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Results 251 - 300 of 767
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Yehuda S - - 1999
Major advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry of essential fatty acids (FA) and their interactions with metabolic pathways leading to the production of longer and more complex fatty acids and lipids. Less understood are the roles played by FA which are known to affect neurotransmitters, peptides, releasing factors, ...
Fletcher J M - - 1999
2-Octynoic acid was administered by intraperitoneal injection to fasted Sprague-Dawley rats in an attempt to simulate medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. The resultant urine organic acid profile showed a mild dicarboxylic aciduria but lacked the glycine conjugates characteristic of MCAD deficiency. Further studies with infused 13C(4)-3-hydroxybutyrate and 13C(2)-acetoacetate demonstrated ...
Goodman-Lowe G D - - 1999
Proximate nutrients, gross energy content, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid composition were determined for teleost, cephalopod and crustacean prey of the Hawaiian monk seal. Crude protein was highest in the octopus, Octopus cyanea (80.0%), crude fat was highest in the Muraenid teleost, Gymnothorax eurostus (14.1%), whereas crude ash was ...
Mülling C K - - 1999
The structure of the hoof epidermis is the link between nutrition and horn quality. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship of single structures in the process of keratinization and cornification of bovine hoof epidermis to certain nutritional factors such as lipids, minerals and vitamins. Furthermore, we ...
Burke P A - - 1999
Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) manifest a wide variety of functional abnormalities that lead eventually to their death. Such patients also often have low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carbon length 20 or greater in plasma total lipids, triacylglycerols, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. We hypothesize that, ...
Wang Y - - 1999
Ruminal and total tract digestion of the amino acids (AA) in full fat canola seed was studied in two in situ experiments with three nonlactating, ruminally and duodenally fistulated dairy cows. Whole, full fat canola seed was hand-cracked or micronized (an infrared heat treatment) for 90 s and then studied ...
Wang C X - - 1999
Effects of dietary amino acid deficiency on interstitial levels of norepinephrine (NE) were assessed in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). Microdialysates, collected from the VMH, were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Ingestion of an amino acid imbalanced diet, which causes a rapid deficiency of the ...
Green R - - 1999
Folate plays a key role in nucleic acid synthesis. As a consequence, the most conspicuous complication of folate deficiency or of derangements of folate metabolism is megaloblastic macrocytic anemia caused by interdiction of normal proliferation of rapidly dividing bone marrow cells. Other rapidly dividing cells, including those in the gastrointestinal ...
Rodríguez-Meléndez R - - 1999
Although the role of vitamins as prosthetic groups of enzymes is well known, their participation in the regulation of their genetic expression has been much less explored. We studied the effect of biotin on the genetic expression of rat liver mitochondrial carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase (PC), propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA ...
Rodehutscord M - - 1999
A total of 37 dose-response experiments with essential amino acids performed with rainbow trout and broiler chicken were re-evaluated with different mathematical approaches: an exponential model, a four-parameter logistic function, the saturation kinetics model and the broken line approach. The different approaches were compared both with regard to the goodness ...
Cali┼čkan M - - 1999
A five-year-old boy with late-infantile (juvenile) form of acid maltase deficiency is presented. His symptoms were restricted to skeletal muscle. There is commonly a correlation between the amount of residual acid maltase activity and the severity of the clinical picture. Although the residual enzyme level was very low in our ...
Mayer M - - 1999
Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, their metabolism and their effects represent a ubiquitous system important for cellular membrane stability, for immunological and inflammatory regulations, for inter- and intracellular signalling. There are complex links to other regulatory and effector mechanisms - to the reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite anion, to ...
Schürer N Y - - 1999
Epidermal linoleic acid, i.e. essential fatty acid (EFA), is essential for cutaneous barrier function. Cultured human keratinocytes, routinely used for studies of lipid metabolism, are grown in a keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM), under conditions that reveal EFA-deficient cells. Here, fatty acid (FA) uptake was analysed in human adult keratinocytes grown ...
Heger J - - 1998
Two N balance experiments using growing pigs were conducted to study the effect of essential:total (E:T) N ratio on N retention and utilization. Purified diets contained casein and crystalline amino acids as the sole sources of N. E:T values ranged from 0.25 to 0.86 while either the concentration of total ...
Louw L - - 1998
In the first part of this study, the possible role of essential total fatty acids and their metabolites during cervical carcinogenesis was investigated. Since membrane lipids play a key role in cell proliferation and differentiation, disturbances in the fatty acid compositions of cell membranes and the modulation of membrane fatty ...
Peter C - - 1998
Trichothiodystrophy leading to generalized trichorrhexis nodosa-like hair changes with abnormal hair breakage is described in a 4-year-old girl. A marked deficiency of sulphur and the sulphur-containing amino acid, cystine, was detected in the biochemical analysis of the hair. Further investigation of the hair showed the morphological criteria of trichothiodystrophy. Commonly ...
