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Wu Jian Guo - - 2004
Genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE) interaction effects for 7 non-essential amino acids in milled rice were analyzed for two year data by using the genetic models based on mixed linear model approaches for quantitative traits of triploid endosperm. Nine cytoplasmic, male sterile lines as females and five ...
Koeller D M - - 2004
In vitro studies suggest that excitotoxic cell damage is an underlying mechanism for the acute striatal damage in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency. It is believed to result from an imbalance of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission induced by the accumulating organic acids 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OH-GA) and to a lesser extent glutaric ...
O'Brien Diane M - - 2003
Heliconius and Laparus butterflies exhibit a unique pollen-collecting behaviour that enhances lifespan and fecundity. The specific nutritional contribution of pollen, however, had not been previously demonstrated. We used stable isotope variation to trace the carbon flow into eggs from corn pollen provided experimentally to ovipositing female Heliconius charitonia, and to ...
Rao Satish P Ramachandra - - 2003
In order that malaria be successfully contained, it is important that one has a clear understanding of the normal physiology and biochemistry of the parasite essential to its survival in its human host. Until very recently, the conventional approaches to antimalarial chemotherapy have consistently been plagued with the uncanny ability ...
Watkins Steven M - - 2003
Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) catalyzes the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to form phosphatidylcholine (PC) and represents one of the two major pathways for PC biosynthesis. Mice with a homozygous disruption of the PEMT gene are dependent on the 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (CDP-choline) pathway for the synthesis of PC and develop severe liver steatosis when ...
Cunnane Stephen C - - 2003
The term 'essential fatty acid' is ambiguous and inappropriately inclusive or exclusive of many polyunsaturated fatty acids. When applied most rigidly to linoleate and alpha-linolenate, this term excludes the now well accepted but conditional dietary need for two long chain polyunsaturates (arachidonate and docosahexaenoate) during infancy. In addition, because of ...
Comhaire Frank H - - 2003
Recently, concerns have been raised about the presumptive increased risk of serious undesirable side effects in children born after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These treatments must, therefore, be reserved as the ultimate option after evidence-based and cause-directed treatment of the male patient with deficient semen has been exhausted. ...
Blevins J Ernie - - 2003
Animals decrease intake of an indispensable amino acid deficient diet, due in part to decreased dietary limiting amino acid concentrations within the anterior piriform cortex (APC). In addition to studies supporting a primary role for the APC in this phenomenon, recent studies have shown that the lateral hypothalamus (LH), which ...
Zaid H - - 2003
Casuarina glauca develops proteoid (cluster) roots in response to Fe deficiency. This study set out to investigate the possible involvement of ethylene in the initiation and/or the morphogenesis of cluster roots (CR). For this purpose, the effect of Ag+ added as silver thiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action has been ...
Rubin-Bejerano Ifat - - 2003
The transcriptional profiles of yeast cells that have been phagocytosed by either human neutrophils or monocytes were compared by using whole genome arrays. After phagocytosis by neutrophils, both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans respond by inducing genes of the methionine and arginine pathways. Neither of these pathways is induced upon ...
Wary Claire - - 2003
Muscle glycogen storage was measured by in vivo, natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in distal and proximal lower limb segments of patients suffering from adult-onset acid maltase deficiency. Interleaved T1-weighted acquisitions of glycogen and creatine served to quantify glycogen excess. For acid maltase deficient patients (n=11), glycogen:creatine was ...
Maclean Roderick - - 2003
Vasodilation induced by methylnicotinate, a fatty acid- and cyclooxygenase-dependent process, is reduced or absent in patients with schizophrenia. This phenomenon has been suggested to be useful as a diagnostic test for the illness. To determine whether reduced flushing is specific to schizophrenia and is caused by a deficiency in membrane ...
Trebble T M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Active paediatric Crohn's disease is associated with nutritional deficiencies and altered nutrient intake. The availability of essential fatty acids (linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids) or their derivatives (arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids) may alter in plasma and cell membrane phospholipid in protein-energy malnutrition in children and in Crohn's disease in adults. ...
de Assis Dênis R - - 2003
The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of octanoic acid, which accumulates in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and in Reye syndrome, on key enzyme activities of energy metabolism in the cerebral cortex of young rats. The activities of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, ...
Wood Lisa G - - 2003
While several studies have demonstrated essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in plasma and tissue lipids of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, the reasons for this deficiency are not well established. It is believed that reduced EFA intake, malabsorption of fat, altered desaturase/lipase activity and defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ...
Cabib Enrico - - 2003
Chitin is a minor but essential component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. In wild-type, chitin synthase II is required for the formation of primary septa and chitin synthase III (CSIII) is not essential. However, in chs2 mutants CSIII becomes essential for the formation of aberrant septa. We examined which ...
