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Results 501 - 550 of 760
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Dib A - - 1987
The effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid supplementation in the form of evening primrose oil were examined in pregnant zinc-deficient rats and subsequently in their newborn pups. This supplementation was beneficial, since it reduced pup mortality, increased mean litter size and maintained appetite throughout two thirds of the gestation period. Consequently, ...
Heubi J E - - 1987
Despite greater than 23 years of study, an incomplete understanding of the etiology, epidemiology and pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome persists. Better understanding of the disease has been hampered by the lack of a good animal model on which hypotheses of its pathogenesis could be tested. Human studies indicate that a ...
Campbell I M - - 1986
The effect of hypobaric oxygen, with oleic acid in the nutrient substrate, on respiration and slime production by a pulmonary isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Under hypobaric, but not normal oxygen pressure, the addition of oleic acid to the nutrient broth caused the bacteria to drastically diminish their demand ...
Ghisolfi J - - 1986
During total parenteral nutrition, using an identical supply of fat emulsion (350 mg/kg/24 hr) to correct essential fatty acid deficiency in children, the efficacy of two methods of administration was studied: continuous over 24 hr, or discontinuous 3 hr/day. At the beginning of the study, all the infants (1-4 months ...
Cerra F B - - 1986
The metabolic response to injury is a different process from starvation. As such, it requires a different set of nutritional support principles in order to provide effective therapy that is cost-conscious and with a minimum of complications. In all cases, it is essential to restore and to maintain oxygen transport ...
Alden P B - - 1986
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles are abnormal in a variety of clinical conditions that are commonly seen in the surgical intensive care unit. PUFA profiles in the serum phospholipids were studied by capillary gas chromatography in 22 critically ill, hypermetabolic surgical intensive care unit patients. All patients received continuous total ...
Suchy S F - - 1986
The effects of biotin deficiency and supplementation upon saturated fatty acids in serum, liver, cerebrum, and cerebellum of rats were investigated. Serum total fatty acids were reduced in deficient animals to 29% of normal. The percentage composition of some odd-chain fatty acids was increased in the serum and liver of ...
Isaacs H - - 1986
An adult patient with lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency was fully investigated, and then placed on various forms of therapy with favourable response to a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. The rationale for the employment of this therapy, the problem of acid maltase deficiency and the relationship to weakness and glycogenosome ...
Mandon E C - - 1986
The effect of columbinic acid (5 trans, 9 cis, 12 cis, octadeca-trienoic acid) supplemented to a fat-free diet on the fatty acid composition and its correlation to the physical properties of several tissues of rats, was studied. The absence of lipids in the diet produced the typical changes in the ...
Lefkowith J B - - 1986
Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency is a useful tool to study the role of arachidonate and its metabolites in various physiologic and pathologic states. Recent studies have clarified the effects of EFA deficiency on membrane arachidonate and its metabolites, and have demonstrated that 20:3(n-9) (which accumulates in EFA deficiency) can ...
Goheen S C - - 1986
Two experiments were carried out to determine whether ozone causes significant oxidation of pulmonary polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. These involved ad libitum and pair-feeding. In the first experiment, rats were fed fat-free diets and exposed to ozone for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Lung and liver fatty acids ...
Jenkins K J - - 1986
In a 6-wk study with 3-d-old calves (n = 32), we compared effects of low or adequate essential fatty acids in milk replacers on calf performance, feed utilization, and fatty acids in blood plasma, heart, and liver lipids. Four dietary treatments were hydrogenated coconut oil, as low-essential fatty acid basal; ...
Koletzko B - - 1986
The fatty acid (FA) composition of the main plasma lipids was analysed in eight well-nourished, generally healthy Nigerian children aged 14.1 +/- 7.2 months and in 17 malnourished children (8 marasmus, 9 kwashiorkor) aged 14.6 +/- 3.8 months within the first 2 days of admission at the Dept. of Child ...
