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Results 701 - 750 of 1754
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Felten V - - 2001
The effect of acidification on the acid-sensitive species Gammarus fossarum was investigated in the laboratory. The results showed that as mortality increased, mean hemolymph chloride and sodium concentrations decreased rapidly. Concomitantly, organisms hyperventilated during the first 24 h and then started to hypoventilate. These results demonstrated that exposure to acid ...
Culleton B F - - 2001
Elevated serum uric acid is a frequent finding in patients with kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Intrarenal ischaemia, induced by hypertension, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, and hyperinsulinaemia have all been implicated in reduced renal clearance of urate. This frequently results in elevated serum uric acid levels. The association of ...
Carlson M - - 2001
A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate in mammalian urine contaminated packaging material including paper bagging, corrugated cardboard, grayboard, and burlap bagging. The procedure involves solvent extraction and isolation of the 3 analytes by reversed-phase LC with ultraviolet detection at ...
Delmelle P - - 2001
Certain volcanoes constitute the world's largest sources of SO2, HCl, and HF emissions and contribute significantly to regional acid deposition. However, the impact of volcanic acid emissions to nearby ecosystems remain poorly documented. In this paper, the spatial pattern of acid dry depositions was monitored within 44 km of Masaya ...
Antolic G - - 2001
The pharmacokinetic parameters of nitrendipine were determined in 40 healthy male volunteers and a very high degree of intersubject variability was observed (CV = 39-71%). Since the distribution of nitrendipine to erythrocytes could influence the overall pharmacokinetic variability the correlation between hematocrit and various pharmacokinetic parameters was analyzed, using linear ...
Miyamoto Y - - 2001
Alternation of a composition of set apatite cement (AC) from carbonate-free apatite (CO3-free AP) to carbonate apatite (CO3-AP) may accelerate replacement of the set AC with bone because CO3-AP can be dissolved much faster than CO3-free AP in the weak acidic solution produced by osteoclasts. In this investigation, NaHCO3 was ...
Kato-Noguchi H - - 2001
This study examines the influence of the growth promoter, lepidimoic acid, on the level of an important cytosolic signal metabolite, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), which can activate pyrophosphatedependent:phosphofructokinase (PFP, EC 2.7.1.90), and on glycolytic metabolism in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings. Fru-2,6-P2 concentrations were respectively increased by approximately 2-, 3- and 4-fold when ...
Zhang L - - 2001
A novel covalently modified glassy carbon electrode with glutamic acid has been fabricated via an electrochemical oxidation procedure and was applied to the catalytic oxidation of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA), reducing the overpotentials by about 0.2 V and 0.3 V, respectively. Based on its strong catalytic function ...
Abbott D E - - 2001
The use of large quantities of neutral coal fly ash (NFA) may be facilitated by co-application with a lime-stabilized biosolid (LSB) for the reclamation of acid mine spoil (AMS). Although NFA may not aid in the mitigation of acid drainage, questions concerning the leachability and mineralogy of native and NFA- ...
Paerl H W - - 2001
Stromatolites are laminated, lithified (CaCO3) sedimentary deposits formed by precipitation and/or sediment accretion by cyanobacterial-bacterial mat communities. Stromatolites have been associated with these communities as far back as the Precambrian era some 2+ billion years ago. The means by which microbial communities mediate the precipitation processes have remained unclear, and ...
Khan S A - - 2001
Uric acid (2,6,8 trioxopurine), the end product of purine metabolism in mammalian systems, has shown a wide range of antioxidant properties including scavenging of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. In this study we show that in the presence of visible light, uric acid disrupted caprine alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha(2) M) structure and ...
Yamamoto T - - 2001
To examine whether furosemide affects the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of purine bases and oxypurinol, we administered allopurinol (300 mg) orally to 6 healthy subjects and then administered furosemide (20 mg) intravenously 10 hours later. Furosemide (20 mg) decreased the urinary excretion of uric acid by 40% (P < ...
Marinello E - - 2001
In our previous experiments on rat liver we found that 15' after intraperitoneal administration of 14C-formate the specific radioactivity of allantoin was always higher than that of uric acid. The present experiments have been carried out to interpret this unexpected result, which was only observed in liver and we studied: ...