Heyd V L - - 2003
The essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) is a metabolic condition related to cancer development. We studied the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and eicosatrienoic acid (ETA, 20:3 n-9), an essential fatty acid (EFA) and non-EFA respectively, on tumour cells parameters linked to tumour progression and metastases. Human tumour ...
Koehnle Thomas J - - 2003
Omnivores must obtain diets balanced with respect to amino acids to support growth and protein synthesis. The standard paradigm used to study behavioral responses to amino acid deficiency combines deficient diets with dietary novelty. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of amino acid deficiency on the ...
Herrmann Thomas - - 2003
The fatty acid transport protein family is a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins that are involved in the cellular uptake and metabolism of long and very long chain fatty acids. However, little is known about their respective physiological roles. To analyze the functional significance of fatty acid transport protein 4 ...
Endo Fumio - - 2003
The activity of the enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) is regulated by transcription factors. Mutations in the HPD locus are related to two known distinct diseases: hereditary tyrosinemia type 3 and hawkinsinuria. HPD-deficient mice are a good model with which to examine the biological effects of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, which is ...
Koch Richard - - 2003
Six subjects with classical phenylketonuria (PKU) were treated with large neutral amino acid supplements (PreKUnil, Nilab, Dk) at 0.4g/kg/day in equally divided doses three times each day on an increased natural protein diet. All six subjects had low or deficient blood concentrations of both tyrosine and tryptophan, which are precursors ...
Rousseau Cécile - - 2003
Lipids that are uniquely found in the cell envelope of pathogenic mycobacteria, such as those containing multiple methyl-branched long-chain fatty acids, have long been thought to play a role in host-pathogen interactions. The recent construction by Dubey et al. (2002) Mol Microbiol 45: 1451-1459, of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant that ...
Bistrian Bruce R - - 2003
The clinical implications of the metabolism of the 2 essential fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, are most clearly related to the membrane phospholipid concentrations of their elongation and desaturation products, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid. Levels of these very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids can be altered by diet, ...
de Koning Tom J - - 2003
The amino acid L-serine, one of the so-called non-essential amino acids, plays a central role in cellular proliferation. L-Serine is the predominant source of one-carbon groups for the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and deoxythymidine monophosphate. It has long been recognized that, in cell cultures, L-serine is a conditional ...
Zhao Yinsuo - - 2003
The cyclopropane fatty acid synthase gene (cfa) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the clostridial ptb promoter. The function of the cfa gene was confirmed by complementation of an Escherichia coli cfa-deficient strain in terms of fatty acid composition and growth rate under ...
Hashimoto Masayuki - - 2003
We found that a carbonic anhydrase, YadF, is essential for cell growth in the absence of another carbonic anhydrase, CynT, in Escherichia coli. However, mutant strains lacking both of them grew at high CO2 concentrations (5%), where non-enzymatic mechanisms generate HCO3-. This suggests that these carbonic anhydrases are essential because ...
Wang Qinli - - 2003
To study the role of boron in pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Picea meyeri Rehd. et Wils., pollen grains were cultured in standard medium or boron-deficient medium. Effects of boron on the localization of pectins and callose in the walls of pollen tubes were observed by laser scanning ...
Cohen Burton D - - 2003
Guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) is one of the earliest uremic toxins isolated and its toxicity identified. Its metabolic origins have remained obscure until recently when a series of studies showed that it arose from the oxidation of argininosuccinic acid (ASA) by free radicals. The stimulus for this oxidation, occurring optimally in ...
Furuyama Kazumichi - - 2003
X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is due to deficient activity of erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2). We report here a patient who developed sideroblastic anemia at the age of 81 years while undergoing hemodialysis. The diagnosis of sideroblastic anemia was established by the presence of ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, and ...
Tomoda Hiroshi - - 2003
Fungal roselipins, discovered as inhibitors of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), consist of three parts; highly methylated C20 fatty acid, mannose and arabinitol. Demannosyl and/or dearabinitoyl roselipins were prepared chemically or enzymatically. Demannnosyl roselipins conserved the DGAT inhibitory activity, but the others lost the activity, indicating that the arabinitoyl fatty acid core ...
Orth M - - 2003
Membrane bound glycogen storage in muscle is characteristic for the lysosomal storage disorder acid maltase (acid alpha-glucosidase) deficiency while in phosphofructokinase and phosphorylase deficiency, glycogen is stored free in the cytoplasm. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined whether acid maltase deficiency had an effect on early endosomes, recycling endosomes and trans-Golgi network, ...
Matsuoka Hiroyuki - - 2003
In Nepal, we tested 300 males for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. Two subjects were G6PD deficient (0.67%). Compared with normal controls, G6PD activity was 12% and 26%, respectively. The hemoglobin concentration of these two subjects was normal. We extracted genomic DNA from whole blood and read all sequences of G6PD. ...
Khalil Mona M - - 2002
The present study aimed to reduce the caloric value of bread by substituting a part of wheat flour with artichoke bracts at levels of 5%, 10% and 15% without sacrificing taste, texture or acceptability. Moreover, considerable trials had been made to reduce zinc deficiency in wheat bread and fiber-enriched bread ...
