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Results 451 - 500 of 760
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Horrobin D F - - 1989
Blood samples were taken from schizophrenics and control patients in three different centers. The phospholipids were extracted from plasma and their fatty acid composition analyzed. Similar and consistent differences between schizophrenics and controls were observed at all three centers. The n-6 essential fatty acid levels were significantly reduced, whereas n-3 ...
Lanzillo J J - - 1989
To assess residues essential for catalysis by prokaryotic peptidyl dipeptidase-4, the enzyme was subjected to chemical modification by a series of reagents. Treatment with either tetranitromethane or N-acetylimidazole abolished catalytic activity. Hydroxylamine reversed inactivation by acetylimidazole only. Thus, an essential tyrosine is indicated. Enzymatic activity also was quenched by either ...
Chavan J K - - 1989
Cereal grains form a major source of dietary nutrients for all people, particularly those in the developing countries. However, the nutritional quality of cereal grains and sensory properties of their products are inferior due to lower protein content, deficiency of certain essential amino acids, lower protein and starch availabilities, presence ...
Takeuchi F - - 1989
Erythrocyte phosphoribosylpyrophosphate availability for adenine was measured by silicon oil method previously described. The homozygotes of Japanese type APRT deficiency (n = 6, from 4 families) showed 4.3 +/- 2.7% (mean +/- standard deviation) of adenine PRPP availability and the heterozygotes (n = 5) showed 86.0 +/- 6.0% of adenine ...
Cunnane S C - - 1990
Fructose and copper have been shown independently to influence long chain fatty acid metabolism. Since fructose feeding exacerbates copper deficiency, their possible interaction with respect to tissue long chain fatty acid and lipid composition was studied. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing 0.6 or 6 mg/kg copper. The ...
Léger C L - - 1989
One of the important questions in biomembranes now is: Do the essential fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-6 and n-3 series) play an original structural role in the arrangement of the lipid matrix capable, in particular, of triggering modifications of intrinsic protein activities? Preliminary results from our laboratories ...
Thompson G N - - 1989
Twenty-one pre-adolescent cystic fibrosis (CF) children with good clinical scores had significant (P less than 0.001) deficiencies of arachidonic (mean 3.8% of total plasma fatty acids +/- SD 1.4) and linoleic (18.1 +/- 6.3) acids compared with controls (6.0 +/- 1.0, and 27.6 +/- 3.9, respectively). Despite the presence of ...
Takenaka A - - 1989
1. The effects of insulin, glucagon and dexamethasone on the amino acid consumption by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were studied in a medium containing all essential amino acids or in those deficient in some essential or nonessential amino acids. 2. The cells which were cultured in a medium containing ...
Hornstra G - - 1989
Rats, deficient in essential fatty acids (EFA), were given diets containing 5 energy% sunflowerseed oil (SO, rich in linoleic acid), cod-liver oil (CLO, rich in timnodonic acid and cervonic acid), or hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO), containing no EFAs at all. SO and CLO feeding resulted in normalization of the reduced ...
Strandvik B - - 1989
Studies in our laboratory have supported the hypothesis, that the basic defect in cystic fibrosis increases the metabolism of essential fatty acids and thereby gradually gives rise to essential fatty acid deficiency, which is a well documented finding in most cases with this disease. Both the increased metabolism--giving high liberation ...
Pinter E - - 1988
Using the postimplantation rat conceptus model, we analyzed with gas-liquid chromatography, the fatty acid composition in major lipid groups (phospholipids, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and cholesterol esters) of yolk sacs and embryos cultured for 48 hours under control, hyperglycemic, and arachidonic acid-supplemented hyperglycemic conditions. In all experimental conditions the yolk ...
Laposata M - - 1988
Essential fatty acid deficiency, produced by deprivation of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, is a condition characterized by renal disease, dermatitis, and infertility. Although many of the biochemical aspects of this disorder have been investigated, little is known about the ultrastructural changes induced by essential fatty acid deficiency. Using a ...
