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Results 501 - 550 of 772
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Fukuda H - - 1987
Effects of essential and non-essential amino acids on induction of lipogenic enzymes were investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was markedly induced by the addition of essential amino acids alone to the cultured medium, but was not induced by non-essential amino acids. Fatty-acid synthetase was also markedly induced by ...
Goa K L - - 1987
l-Carnitine occurs naturally as an essential cofactor of fatty acid metabolism which is synthesised endogenously or obtained from dietary sources. In patients with primary carnitine deficiencies, which may be life-threatening, and some secondary deficiencies such as organic acidurias, the exogenously administered compound is clearly beneficial: by abolishing hypotonia, motor skills ...
Siguel E N - - 1987
The four families of unsaturated fatty acids (w9, w7, w6, w3) appear to be elongated and desaturated by enzymes shared among all families. The order of relative pathway activity is hypothesized to be w3 greater than w6 greater than w9 greater than w7. In order to examine this question, we ...
Christophe A - - 1987
The potential of the rectal route for administration of essential fatty acids (EFA) as monoglyceride (MG) was investigated. EFA-deficient rats were supplemented with 14 mg linoleic acid/day for 3 days. Supplementation was either by oral administration as corn oil, orally as corn oil-derived MG or rectally as MG. The patterns ...
Pietkiewicz J - - 1987
Enolase from carp (Cyprinus Carpio) muscle was modified by diethylpyrocarbonate, tetranitromethane, N-bromosuccinimide and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The extent and rate of modification and its effect on the enzyme activity were determined. Modification of histidine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues caused complete inactivation of the enzyme; Mg2+ as well as 2-phosphoglycerate markedly altered ...
Davidson B C - - 1987
The importance of essential fatty acids and their supplementation in the diets of obligate carnivores should be an area of concern amongst veterinarians. Certain species of the Felinae have been shown to be obligate carnivores as a result of fatty acid desaturase enzyme deficiencies. Modern dietary practices of processing and ...
Wolkin A - - 1987
Interactions between ethanol, prostaglandins, and essential fatty acids (EFA) have led to the hypothesis that acute alcohol withdrawal and the sequelae of chronic alcoholism may be related to an EFA/prostaglandin deficiency. To test this hypothesis, EFA profiles in blood-lipid fractions, serum liver enzymes, cognitive function, and alcohol craving were measured ...
Muhlemann M F - - 1987
Abnormal levels of the essential fatty acids (EFA) in plasma phospholipids have been reported in atopic dermatitis. We have compared EFA levels in 10 patients with atopic cataracts and 29 atopic dermatitis patients without cataracts and found no significant differences, with the exception that higher levels of adrenic acid occurred ...
Klaude M - - 1987
Methylation of guanine in the O6 position by N-nitrosodimethylamine is higher in liver DNA of mice fed a diet restricted in essential amino acids than in controls. A diminished content of the repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (AAT) may be responsible for the elevated level of O6-methylguanine observed after amino acid ...
Stanley C A - - 1987
There are now nine inherited diseases that have been identified in the pathway of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, including LCAD, MCAD, SCAD, and HMG-CoA lyase deficiencies, two forms each of CPT and MAD deficiencies and an incompletely characterized disorder of primary carnitine deficiency. The varied range of clinical manifestations in ...
Hannah J - - 1987
The effect of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on the activities of several membrane-bound enzymes was examined in the brains of C57BL/6J mice. Pregnant females were placed on an EFA-deficient diet during the last week of gestation and their progeny were examined at intervals up to 16 weeks after birth. ...
De Loecker R - - 1987
The viability of isolated mammalian systems is, apart from possible morphological changes, essentially conditioned by the biochemical modifications from normal physiological conditions to an artificial environment where blood supply is interrupted leading to ischaemia and where the temperature is lowered. In order to survive freezing and thawing, mammalian systems have ...