Cooperman Jack M - - 2002
The amino acid histidine is metabolized to glutamic acid in mammalian tissue. Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) is an intermediary in this reaction, and tetrahydrofolic acid is the coenzyme that converts it to glutamic acid. A test for folate deficiency concerns the measurement of urinary FIGLU excretion after a histidine load. It ...
Cetin Irene - - 2002
Fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk of death and disease during neonatal, pediatric, and adult life. Postnatal deficits in essential fatty acids have been associated with the neural and vascular complications of premature neonates. We studied whether fetal-maternal fatty acid relationships are already impaired in utero ...
Lourenço R - - 2002
Taurine, a sulphur containing amino acid, is the most abundant intracellular amino acid in humans, and is implicated in numerous biological and physiological functions. This comprehensive overview explores areas, from its characterisation to its potential clinical benefit as a conditionally essential amino acid and a pharmaconutrient. In healthy individuals the ...
Saha Nirmalendu - - 2002
The air-breathing ureogenic walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) faces various environmental constraints throughout the year leading to the problem of accumulation of toxic ammonia. In the present study, the possible role of conversion of accumulated ammonia to various non-essential free amino acids (FAAs) was tested in this fish under hyper-ammonia stress ...
Nichols Buford L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Multiple enzyme deficiencies have been reported in some cases of congenital glucoamylase, sucrase, or lactase deficiency. Here we describe such a case and the investigations that we have made to determine the cause of this deficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 2.5 month-old infant, admitted with congenital lactase deficiency, failed ...
Carpenter Kenneth J - - 2002
Under experimental conditions, an acute nutrient deficiency (e.g., thiamin or folic acid) can be induced in both animal and human subjects. The signs and pathologic changes of an acute deficiency, however, may differ substantially from those seen clinically; often marginal deficiencies have been maintained over a long period of time.
Bruce McCune
Hypogymnia bryophila McCune is described as a new species of lichenized fungi from Portugal. Previously included under H. farinacea Zopf (syn. H. bitteriana (Zahlbr.) Räs) or H. austerodes (Nyl.) Räs., it often has terminal soralia similar to H. bitteri (Lynge) Ahti, as well as laminal soralia, but the soralia appear ...
Ling Pei-Ra - - 2002
Patients receiving home total parenteral nutrition (HTPN) are at risk for the development of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). This study examined the essential fatty acid status of patients on long-term HTPN for gut failure. Serum phospholipid and triglyceride fatty acids were measured in 11 patients and 10 healthy volunteers. ...
Koorts A M - - 2002
The fatty acid profile of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on maintenance haemodialysis treatment (MHT) is abnormal and results point towards an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. However, controversies still exist as to which of the essential fatty acids (EFAs) or EFA-products are decreased. In this study, the results of ...
Gesch C Bernard - - 2002
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that offenders consume diets lacking in essential nutrients and this could adversely affect their behaviour. AIMS: To test empirically if physiologically adequate intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids cause a reduction in antisocial behaviour. METHOD: Experimental, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of nutritional supplements on ...
Sévenier Robert - - 2002
Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We introduced the first enzyme involved ...
Middleton Stephen J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Essential fatty acid supplementation has been found to ameliorate certain chronic inflammatory diseases. This effect is thought to be mediated through the modulation of eicosanoid synthesis. Pro-inflammatory eicosanoids have been implicated in ulcerative colitis. AIM: To investigate the possible therapeutic benefit of essential fatty acids in quiescent ulcerative colitis ...
van't Hof Wouter - - 2002
Membrane-proximal cysteines 259 and 260 in the cytoplasmic tail of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) are known to be essential for the tumor suppression activity of CAR. We demonstrate that these residues provide an S-acylation motif for modification of CAR with the fatty acid palmitate. Substitution of alanine for ...
De Koning T J - - 2002
Congenital microcephaly, intractable seizures and severe psychomotor retardation characterize 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency, a disorder of L-serine biosynthesis. The enzyme defect results in low concentrations of serine and to a variable degree of glycine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Short-term beneficial effects have been reported of oral treatment with the ...
Shintaku H - - 2002
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies are disorders affecting phenylalanine metabolism in liver and neurotransmitters biosynthesis in brain. BH4 is the essential cofactor in the enzymatic hydroxylation of 3 aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). BH4 is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) catalyzed by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase, and sepiapterin ...
Butchko Harriett H - - 2002
Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through ...
Terna Gaffa - - 2002
Kunun zaki--a cereal-based non-alcoholic, non-carbonated beverage--was studied. The ratio of blends of major ingredients, nutrient, amino acid content and sensory qualities of kunun zaki generated with different saccharifying agents were investigated. The main ingredients of the formulations were malted rice, sweet potato, soybeans and Cadaba farinosa (Dangarafa or Legel in ...
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