Alessandri J M JM Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station de Recherches de Nutrition, Jouy-en-Josas, - - 1988
The surface properties of small intestine brush-border membranes (BBMs) were examined by frontal affinity chromatography using three types of unsolubilized ligands: phlorizin polymer, immobilized lectins and linolenic acid bound to agarose gel. BBM vesicles were purified from piglets fed a corn oil diet (control diet) or a hydrogenated coconut oil ...
Christon R - - 1988
The effect of dietary essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on lipid composition, fluidity and important enzyme and transport activities of liver microsomal membrane was studied in weanling rats. After 133 d of EFA deficiency, no difference was noticed in membrane phospholipid, cholesterol and protein levels, but a significant change occurred ...
Koivisto P V - - 1988
Recent studies have indicated that ileal resection may lead to essential fatty acid deficiency, as demonstrated by plasma fatty acid composition. In the present study the serum cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was determined in patients who had undergone a partial ileal bypass operation several years earlier. The mean length ...
Asciutti-Moura L S - - 1988
This study was conducted to determine the nutritional status with respect to fatty acids of 53 institutionalized elderly subjects (group A). Seven-day food records and biochemical determinations were used. The same protocol was applied to 25 healthy young adults (group B). The 1981 French Recommended Dietary Allowances were used to ...
Young S N - - 1988
The effects of a tryptophan deficient amino acid mixture on food selection were studied using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design in normal male subjects. The subjects ingested tryptophan deficient or nutritionally balanced amino acid mixtures in the morning after an overnight fast. Five hours after the tryptophan deficient amino acid ...
Rhodes D - - 1988
Glycinebetaine-deficient inbreds of Zea mays do not exhibit a general deficiency of nitrogenous solutes; the total free amino acid levels of betaine-deficient lines are not significantly less than those of inbreds which exhibit >100-fold higher betaine levels. Betaine-deficient inbreds are characterized by extremely low betaine: total free amino acid ratios ...
Mock D M - - 1988
Abnormalities of fatty acid composition have been detected in the plasma of patients who developed frank biotin deficiency during parenteral nutrition. We sought to determine which abnormalities of fatty acid composition, if any, would be replicated in the biotin-deficient rat and to determine the relative temporal relationships of these abnormalities ...
Parsons H G - - 1988
Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids was analyzed in malnourished cystic fibrosis patients undergoing 6 months of nutritional rehabilitation. There were three males and five females (mean age 15.1 yr); five patients had pancreatic insufficiency. Nutritional rehabilitation in seven of eight patients was accomplished by nocturnal nasogastric infusion of a ...
Navarro X - - 1988
We report an extensive study of the plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition in 61 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients compared with 61 normal subjects. The main abnormality in the MS was a reduction in the proportion of linoleic and arachidonic acids mostly evident in the HDL and in the ...
Thomas-Benhamou G - - 1988
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term magnesium or essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiencies on plasma lipids, platelet fatty acid composition and [1-14C] arachidonic acid incorporation into platelet phospholipids. Weanling rats were fed purified diets (casein 20%, sucrose 70.5%, lipid 5%) for two weeks. The ...
Palmblad J - - 1988
Linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6), the obligate precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6), is an essential nutrient for humans and other mammals. Because arachidonic acid release and metabolism are components of neutrophil activation by certain stimuli, we questioned whether neutrophils depleted of arachidonate as a result of essential fatty ...
Mock D M - - 1988
In three patients who developed biotin deficiency during parenteral alimentation, serum fatty acid compositions of the four major lipid classes (phospholipid, cholesteryl ester, triglyceride and free fatty acid) were measured. Relative to the normal range, percent compositions of an odd-chain fatty acid (either 15:0 or 17:0 or both) were increased ...
Cotter R - - 1988
The ability of soybean oil lipid emulsions to affect essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) and plasma fatty acid distribution was studied in neonatal pigs. The test animals were maintained on a fat-free diet prior to administration of lipid emulsion. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC) membrane levels of essential [linoleic ...