Dib A - - 1987
The effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid supplementation in the form of evening primrose oil were examined in pregnant zinc-deficient rats and subsequently in their newborn pups. This supplementation was beneficial, since it reduced pup mortality, increased mean litter size and maintained appetite throughout two thirds of the gestation period. Consequently, ...
Heubi J E - - 1987
Despite greater than 23 years of study, an incomplete understanding of the etiology, epidemiology and pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome persists. Better understanding of the disease has been hampered by the lack of a good animal model on which hypotheses of its pathogenesis could be tested. Human studies indicate that a ...
Campbell I M - - 1986
The effect of hypobaric oxygen, with oleic acid in the nutrient substrate, on respiration and slime production by a pulmonary isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Under hypobaric, but not normal oxygen pressure, the addition of oleic acid to the nutrient broth caused the bacteria to drastically diminish their demand ...
Ghisolfi J - - 1986
During total parenteral nutrition, using an identical supply of fat emulsion (350 mg/kg/24 hr) to correct essential fatty acid deficiency in children, the efficacy of two methods of administration was studied: continuous over 24 hr, or discontinuous 3 hr/day. At the beginning of the study, all the infants (1-4 months ...
Cerra F B - - 1986
The metabolic response to injury is a different process from starvation. As such, it requires a different set of nutritional support principles in order to provide effective therapy that is cost-conscious and with a minimum of complications. In all cases, it is essential to restore and to maintain oxygen transport ...
Alden P B - - 1986
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles are abnormal in a variety of clinical conditions that are commonly seen in the surgical intensive care unit. PUFA profiles in the serum phospholipids were studied by capillary gas chromatography in 22 critically ill, hypermetabolic surgical intensive care unit patients. All patients received continuous total ...
Suchy S F - - 1986
The effects of biotin deficiency and supplementation upon saturated fatty acids in serum, liver, cerebrum, and cerebellum of rats were investigated. Serum total fatty acids were reduced in deficient animals to 29% of normal. The percentage composition of some odd-chain fatty acids was increased in the serum and liver of ...
Isaacs H - - 1986
An adult patient with lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency was fully investigated, and then placed on various forms of therapy with favourable response to a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. The rationale for the employment of this therapy, the problem of acid maltase deficiency and the relationship to weakness and glycogenosome ...
Mandon E C - - 1986
The effect of columbinic acid (5 trans, 9 cis, 12 cis, octadeca-trienoic acid) supplemented to a fat-free diet on the fatty acid composition and its correlation to the physical properties of several tissues of rats, was studied. The absence of lipids in the diet produced the typical changes in the ...
Lefkowith J B - - 1986
Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency is a useful tool to study the role of arachidonate and its metabolites in various physiologic and pathologic states. Recent studies have clarified the effects of EFA deficiency on membrane arachidonate and its metabolites, and have demonstrated that 20:3(n-9) (which accumulates in EFA deficiency) can ...
Goheen S C - - 1986
Two experiments were carried out to determine whether ozone causes significant oxidation of pulmonary polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. These involved ad libitum and pair-feeding. In the first experiment, rats were fed fat-free diets and exposed to ozone for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Lung and liver fatty acids ...
Jenkins K J - - 1986
In a 6-wk study with 3-d-old calves (n = 32), we compared effects of low or adequate essential fatty acids in milk replacers on calf performance, feed utilization, and fatty acids in blood plasma, heart, and liver lipids. Four dietary treatments were hydrogenated coconut oil, as low-essential fatty acid basal; ...
Koletzko B - - 1986
The fatty acid (FA) composition of the main plasma lipids was analysed in eight well-nourished, generally healthy Nigerian children aged 14.1 +/- 7.2 months and in 17 malnourished children (8 marasmus, 9 kwashiorkor) aged 14.6 +/- 3.8 months within the first 2 days of admission at the Dept. of Child ...