Heleniak E P - - 1986
At least two groups of schizophrenics will be described. One such group may have a mutant delta-6-desaturase which prefers the omega-6-series essential fatty acids over the omega-3 series essential fatty acids resulting in low cis-linoleic acid blood levels. This subgroup may be related to the low histamine type schizophrenia. In ...
Kryvi H - - 1986
Feeding male rats a high cal% partially hydrogenated fish oil diet induced morphological and biochemical changes in hepatocytes at the mitochondrial and peroxisomal level. At the mitochondrial level, formation of megamitochondria was related to the development of an essential fatty acid deficiency, as measured by a high 20:3/20:4 fatty acid ...
Galbraith R A - - 1986
Erythroblastic leukemic (EBL) cells incubated in media containing essential amino acids, glutamine and serine incorporate more [3H]-leucine into protein than those incubated without serine. Cells incubated with serine contain higher intracellular serine concentrations and display increased rates of peptide chain initiation on polyribosomal profile analysis. Deficiency of serine inhibited protein ...
Ingenbleek Y - - 1986
Twenty-nine amino acids were analyzed in the sera of 105 adult Senegambian goitrous patients classified as stages I, II, and III according to World Health Organization recommendations. Mean serum concentration of all essential amino acids revealed highly significant drops (p less than 0.001) as goiter stage increased, except for methionine ...
Holman R T - - 1986
Since the discovery in 1929 that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for life and health, intense investigation has revealed the multiplicity of members in each of several families of PUFA, no two of which are equivalent. The quantified nutrient requirements for the essential dietary precursors of the two ...
Galland L - - 1986
Patients with atopic eczema and a mixture of allergic illnesses show biochemical evidence suggesting impairment in the desaturation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid by the enzyme delta-6 dehydrogenase. Consequences of this enzyme defect are 1) diminished synthesis of the 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are prostaglandin precursors and 2) ...
Turi D C - - 1986
Three activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent test systems, General Diagnostics Automated APTT, American Dade Actin FS, and Pacific Hemostasis (Thromboscreen KAPTT) reagent, containing different activators for the APTT assay, were evaluated for their precision and sensitivity to factor deficiencies in the intrinsic coagulation system. The data suggest that micronized ...
Cunnane S C - - 1986
Peripheral blood leucocytes from patients with Crohn's disease have been shown to have lower zinc content than those from a normal population. Since zinc influences essential fatty acid metabolism, incorporation of 14C-linoleic and 3H-arachidonic acids was studied in peripheral blood leucocytes from controls and patients with Crohn's disease. The zinc ...
Friedman Z - - 1986
The essentiality of certain PUFA is probably related to their capability to be incorporated into lipids and to act as precursor in the formation of ecosanoids. Esterified to phospholipids, the EFA influence the physico-chemical characteristics of biomembranes. Normal growth of infants is dependent upon an adequate supply of EFA. The ...
Ogburn P L - - 1986
Fatty acid patterns were determined for maternal and cord sera from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies using gas liquid chromatography. Ten normal and 11 preeclamptic maternal sera were used; 6 preeclamptic and 6 normal cord sera were measured. Fatty acid patterns were measured in the nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), the triglycerides ...
Matsusue S - - 1985
We report a case of biotin deficiency developed in a 25-yr-old man with Crohn's disease who had been on total parenteral nutrition for more than 9 months. His cutaneous, ophthalmic, and neurologic manifestations were characteristic of this disease entity described in literature. In particular, the appearance of his face deserves ...
Miyamoto Y - - 1985
Two siblings who developed adult form acid maltase deficiency (AMD) are reported. The elder sister, a 30-year-old Japanese woman whose parents are cousins was admitted because of respiratory disturbance which she noticed two years previously. The muscle histology demonstrated numerous acid phosphatase positive vacuoles filled with PAS positive materials, and ...