Brown W J - - 1988
The fluorescent hydrophobic probe Nile red was used to distinguish between normal human fibroblasts and fibroblasts from individuals with a genetic deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase activity (Wolman's disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease). The fluorescence of Nile red-stained cultured mutant cells, indicative of neutral lipid accumulation, was intense when ...
Halkier B A - - 1988
In vitro studies with a microsomal system obtained from etiolated sorghum seedlings have indicated a biosynthetic pathway for cyanogenic glucosides involving amino acids, N-hydroxyamino acids, aldoximes, nitriles and cyanohydrins. NADPH is an essential cofactor. Simultaneous measurements of tyrosine metabolism and oxygen consumption show that three molecules of oxygen are consumed ...
Holme E - - 1988
An 8-year-old boy with late onset multiple carboxylase deficiency is described. Biotinidase deficiency and holocarboxylase-synthetase deficiency have been excluded. A very slow biochemical response to biotin was found. The decrease in urinary organic acid excretion followed first-order kinetics with a half-life of about 50 days. The initially low carboxylase activities ...
Ghafoorunissa - - 1988
The clinical response to various therapeutic agents was evaluated in 31 patients with phrynoderma. A complete clinical response with vitamin B-complex was noted in an average period of 5.7 weeks. In patients treated with vitamin E, partial or total improvement was seen in an average period of 12.3 and 10.7 ...
Mascolo N - - 1988
The laxation induced by senna is not modified in rats either maintained on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids (EFAD) or exposed to cold (6 degrees C) or with yeast-induced fever. In light of our findings it appears conceivable that non-PG-mediated mechanism(s) play a relevant role in laxation induced ...
Tilghman J A - - 1988
1. A reduction in the dietary concentration of choline, an essential nutrient for Drosophila melanogaster, from the optimal concentration of 80 micrograms/ml of defined medium to 8 micrograms/ml diminished the level of tissue phosphatidylcholine to less than one-third the normal level in third instar larvae without significantly altering the amount ...
Tahara Y - - 1988
A man with diabetes mellitus, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and blind loop syndrome but without any previous thyroid disease developed three episodes of transient primary hypothyroidism associated with protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM). Clinical examinations suggested that this primary hypothyroidism was not caused by chronic thyroiditis, iodine deficiency, or iodine excess. Since ...
Lehmann A - - 1987
Directly after weaning, kittens were raised on a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 0.4% taurine or devoid of this amino acid. Eight to twelve weeks later the blood plasma concentration of taurine was decreased by 98-99% in kittens fed a taurine-free regimen. Parietal cortex dialysis, performed in anaesthetized kittens, revealed a ...
Watkins B A - - 1987
Chicks were fed a purified diet with 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 micrograms/kg diet of added biotin to determine the effects of biotin deficiency on polyunsaturated fatty acids in tissue lipids. Body weight was reduced by biotin deficiency and liver and heart biotin levels varied with the biotin ...
Lefkowith J B - - 1987
Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency exerts a beneficial effect on immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, preventing both the tissue injury and consequent mortality. Because both macrophages and eicosanoids are thought to play pathogenic roles in glomerulonephritis, and because macrophages play an important role in modulating arachidonate metabolism at sites of renal injury, the ...
Siguel E N - - 1987
To develop criteria for deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA), we used capillary-column gas-liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids (percentage of total fatty acids) in plasma obtained in the fasting state from 56 reference subjects and from 10 patients with intestinal fat malabsorption and suspected EFA deficiency. Fatty acid evaluations ...
Melton J L - - 1987
Linoleate-rich O-acylglucosylceramides and acylceramides are thought to be of major significance for the physical structure and function of the epidermal permeability barrier. In the present investigation, the effects of a linoleate-free diet on O-acylsphingolipids and their associated functions were investigated. Starting at 5 days of age, male pigs were fed ...
