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Results 451 - 500 of 770
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Katz I R - - 1989
We have compared levels of albumin and serum amino acids in a group of 87 recent admissions to a nursing home, average age 83 years, with a group of healthy moderately old subjects, average age 69 years. We found that the nursing home group was characterized by decreased levels of ...
Maxton D G - - 1989
The presence of food within the small intestinal lumen promotes mucosal cell proliferation. To define the trophic role of triglycerides, three groups of eight female Wistar rats were isocalorically fed for four weeks with either Vivonex, or Vivonex with 50% calorie substitution with an essential fatty acid mixture, or Vivonex ...
Smith S S - - 1989
This study assessed the effect of a dietary deficiency in the essential fatty acids (EFA) linoleic and linolenic acids on the onset of female puberty. EFA deficiency was produced in female rats by means of a semipurified diet and was biochemically documented by analyzing serum and erythrocyte fatty acid levels ...
Strandvik B - - 1989
Changes in renal hemodynamics, sodium homeostasis, renal acidifying capacity, and aldosterone excretion were studied before and after long-term intravenous essential fatty acid supplementation for a period of 3 years in 11 patients with cystic fibrosis. The mean (+/- SD) glomerular filtration rate was high at the start of the study ...
Mahfouz M M - - 1989
Experimental Mg2+ deficiency was induced in a group of rats by feeding them a Mg2+-deficient diet for 23 days. They were pair-fed to compare with a control group of rats fed a Mg2+-sufficient diet. In the Mg2+-deficient group the plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were increased while HDL-cholesterol was ...
Horrobin D F - - 1989
A deficiency of essential fatty acid intake can produce severe cutaneous abnormalities but is exceedingly rare in clinical practice. Recent research has shown that abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism may play a role in atopic eczema, acne, and psoriasis. Therapeutic innovations have already resulted from this knowledge, and more ...
Woody R C - - 1989
Hyperphenylalaninemia in infants and children may be caused by a deficiency of dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR). Recommended therapy includes folinic acid as a source of tetrahydrofolate, a phenylalanine-restricted diet, and both dopamine and serotonin precursors. We report a child with progressive basal ganglia and other subcortical calcifications prior to the use ...
Davidson B C - - 1989
The cat is deficient in delta-6-desaturase, preventing its utilisation of the plant-derived essential fatty acids. The species circumvents this problem by eating non-felines capable of this process. Kittens were fed diets varying in the type of post delta-6-desaturation fatty acids (PDFA). Growth patterns and external signs monitored for a period ...
Bull A W - - 1989
The essential fatty acid requirement for the development of intestinal carcinogenesis was determined and compared to the overall essential fatty acid status of the animals as measured by the triene/tetraene ratio in the plasma, liver and colon. To induce tumors, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given two weekly injections (20 mg/kg ...
Igarashi N - - 1989
We describe the fatty acid (FA) and prostaglandin (PG) metabolism in two Japanese cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) with or without pancreatic insufficiency (PI). The diagnosis of CF was based on the elevated sweat chloride concentration by pilocarpine iontophoresis. A 1-month-old boy (case 1) showed poor weight gain, steatorrhea and ...
Horrobin D F - - 1989
Blood samples were taken from schizophrenics and control patients in three different centers. The phospholipids were extracted from plasma and their fatty acid composition analyzed. Similar and consistent differences between schizophrenics and controls were observed at all three centers. The n-6 essential fatty acid levels were significantly reduced, whereas n-3 ...
Lanzillo J J - - 1989
To assess residues essential for catalysis by prokaryotic peptidyl dipeptidase-4, the enzyme was subjected to chemical modification by a series of reagents. Treatment with either tetranitromethane or N-acetylimidazole abolished catalytic activity. Hydroxylamine reversed inactivation by acetylimidazole only. Thus, an essential tyrosine is indicated. Enzymatic activity also was quenched by either ...