Smith R C - - 1985
An inherited deficiency of uridine-5'-monophosphate synthase has recently been discovered in dairy cattle. The possibility was explored that this deficiency might be detected by low amounts of erythrocyte 3-N-ribosyluric acid, since it is synthesized by uridine monophosphate synthase. Ribosyluric acid was lower in six dairy cows with the deficiency compared ...
Cooke R J - - 1985
To determine the effect of a safflower oil emulsion on the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of preterm infants during parenteral nutrition, subjects were randomized to receive Liposyn at 0.34 g (group 1), 0.68 g (less than 0.5% of lipid from linolenic acid, group 2), or Modified Liposyn at 0.68 ...
Lazo P A - - 1985
Cachexia is a terminal metabolic problem observed in a wide variety of tumours. In this article I propose that the syndrome is a direct consequence of the common feature to all malignant tumours: growth. I suggest that the requirement for essential amino acids can be used as the unifying principle ...
Elliott W J - - 1985
Columbinic acid and its cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites were applied topically to the skin of essential fatty acid-deficient rats and their transepidermal water loss was measured. Despite the ability of the major lipoxygenase metabolite to reverse the scaly dermatitis, neither metabolite of columbinate was able to normalize the epidermal water ...
Hansen H S - - 1985
Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg per day of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 days. During this period, the rats in groups L, A, and C all showed a decrease in their initially high trans-epidermal water loss, ...
Langan S M - - 1985
A group of 17 patients hospitalized for anorexia nervosa was assessed for nutritional status with respect to the essential fatty acids and vitamins E and A. Plasma aliquots available from blood drawn upon hospital admission were frozen and later extracted for total lipids. The total lipids were then fractionated by ...
Smith L G - - 1985
Activators that are used to determine the activated partial thromboplastin time should be sensitive enough to detect mild deficiencies of coagulation factors in a reproducible fashion. We compared two commercially available activators--a newly modified preparation of ellagic acid activator and a silica activator. Both reagents produced results that were reproducible ...
Elliott W J - - 1985
The metabolism of columbinic acid by various fatty acid oxidizing enzyme systems was studied. A cyclooxygenase product, 9-hydroxy-(5E,10E,12Z)-octadecatrienoic acid, was formed nearly quantitatively by ram seminal vesicle microsomes and in small amounts by washed human platelets. The major lipoxygenase product from washed human platelets, soybean lipoxygenase, and neonatal rat epidermal ...
Donaldson W E - - 1985
Data are summarized from several papers on the effects of biotin deficiency on lipid metabolism, especially fatty acid synthesis, in chicks. Biotin deficiency inhibits in vivo lipogenesis and hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity. Although acetate incorporation into fatty acids is inhibited in biotin-deficient chicks, malonate incorporation is not inhibited. In ...
Parlanti I A - - 1985
Several parameters of the reproductive function were studied in albino rats of the Wistar strain fed an essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet, a linoleic acid-sufficient (EFAS) diet or a commercial diet (CD). The frequency of irregular estrous cycles, with an increased incidence of prolonged diestrus, was significantly higher in EFAD ...
Cunnane S C - - 1984
This study addressed the possibility that zinc deficiency has different effects on the fatty acid composition of triglyceride compared to total phospholipid. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 6 weeks on a semisynthetic diet deficient in zinc (3 mg/kg zinc). Control rats (40 mg/kg zinc) were pair-fed. Lipid fractionation ...
Brush M G - - 1984
Premenstrual syndrome is now recognized as a condition that probably has an endocrine or biochemical basis. However, it has proved difficult to demonstrate any consistent significant differences from normal in any parameter measured to date. We have measured essential fatty acid levels in phospholipids in plasma taken from 42 women ...
Calabrese E J - - 1984
Erythrocytes of Dorset sheep, an animal model with an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, responded in a dose-dependent manner to the oxidant stress of di- and trichloroacetic acids (DCA and TCA) as measured by increases in methemoglobin (METHB) and decreases in glutathione (GSH). Given the fact that TCA and DCA ...