Heleniak E P - - 1986
At least two groups of schizophrenics will be described. One such group may have a mutant delta-6-desaturase which prefers the omega-6-series essential fatty acids over the omega-3 series essential fatty acids resulting in low cis-linoleic acid blood levels. This subgroup may be related to the low histamine type schizophrenia. In ...
Kryvi H - - 1986
Feeding male rats a high cal% partially hydrogenated fish oil diet induced morphological and biochemical changes in hepatocytes at the mitochondrial and peroxisomal level. At the mitochondrial level, formation of megamitochondria was related to the development of an essential fatty acid deficiency, as measured by a high 20:3/20:4 fatty acid ...
Galbraith R A - - 1986
Erythroblastic leukemic (EBL) cells incubated in media containing essential amino acids, glutamine and serine incorporate more [3H]-leucine into protein than those incubated without serine. Cells incubated with serine contain higher intracellular serine concentrations and display increased rates of peptide chain initiation on polyribosomal profile analysis. Deficiency of serine inhibited protein ...
Ingenbleek Y - - 1986
Twenty-nine amino acids were analyzed in the sera of 105 adult Senegambian goitrous patients classified as stages I, II, and III according to World Health Organization recommendations. Mean serum concentration of all essential amino acids revealed highly significant drops (p less than 0.001) as goiter stage increased, except for methionine ...
Holman R T - - 1986
Since the discovery in 1929 that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for life and health, intense investigation has revealed the multiplicity of members in each of several families of PUFA, no two of which are equivalent. The quantified nutrient requirements for the essential dietary precursors of the two ...
Galland L - - 1986
Patients with atopic eczema and a mixture of allergic illnesses show biochemical evidence suggesting impairment in the desaturation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid by the enzyme delta-6 dehydrogenase. Consequences of this enzyme defect are 1) diminished synthesis of the 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are prostaglandin precursors and 2) ...
Turi D C - - 1986
Three activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent test systems, General Diagnostics Automated APTT, American Dade Actin FS, and Pacific Hemostasis (Thromboscreen KAPTT) reagent, containing different activators for the APTT assay, were evaluated for their precision and sensitivity to factor deficiencies in the intrinsic coagulation system. The data suggest that micronized ...
Cunnane S C - - 1986
Peripheral blood leucocytes from patients with Crohn's disease have been shown to have lower zinc content than those from a normal population. Since zinc influences essential fatty acid metabolism, incorporation of 14C-linoleic and 3H-arachidonic acids was studied in peripheral blood leucocytes from controls and patients with Crohn's disease. The zinc ...
Friedman Z - - 1986
The essentiality of certain PUFA is probably related to their capability to be incorporated into lipids and to act as precursor in the formation of ecosanoids. Esterified to phospholipids, the EFA influence the physico-chemical characteristics of biomembranes. Normal growth of infants is dependent upon an adequate supply of EFA. The ...
Ogburn P L - - 1986
Fatty acid patterns were determined for maternal and cord sera from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies using gas liquid chromatography. Ten normal and 11 preeclamptic maternal sera were used; 6 preeclamptic and 6 normal cord sera were measured. Fatty acid patterns were measured in the nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), the triglycerides ...
Matsusue S - - 1985
We report a case of biotin deficiency developed in a 25-yr-old man with Crohn's disease who had been on total parenteral nutrition for more than 9 months. His cutaneous, ophthalmic, and neurologic manifestations were characteristic of this disease entity described in literature. In particular, the appearance of his face deserves ...
Miyamoto Y - - 1985
Two siblings who developed adult form acid maltase deficiency (AMD) are reported. The elder sister, a 30-year-old Japanese woman whose parents are cousins was admitted because of respiratory disturbance which she noticed two years previously. The muscle histology demonstrated numerous acid phosphatase positive vacuoles filled with PAS positive materials, and ...