Chavan J K - - 1989
Cereal grains form a major source of dietary nutrients for all people, particularly those in the developing countries. However, the nutritional quality of cereal grains and sensory properties of their products are inferior due to lower protein content, deficiency of certain essential amino acids, lower protein and starch availabilities, presence ...
Takeuchi F - - 1989
Erythrocyte phosphoribosylpyrophosphate availability for adenine was measured by silicon oil method previously described. The homozygotes of Japanese type APRT deficiency (n = 6, from 4 families) showed 4.3 +/- 2.7% (mean +/- standard deviation) of adenine PRPP availability and the heterozygotes (n = 5) showed 86.0 +/- 6.0% of adenine ...
Cunnane S C - - 1990
Fructose and copper have been shown independently to influence long chain fatty acid metabolism. Since fructose feeding exacerbates copper deficiency, their possible interaction with respect to tissue long chain fatty acid and lipid composition was studied. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing 0.6 or 6 mg/kg copper. The ...
Léger C L - - 1989
One of the important questions in biomembranes now is: Do the essential fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-6 and n-3 series) play an original structural role in the arrangement of the lipid matrix capable, in particular, of triggering modifications of intrinsic protein activities? Preliminary results from our laboratories ...
Thompson G N - - 1989
Twenty-one pre-adolescent cystic fibrosis (CF) children with good clinical scores had significant (P less than 0.001) deficiencies of arachidonic (mean 3.8% of total plasma fatty acids +/- SD 1.4) and linoleic (18.1 +/- 6.3) acids compared with controls (6.0 +/- 1.0, and 27.6 +/- 3.9, respectively). Despite the presence of ...
Takenaka A - - 1989
1. The effects of insulin, glucagon and dexamethasone on the amino acid consumption by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were studied in a medium containing all essential amino acids or in those deficient in some essential or nonessential amino acids. 2. The cells which were cultured in a medium containing ...
Hornstra G - - 1989
Rats, deficient in essential fatty acids (EFA), were given diets containing 5 energy% sunflowerseed oil (SO, rich in linoleic acid), cod-liver oil (CLO, rich in timnodonic acid and cervonic acid), or hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO), containing no EFAs at all. SO and CLO feeding resulted in normalization of the reduced ...
Strandvik B - - 1989
Studies in our laboratory have supported the hypothesis, that the basic defect in cystic fibrosis increases the metabolism of essential fatty acids and thereby gradually gives rise to essential fatty acid deficiency, which is a well documented finding in most cases with this disease. Both the increased metabolism--giving high liberation ...
Pinter E - - 1988
Using the postimplantation rat conceptus model, we analyzed with gas-liquid chromatography, the fatty acid composition in major lipid groups (phospholipids, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and cholesterol esters) of yolk sacs and embryos cultured for 48 hours under control, hyperglycemic, and arachidonic acid-supplemented hyperglycemic conditions. In all experimental conditions the yolk ...
Laposata M - - 1988
Essential fatty acid deficiency, produced by deprivation of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, is a condition characterized by renal disease, dermatitis, and infertility. Although many of the biochemical aspects of this disorder have been investigated, little is known about the ultrastructural changes induced by essential fatty acid deficiency. Using a ...
Alessandri J M JM Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station de Recherches de Nutrition, Jouy-en-Josas, - - 1988
The surface properties of small intestine brush-border membranes (BBMs) were examined by frontal affinity chromatography using three types of unsolubilized ligands: phlorizin polymer, immobilized lectins and linolenic acid bound to agarose gel. BBM vesicles were purified from piglets fed a corn oil diet (control diet) or a hydrogenated coconut oil ...
Christon R - - 1988
The effect of dietary essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on lipid composition, fluidity and important enzyme and transport activities of liver microsomal membrane was studied in weanling rats. After 133 d of EFA deficiency, no difference was noticed in membrane phospholipid, cholesterol and protein levels, but a significant change occurred ...
Koivisto P V - - 1988
Recent studies have indicated that ileal resection may lead to essential fatty acid deficiency, as demonstrated by plasma fatty acid composition. In the present study the serum cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was determined in patients who had undergone a partial ileal bypass operation several years earlier. The mean length ...