Sinclair H M - - 1984
There are two families of essential fatty acids, the linoleic and linolenic. Linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), found mainly in vegetable seed oils, is desaturated and elongated in the body, forming arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6). Linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), the main dietary source of which is leaves, is desaturated and elongated, forming two fatty ...
Ongari M A - - 1984
Prostacyclin production by human umbilical artery rings was measured in a variety of incubation media and related to gestational age, mode of delivery, and birth weight. Prostacyclin production was directly correlated with the status of essential free fatty acid in the tissue as assessed by the ratio of tissue concentrations ...
Ching N - - 1984
The deficits in plasma amino acids and serum unesterified fatty acids of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy were studied to delineate the special requirements of the patients and efficacy of our nutritional therapy. Seven general surgery patients and 13 patients treated by the Head-Neck Service had baseline levels ...
Shanske S - - 1984
The subcellular distribution and isoelectric focusing profile of neutral maltase were investigated in human skeletal muscle from controls and patients with acid maltase deficiency. After subcellular fractionation of normal muscle by differential centrifugation, 75% of the neutral maltase activity was soluble and 13% sedimented with a "microsomal" fraction; the relative ...
Lowry S F - - 1984
Normal volunteers were evaluated in the postabsorptive state, following 10 days of protein-calorie starvation, and during intravenous feeding ( ivf ) to determine the impact of nutritional status upon exertion-induced muscle amino acid metabolism. An isolated forearm model allowed an evaluation of recovery of metabolism following 1 min of submaximal ...
Ki P F - - 1984
The concentrations of cerebrosides and sulfatides were measured in the nervous systems of urodeles and related orders with a high performance liquid chromatographic technique. The peripheral and central nervous systems of all three urodele species, Necturus maculosis (mud puppy, a salamander), Notophthalmus viridescens (eastern red spot newt), and Desmognathus ochropheus ...
Yamanaka W K - - 1984
The study was conducted to determine the adequacy of fat infusion in preventing essential fatty acid deficiency during parenteral feeding. Eight adult patients receiving marrow transplantation for the treatment of leukemia were studied. Total daily intravenous and oral calorie and fat intakes were monitored. Insignificant amounts of food were consumed ...
Wolff J A - - 1984
Plasma and red cell fatty acids were measured in 44 children with third degree malnutrition: 22 children with marasmus, 11 children with kwashiorkor, and 11 with marasmic kwashiorkor (MK). The presence of edema, dermatosis, hair changes, and hypoalbuminemia were positively correlated with the red cell percentage linoleic acid and negatively ...
O'Neill I E - - 1984
Isolated hepatocytes synthesize fatty acids and cholesterol from lactate and acetate with lactate being the more effective substrate. Biotin deficiency decreased fatty acid synthesis from both substrates but stimulated cholesterogenesis. Exposure of intact hepatocytes to oxalate inhibited fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis from lactate, this effect was enhanced in biotin-deficient ...
Levine S - - 1984
In experiments on essential fatty acid deficiency, various strategems have been used to balance the deficient and control groups for all nutrients except essential fatty acids. We suggest the use of a single fat-free diet for both groups, with essential fatty acids administered parenterally to the control (nondeficient) group once ...
Igisu H - - 1984
The glycolipid composition of the spinal cord, sciatic nerve, kidney, liver and lung of twitcher mice, neurological mutants caused by a genetic deficiency of galactosylceramidase activity, was analyzed during development. No abnormal increase of galactosylceramide or sulfatide was detected in the spinal cord and the sciatic nerve at any age. ...
Baier W - - 1983
In one 21-week-old fetus with prenatally diagnosed metachromatic leukodystrophy, galactolipid contents were determined in the forebrain cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, and kidney and compared to an appropriate control. Spinal cord and kidney showed the highest sulfatide accumulation as a consequence of deficient cerebroside sulfatase activity. No increase, but a ...
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