/parasite interaction, weanling germfree (GF) and conventional (CV) CFW mice maintained on an essential fatty acid-deficient (-) or a control (+) diet for 110 days were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. 2. Blood parasitemia indicated that the disease ...
Cunnane S C - - 1992
Developmental changes in the content and composition of major organ lipid pools are not well known. Our objective was to assess quantitatively the changes in lipids, particularly those containing long-chain fatty acids, in the placenta and the brain, liver, and carcass of the fetal and suckling rat. Pregnant dams were ...
Marchioni E - - 1992
The effects of dermorphin on EEG and autonomic variables are compared with the effects of 2 analogues and 2 homologues, all administered intracerebroventricularly in the rabbit. Dermorphin was the most effective in modifying all considered parameters: increase of cortically derived and calculated total power, bradycardia, respiratory depression and hypothermia. The ...
Gutcher G R - - 1991
This study was designed to determine the amount of linoleic acid required to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency in premature infants. This was achieved by infusing 1 g intravenous lipid.kg-1.d-1 over 18-20 h beginning on day 2 and increasing by 0.5 g.kg-1.d-1 to a maximum of 3 g.kg-1.d-1. The actual ...
Mock D M - - 1991
This article reviews current knowledge concerning the dermatologic manifestations of biotin deficiency. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as an essential cofactor for four carboxylases, each of which catalyzes an essential step in intermediary metabolism. For example, acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in fatty acid elongation. In infants, ...
Smith L J - - 1991
Patients with cystic fibrosis may still have a significant degree of steatorrhea despite adequate pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid that possibly improves the micellar phase of fat digestion. Thirteen children with cystic fibrosis and a significant degree of steatorrhea (> 13 g/d) were enrolled in ...
Vilbergsson G - - 1991
The relative fatty acid composition of lecithin was measured in maternal and cord blood serum in human pregnancies at risk for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (n = 28) as compared to controls (n = 20). In the IUGR cases (n = 13) linoleic acid was lower in maternal samples but ...
Takamura H - - 1991
Soybean seeds contain three lipoxygenase isozymes. The functions of these lipoxygenase isozymes in n-hexanal generation were investigated by using mutant lines which lack two or three isozymes. In the presence of linoleic acid, the level of n-hexanal produced was highest in the lipoxygenase-1, -3 double deficient line, followed by the ...
Horrobin D F - - 1991
Essential fatty acids are important constituents of the brain. There is evidence that levels in blood of certain essential fatty acids and their eicosanoid derivatives may be abnormal. We now report that in the frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients there are significant differences from normal in the fatty acid composition ...
Greene H L - - 1991
Because glycogen storage disease type IA (GSD-IA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia that promote a marked elevation in blood triglyceride levels, we evaluated plasma lipid levels in 12 patients with GSD-IA on a regular basis. Six of the 12 patients had plasma fatty acid composition measured; because of ...
Watkins B A - - 1991
More than thirty-five years have passed since essential fatty acid requirements were demonstrated for poultry. Subsequent studies were conducted to establish a recommended level of linoleic acid for growing poultry. Although a requirement of 1% linoleic acid is suggested, a critical evaluation of the nutritional and metabolic significance of essential ...
Kaiya H - - 1991
Plasma phospholipid and cholesterol ester fatty acid levels were measured in samples from normal individuals, schizophrenics, and patients with affective and paranoid disorders in Japan. The schizophrenics were divided into groups with normal and reduced platelet sensitivity to the aggregation-inhibiting effects of prostaglandin (PG) E1. As in samples from schizophrenics ...
Sanjurjo P - - 1991
In an infant with neonatal citrullinaemia therapy was instituted on day 1 of life with a low-protein diet and oral supplements of arginine, alpha-keto-acids, essential amino acids and carnitine. The latter may have contributed to the excellent clinical outcome, as evidenced by normal growth and satisfactory psychomotor development at 3 ...
Pettei M J - - 1991
Serum phospholipid fatty acid patterns were determined by gas chromatography in four infants with hepatobiliary disease receiving a formula with a high content of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) oil. All four infants demonstrated signs of essential fatty acid deficiency, characterized by decreased arachidonic acid and increased palmitoleic and oleic acids. All had ...
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