Asciutti-Moura L S - - 1988
This study was conducted to determine the nutritional status with respect to fatty acids of 53 institutionalized elderly subjects (group A). Seven-day food records and biochemical determinations were used. The same protocol was applied to 25 healthy young adults (group B). The 1981 French Recommended Dietary Allowances were used to ...
Young S N - - 1988
The effects of a tryptophan deficient amino acid mixture on food selection were studied using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design in normal male subjects. The subjects ingested tryptophan deficient or nutritionally balanced amino acid mixtures in the morning after an overnight fast. Five hours after the tryptophan deficient amino acid ...
Rhodes D - - 1988
Glycinebetaine-deficient inbreds of Zea mays do not exhibit a general deficiency of nitrogenous solutes; the total free amino acid levels of betaine-deficient lines are not significantly less than those of inbreds which exhibit >100-fold higher betaine levels. Betaine-deficient inbreds are characterized by extremely low betaine: total free amino acid ratios ...
Mock D M - - 1988
Abnormalities of fatty acid composition have been detected in the plasma of patients who developed frank biotin deficiency during parenteral nutrition. We sought to determine which abnormalities of fatty acid composition, if any, would be replicated in the biotin-deficient rat and to determine the relative temporal relationships of these abnormalities ...
Parsons H G - - 1988
Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids was analyzed in malnourished cystic fibrosis patients undergoing 6 months of nutritional rehabilitation. There were three males and five females (mean age 15.1 yr); five patients had pancreatic insufficiency. Nutritional rehabilitation in seven of eight patients was accomplished by nocturnal nasogastric infusion of a ...
Navarro X - - 1988
We report an extensive study of the plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition in 61 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients compared with 61 normal subjects. The main abnormality in the MS was a reduction in the proportion of linoleic and arachidonic acids mostly evident in the HDL and in the ...
Thomas-Benhamou G - - 1988
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term magnesium or essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiencies on plasma lipids, platelet fatty acid composition and [1-14C] arachidonic acid incorporation into platelet phospholipids. Weanling rats were fed purified diets (casein 20%, sucrose 70.5%, lipid 5%) for two weeks. The ...
Palmblad J - - 1988
Linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6), the obligate precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6), is an essential nutrient for humans and other mammals. Because arachidonic acid release and metabolism are components of neutrophil activation by certain stimuli, we questioned whether neutrophils depleted of arachidonate as a result of essential fatty ...
Mock D M - - 1988
In three patients who developed biotin deficiency during parenteral alimentation, serum fatty acid compositions of the four major lipid classes (phospholipid, cholesteryl ester, triglyceride and free fatty acid) were measured. Relative to the normal range, percent compositions of an odd-chain fatty acid (either 15:0 or 17:0 or both) were increased ...
Cotter R - - 1988
The ability of soybean oil lipid emulsions to affect essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) and plasma fatty acid distribution was studied in neonatal pigs. The test animals were maintained on a fat-free diet prior to administration of lipid emulsion. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC) membrane levels of essential [linoleic ...
Brown W J - - 1988
The fluorescent hydrophobic probe Nile red was used to distinguish between normal human fibroblasts and fibroblasts from individuals with a genetic deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase activity (Wolman's disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease). The fluorescence of Nile red-stained cultured mutant cells, indicative of neutral lipid accumulation, was intense when ...
Halkier B A - - 1988
In vitro studies with a microsomal system obtained from etiolated sorghum seedlings have indicated a biosynthetic pathway for cyanogenic glucosides involving amino acids, N-hydroxyamino acids, aldoximes, nitriles and cyanohydrins. NADPH is an essential cofactor. Simultaneous measurements of tyrosine metabolism and oxygen consumption show that three molecules of oxygen are consumed ...