Jeppesen P B - - 1998
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN), initiated in patients with severe malabsorption or decreased oral intake, may exhaust stores of essential fatty acids and cause clinical manifestations, mainly dermatitis. Plasma fatty acid profiles were measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 37 healthy control subjects and 56 patients receiving HPN. The concentration (% by ...
Laufs S - - 1998
The tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor is essential for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases that are involved in phenylalanine degradation and catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis. Furthermore, BH4 is an essential and limiting cofactor for all types of nitric oxide synthases. BH4 deficiency results in hyperphenylalaninemia and monoamine neurotransmitter depletion associated with progressive ...
Lunn P G - - 1998
A case of kwashiorkor in a British child of Caucasian origin is described. The 5-year-old boy was referred to hospital for investigation of a persistent anaemia, but on examination was found to have classical features of kwashiorkor. He was stunted with both height and weight below the fifth centile and ...
Olivieri O - - 1998
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that arachidonic:linoleic acid ratio of erythrocytes of essential hypertension patients is greater than normal. OBJECTIVE: To investigate fatty acid composition, capability for adhesion to biological substrate and expression of beta2 integrins of leucocytes obtained from peripheral blood and skin window exudate of essential hypertension patients. DESIGN: ...
Birdsall T C - - 1998
Taurine is a conditionally-essential amino acid which is not utilized in protein synthesis, but rather is found free or in simple peptides. Taurine has been shown to be essential in certain aspects of mammalian development, and in vitro studies in various species have demonstrated that low levels of taurine are ...
Dippenaar N - - 1998
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the pattern of 11C-carnitine uptake after various treatment regimens in a myopathic carnitine-deficient patient and two normal volunteers, using a whole body counter specially adapted for positron emission. One carnitine-deficient patient and two normal volunteers were scanned after an intravenous injection of ...
Socha P - - 1998
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for the growth and early development of the central nervous system. Cholestatic infants suffer from fat malabsorption and disturbed lipid metabolism and therefore may be at risk of developing polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion. The aims of this study were to determine essential fatty acid ...
Enomoto T M - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to determine if the growth retardation often associated with sickle cell anaemia could be related in part to a deficiency of essential fatty acids. We reported recently that children with sickle cell disease in Jos, Nigeria have lower levels of serum amino acids and ...
Gutteridge J M - - 1998
Several unrelated diseases show plasma and tissue fatty acid patterns characteristic of those seen in Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency Disease (EFADD). A common feature occurring in all these diseases is oxidative stress. We hypothesize that reactive oxygen species or products of oxidative damage, particularly those derived from lipids, act as ...
Curto R - - 1998
A modelling approach is used to analyse diseases associated with purine metabolism in man. The specific focus is on deficiencies in two enzymes, hypoxanthine:guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and adenylosuccinate lyase. These deficiencies can lead to a number of symptoms, including neurological dysfunctions and mental retardation. Although the biochemical mechanisms of dysfunctions associated ...
Holman R T - - 1998
Although linoleic and linolenic acids have been known to be necessary for normal growth and dermal function since 1930, the omega 3 essential fatty acids (EFA) have not received much attention until recently. The two families of acids are metabolized by the same enzymes, making them competitive. Gross deficiencies of ...
Sena L P - - 1998
In the western Sahel, indigenous plants become important staples when cereal harvests are inadequate to support populations inhabiting that region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrient content of several of these edible wild plants. The leaves of the following seven plant foods were analyzed: ...
Freiberger C E - - 1998
Wild plants play an important role in the diet of the inhabitants of Niger. These plants tend to be drought-resistant and are gathered both in times of plenty as well as times of need. Used in everyday cooking, famine foods may be an important source of nutrients. The goal of ...
Roulet M - - 1997
Essential fatty acid deficiency is well known in cystic fibrosis patients, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. It might be related to protein-energy malnutrition which is a common feature of cystic fibrosis or to some specific defects in fatty acid metabolism. To avoid the deleterious effects of protein-energy malnutrition, this study ...
Sanjurjo P - - 1997
Previous studies have shown that phenylketonuric patients display a deficiency in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. A study has now been performed on 13 cases (5 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 8 with urea cycle disorders) whose dietary treatment also implies a limitation in protein-rich food. Plasma and red-cell phospholipid fatty acid ...
Fraser R B - - 1997
Multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin induce lymphocytic insulitis and autoimmune diabetes in male CD-1 mice. Prior to the onset of insulitis, macrophages infiltrate the islets (single cell insulitis) and presumably help initiate the lymphocytic response directed at streptozotocin-induced neoantigens on islet beta cells. Essential fatty acid deficiency ameliorates the lymphocytic ...
Socha P - - 1997
The liver plays a central role in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. We studied the relationship between essential fatty acid (EFA) status and indicators of liver function in 15 children with chronic cholestasis aged 9 months to 3.4 years (median, 1.3 years). Compared with 13 control children, the patients ...