Smith R C - - 1985
An inherited deficiency of uridine-5'-monophosphate synthase has recently been discovered in dairy cattle. The possibility was explored that this deficiency might be detected by low amounts of erythrocyte 3-N-ribosyluric acid, since it is synthesized by uridine monophosphate synthase. Ribosyluric acid was lower in six dairy cows with the deficiency compared ...
Cooke R J - - 1985
To determine the effect of a safflower oil emulsion on the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of preterm infants during parenteral nutrition, subjects were randomized to receive Liposyn at 0.34 g (group 1), 0.68 g (less than 0.5% of lipid from linolenic acid, group 2), or Modified Liposyn at 0.68 ...
Lazo P A - - 1985
Cachexia is a terminal metabolic problem observed in a wide variety of tumours. In this article I propose that the syndrome is a direct consequence of the common feature to all malignant tumours: growth. I suggest that the requirement for essential amino acids can be used as the unifying principle ...
Elliott W J - - 1985
Columbinic acid and its cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites were applied topically to the skin of essential fatty acid-deficient rats and their transepidermal water loss was measured. Despite the ability of the major lipoxygenase metabolite to reverse the scaly dermatitis, neither metabolite of columbinate was able to normalize the epidermal water ...
Hansen H S - - 1985
Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg per day of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 days. During this period, the rats in groups L, A, and C all showed a decrease in their initially high trans-epidermal water loss, ...
Langan S M - - 1985
A group of 17 patients hospitalized for anorexia nervosa was assessed for nutritional status with respect to the essential fatty acids and vitamins E and A. Plasma aliquots available from blood drawn upon hospital admission were frozen and later extracted for total lipids. The total lipids were then fractionated by ...
Smith L G - - 1985
Activators that are used to determine the activated partial thromboplastin time should be sensitive enough to detect mild deficiencies of coagulation factors in a reproducible fashion. We compared two commercially available activators--a newly modified preparation of ellagic acid activator and a silica activator. Both reagents produced results that were reproducible ...
Elliott W J - - 1985
The metabolism of columbinic acid by various fatty acid oxidizing enzyme systems was studied. A cyclooxygenase product, 9-hydroxy-(5E,10E,12Z)-octadecatrienoic acid, was formed nearly quantitatively by ram seminal vesicle microsomes and in small amounts by washed human platelets. The major lipoxygenase product from washed human platelets, soybean lipoxygenase, and neonatal rat epidermal ...
Donaldson W E - - 1985
Data are summarized from several papers on the effects of biotin deficiency on lipid metabolism, especially fatty acid synthesis, in chicks. Biotin deficiency inhibits in vivo lipogenesis and hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity. Although acetate incorporation into fatty acids is inhibited in biotin-deficient chicks, malonate incorporation is not inhibited. In ...
Parlanti I A - - 1985
Several parameters of the reproductive function were studied in albino rats of the Wistar strain fed an essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet, a linoleic acid-sufficient (EFAS) diet or a commercial diet (CD). The frequency of irregular estrous cycles, with an increased incidence of prolonged diestrus, was significantly higher in EFAD ...
Cunnane S C - - 1984
This study addressed the possibility that zinc deficiency has different effects on the fatty acid composition of triglyceride compared to total phospholipid. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 6 weeks on a semisynthetic diet deficient in zinc (3 mg/kg zinc). Control rats (40 mg/kg zinc) were pair-fed. Lipid fractionation ...
Brush M G - - 1984
Premenstrual syndrome is now recognized as a condition that probably has an endocrine or biochemical basis. However, it has proved difficult to demonstrate any consistent significant differences from normal in any parameter measured to date. We have measured essential fatty acid levels in phospholipids in plasma taken from 42 women ...
Calabrese E J - - 1984
Erythrocytes of Dorset sheep, an animal model with an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, responded in a dose-dependent manner to the oxidant stress of di- and trichloroacetic acids (DCA and TCA) as measured by increases in methemoglobin (METHB) and decreases in glutathione (GSH). Given the fact that TCA and DCA ...
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