Holme E - - 1988
An 8-year-old boy with late onset multiple carboxylase deficiency is described. Biotinidase deficiency and holocarboxylase-synthetase deficiency have been excluded. A very slow biochemical response to biotin was found. The decrease in urinary organic acid excretion followed first-order kinetics with a half-life of about 50 days. The initially low carboxylase activities ...
Ghafoorunissa - - 1988
The clinical response to various therapeutic agents was evaluated in 31 patients with phrynoderma. A complete clinical response with vitamin B-complex was noted in an average period of 5.7 weeks. In patients treated with vitamin E, partial or total improvement was seen in an average period of 12.3 and 10.7 ...
Mascolo N - - 1988
The laxation induced by senna is not modified in rats either maintained on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids (EFAD) or exposed to cold (6 degrees C) or with yeast-induced fever. In light of our findings it appears conceivable that non-PG-mediated mechanism(s) play a relevant role in laxation induced ...
Tilghman J A - - 1988
1. A reduction in the dietary concentration of choline, an essential nutrient for Drosophila melanogaster, from the optimal concentration of 80 micrograms/ml of defined medium to 8 micrograms/ml diminished the level of tissue phosphatidylcholine to less than one-third the normal level in third instar larvae without significantly altering the amount ...
Tahara Y - - 1988
A man with diabetes mellitus, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and blind loop syndrome but without any previous thyroid disease developed three episodes of transient primary hypothyroidism associated with protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM). Clinical examinations suggested that this primary hypothyroidism was not caused by chronic thyroiditis, iodine deficiency, or iodine excess. Since ...
Lehmann A - - 1987
Directly after weaning, kittens were raised on a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 0.4% taurine or devoid of this amino acid. Eight to twelve weeks later the blood plasma concentration of taurine was decreased by 98-99% in kittens fed a taurine-free regimen. Parietal cortex dialysis, performed in anaesthetized kittens, revealed a ...
Watkins B A - - 1987
Chicks were fed a purified diet with 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 micrograms/kg diet of added biotin to determine the effects of biotin deficiency on polyunsaturated fatty acids in tissue lipids. Body weight was reduced by biotin deficiency and liver and heart biotin levels varied with the biotin ...
Lefkowith J B - - 1987
Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency exerts a beneficial effect on immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, preventing both the tissue injury and consequent mortality. Because both macrophages and eicosanoids are thought to play pathogenic roles in glomerulonephritis, and because macrophages play an important role in modulating arachidonate metabolism at sites of renal injury, the ...
Siguel E N - - 1987
To develop criteria for deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA), we used capillary-column gas-liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids (percentage of total fatty acids) in plasma obtained in the fasting state from 56 reference subjects and from 10 patients with intestinal fat malabsorption and suspected EFA deficiency. Fatty acid evaluations ...
Melton J L - - 1987
Linoleate-rich O-acylglucosylceramides and acylceramides are thought to be of major significance for the physical structure and function of the epidermal permeability barrier. In the present investigation, the effects of a linoleate-free diet on O-acylsphingolipids and their associated functions were investigated. Starting at 5 days of age, male pigs were fed ...
Alden P B - - 1987
Abnormal profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma phospholipid fraction were observed in 14 patients with hypermetabolism due to severe isolated closed head injury. Depressed linoleic acid levels were observed within 24 hours along with elevation of oleic acid levels. By one week postinjury, subnormal levels of arachidonic acid ...
Fukuda H - - 1987
Effects of essential and non-essential amino acids on induction of lipogenic enzymes were investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was markedly induced by the addition of essential amino acids alone to the cultured medium, but was not induced by non-essential amino acids. Fatty-acid synthetase was also markedly induced by ...
Goa K L - - 1987
l-Carnitine occurs naturally as an essential cofactor of fatty acid metabolism which is synthesised endogenously or obtained from dietary sources. In patients with primary carnitine deficiencies, which may be life-threatening, and some secondary deficiencies such as organic acidurias, the exogenously administered compound is clearly beneficial: by abolishing hypotonia, motor skills ...
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