Kaul S - - 1997
The effect of retinol deficiency and curcumin/turmeric on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid profile was studied in liver, kidney, spleen and brain microsomes of rats. Results revealed an increase in lipid peroxidation in retinol deficient liver by 32%, kidney 30%, spleen 24% and brain 43% compared to the controls. Feeding ...
Zhang L - - 1997
A treatment of intravenous infusion of glucose, amino acids, and emulsion enriched in essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic, and linolenic acids were given to 30 pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and 28 non-EFAs treated cases as controls. There was a marked gain in fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and ...
Minich D M - - 1997
The adequate supply of essential fatty acids (EFA) to the body depends upon sufficient dietary intake and subsequent efficient intestinal absorption. Lipid malabsorption is not only a leading cause of EFA deficiency (EFAD), but also occurs secondarily to EFAD. Understanding the relationship between EFAD and lipid malabsorption may be helpful ...
Melin T - - 1997
Essential fatty acids are interconverted by desaturases and elongases to eicosanoid precursors. In essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) an increased hepatic interconversion of linoleic acid (18:2) to arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) has been demonstrated in vivo. We now cultured Hep G2 cells under EFAD conditions. 20:3n-6 appeared in EFAD cells, but ...
Ghioni C - - 1997
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed either a control diet containing fish oil or an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficient diet containing only hydrogenated coconut oil and palmitic acid as lipid source (93.4% saturated fatty acids) for 14 weeks and the fatty acid compositions of individual phospholipid classes from skin ...
Fulbright R M - - 1997
The fluorescent probe diI was used to study the lateral mobility of lipids in in vitro strains of living adult human keratinocytes grown in four different media. One medium was essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) and low in calcium ion, a medium known to yield cells that proliferate rapidly and ...
Tietze I N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hyperfiltration induced by amino acid infusion can be influenced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. DESIGN: We studied the acute effects of ramipril in 12 healthy control subjects and in 14 patients with essential hypertension. We studied also the effects of 2 months' treatment with ramipril ...
Russo C - - 1997
Desaturase enzymes are responsible for the conversion of essential fatty acids to the longer-chain eicosanoid precursors. These enzymes require zinc as an essential cofactor, and the following ratios-C20:4/C18:2, C20:5/C18:3, and C22:6/C20:5-are considered indexes of their activity. We analyzed these parameters in plasma and erythrocyte membranes of 105 essential hypertensive patients, ...
Reece M S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate whether maternal and fetal omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acid status play possible roles in the pathogenesis of preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: Essential fatty acid status in blood and trophoblast tissues was measured in (1) women and their newborns with spontaneous preterm ...
Jeppesen P B - - 1997
Essential fatty acid deficiency is commonly described in patients receiving parenteral nutrition, but the occurrence in patients with severe fat malabsorption not receiving parenteral nutrition is uncertain. One hundred twelve patients were grouped according to their degree of fat malabsorption: group 1, < 10% (n = 52); group 2, 10-25% ...
König D - - 1997
The immunologic response to exercise comprises numerous alterations within the immune system, but how these processes are regulated is still largely unknown. Exercise-related immunological changes include signs of inflammation, such as release of inflammatory mediators, activation of various white blood cell lines and complement, and induction of acute phase proteins. ...
Eynard A R - - 1997
Many experimental, clinical and epidemiological data indicate that n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids are therapeutic nutrients which may delay the development as well as improve the course of cancer. The present hypothesis correlates well with these data and it is proposed that chronic essential fatty acid deficiency, when coexisting ...
Lane M - - 1997
The amino acid requirements of the preimplantation mouse embryo in culture changes as development proceeds from the zygote to the blastocyst stage. Eagle's non-essential amino acids and glutamine significantly increased cleavage rates during the first four cell cycles, while Eagle's essential amino acids without glutamine did not confer any benefit ...
Schoemaker M - - 1997
Both an enzyme electrode and enzyme column with immobilized lipoxygenase, respectively, were used for the determination of essential fatty acids. The former was applied in a batch system, the latter was part of a fully automated flow injection analysis (FIA)-system. The oxygen consumption due to the lipoxygenase catalysed oxygenation of ...
King T S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: A 30-year-old woman with celiac sprue had progressive weight loss, myalgia, limb-girdle weakness, and dysphagia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Barium swallow showed an atonic esophagus, and scintigraphic study confirmed esophageal dysmotility. Skeletal muscle biopsy showed characteristic appearances of acid maltase deficiency, which was confirmed by a reduction of leukocyte acid ...
Lloyd-Still J D - - 1996
Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency is a predisposing factor for pulmonary infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the two major pathogenic microorganisms in cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this study was to investigate the essential fatty acid status of CF patients from infancy to 20 years old. Plasma ...
Tolosa de Talamoni N G - - 1996
Steady-state fluorescence polarization and lipid composition studies were undertaken on intestinal basolateral membranes (BLM) from chicks adapted to a calcium deficient (low Ca) or a phosphorous deficient diet (low P). The fluorescence anisotropy showed that fluidity of intestinal BLM was increased by the mineral deprivations, but the response of the ...
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