Alden P B - - 1987
Abnormal profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma phospholipid fraction were observed in 14 patients with hypermetabolism due to severe isolated closed head injury. Depressed linoleic acid levels were observed within 24 hours along with elevation of oleic acid levels. By one week postinjury, subnormal levels of arachidonic acid ...
Fukuda H - - 1987
Effects of essential and non-essential amino acids on induction of lipogenic enzymes were investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was markedly induced by the addition of essential amino acids alone to the cultured medium, but was not induced by non-essential amino acids. Fatty-acid synthetase was also markedly induced by ...
Goa K L - - 1987
l-Carnitine occurs naturally as an essential cofactor of fatty acid metabolism which is synthesised endogenously or obtained from dietary sources. In patients with primary carnitine deficiencies, which may be life-threatening, and some secondary deficiencies such as organic acidurias, the exogenously administered compound is clearly beneficial: by abolishing hypotonia, motor skills ...
Siguel E N - - 1987
The four families of unsaturated fatty acids (w9, w7, w6, w3) appear to be elongated and desaturated by enzymes shared among all families. The order of relative pathway activity is hypothesized to be w3 greater than w6 greater than w9 greater than w7. In order to examine this question, we ...
Christophe A - - 1987
The potential of the rectal route for administration of essential fatty acids (EFA) as monoglyceride (MG) was investigated. EFA-deficient rats were supplemented with 14 mg linoleic acid/day for 3 days. Supplementation was either by oral administration as corn oil, orally as corn oil-derived MG or rectally as MG. The patterns ...
Pietkiewicz J - - 1987
Enolase from carp (Cyprinus Carpio) muscle was modified by diethylpyrocarbonate, tetranitromethane, N-bromosuccinimide and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The extent and rate of modification and its effect on the enzyme activity were determined. Modification of histidine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues caused complete inactivation of the enzyme; Mg2+ as well as 2-phosphoglycerate markedly altered ...
Davidson B C - - 1987
The importance of essential fatty acids and their supplementation in the diets of obligate carnivores should be an area of concern amongst veterinarians. Certain species of the Felinae have been shown to be obligate carnivores as a result of fatty acid desaturase enzyme deficiencies. Modern dietary practices of processing and ...
Wolkin A - - 1987
Interactions between ethanol, prostaglandins, and essential fatty acids (EFA) have led to the hypothesis that acute alcohol withdrawal and the sequelae of chronic alcoholism may be related to an EFA/prostaglandin deficiency. To test this hypothesis, EFA profiles in blood-lipid fractions, serum liver enzymes, cognitive function, and alcohol craving were measured ...
Muhlemann M F - - 1987
Abnormal levels of the essential fatty acids (EFA) in plasma phospholipids have been reported in atopic dermatitis. We have compared EFA levels in 10 patients with atopic cataracts and 29 atopic dermatitis patients without cataracts and found no significant differences, with the exception that higher levels of adrenic acid occurred ...
Klaude M - - 1987
Methylation of guanine in the O6 position by N-nitrosodimethylamine is higher in liver DNA of mice fed a diet restricted in essential amino acids than in controls. A diminished content of the repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (AAT) may be responsible for the elevated level of O6-methylguanine observed after amino acid ...
Stanley C A - - 1987
There are now nine inherited diseases that have been identified in the pathway of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, including LCAD, MCAD, SCAD, and HMG-CoA lyase deficiencies, two forms each of CPT and MAD deficiencies and an incompletely characterized disorder of primary carnitine deficiency. The varied range of clinical manifestations in ...
Hannah J - - 1987
The effect of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on the activities of several membrane-bound enzymes was examined in the brains of C57BL/6J mice. Pregnant females were placed on an EFA-deficient diet during the last week of gestation and their progeny were examined at intervals up to 16 weeks after birth. ...
De Loecker R - - 1987
The viability of isolated mammalian systems is, apart from possible morphological changes, essentially conditioned by the biochemical modifications from normal physiological conditions to an artificial environment where blood supply is interrupted leading to ischaemia and where the temperature is lowered. In order to survive freezing and thawing, mammalian systems have ...
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