Porter W H - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To correlate serum glycolic acid levels with clinical severity and outcome in ethylene glycol poisoning and to determine if glycolic acid levels are predictive of renal failure and the need for hemodialysis. METHODS: We measured serum ethylene glycol and glycolic acid levels by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for 41 admissions ...
Fischer R L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the higher maternal serum uric acid levels observed in the third trimester of nonpreeclamptic twin gestations result from increased uric acid production or decreased renal excretion. METHODS: Thirty-four nonpreeclamptic subjects with twin gestations were analyzed, along with 34 singleton controls matched for age, ethnicity, prepregnancy weight, ...
Scott G S - - 2001
Peroxynitrite, the product of the free radicals nitric oxide and superoxide, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory CNS disorders. Uric acid, an effective scavenger of peroxynitrite, is a purine metabolite present at high levels in the serum of hominoids relative to lower-order animals due to the functional deletion ...
Röhrl A - - 2001
Low-molecular weight dicarboxylic acids are important constituents ofthe organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter in remote and polluted regions. The knowledge on their sources is sparse, however, and organic aerosols in general need to be better characterized. Observations of C2-C5 alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs oxalic, malonic, succinic, and glutaric acid) and ...
Hung C H - - 2001
Fine pore ceramic diffuser aeration, a very competitive high efficiency system, is widely used in aerobic biological processes for providing dissolved oxygen and mixing. Concern has been registered regarding the maintenance of these systems and their susceptibility to diffuser fouling. Selected ceramic diffusers, removed from the Madison Metropolitan Sewage District ...
Grases F - - 2000
The study of the composition and structure of 41 stones composed of uric acid was complemented by in vitro investigation of the crystallization of uric acid. Uric acid dihydrate (UAD) precipitates from synthetic urine under physiological conditions when the medium is supersaturated with respect to this compound, though uric acid ...
Safranow K - - 2000
A high-pressure liquid chromatography method has been developed for the analysis in urinary calculi of six purines: uric acid, 2, 8-dihydroxyadenine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, allopurinol, and oxypurinol. Separation was conducted isocratically on a reversed-phase column, using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) / methanol (97/3, v/v) as mobile phase. Limits of ...
Poore M W - - 2000
Ambient air monitoring for organic acids in PM2.5 was conducted at several locations in California. During the study, it was found that oxalic acid (ethanedioc acid) was the most abundant organic acid found in the PM2.5 fraction. Samples from Azuza (in southern California), San Jose (in the San Francisco Bay ...
Inoue H - - 2000
The effect of segmental transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TAE) on serum amino acid levels and liver function were studied in 23 patients with HCC associated with hepatitis virus C (22 patients) or alcoholism (1 patient), with compensated liver cirrhosis (Child A 18 patients, Child B 5 patients). Serum levels of branched-chain ...
Bachmann R - - 2000
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Artificial urinary calculi similar to natural stones have long been sought in urologic research. In an experimental study, the authors assessed the CT characteristics of a new type of artificially produced urinary calculus [BON(N)-STONE]. METHODS: Six different types of urinary calculi (uric acid, struvite, cystine, calcium oxalate, ...
Jacobsen W - - 2000
In an in vitro study, we compared the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism and drug interactions of the acid and lactone forms of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin. Metabolism of atorvastatin acid and lactone by human liver microsomes resulted in para-hydroxy and ortho-hydroxy metabolites. Both substrates were metabolized mainly by ...
Heimbach D - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to look for an improvement of therapeutic strategies with regard to the treatment of uric acid stones using artificial stones made of uric acid (BON(N)-STONES) which are comparable to their natural counterparts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an experimental arrangement simulating the physiological conditions in the ...
Buemann B - - 2000
D-tagatose, which is a stereoisomer of D-fructose, is phosphorylated to D-tagatose-1-phosphate by fructokinase in the liver. Because of a slow degradation rate of D-tagatose-1-phosphate, this substance may accumulate, and ingested D-tagatose may therefore cause a longer lasting reduction in inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in the liver ...
Decaux G - - 2000
The high fractional excretion (FE) of uric acid observed in hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is commonly attributed to the volume-expanded state, although volume expansion in normonatremic volunteers is unable to increase urate clearance to a degree similar to that in SIADH. The ...
Kim Y G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Deposition of uric acid in the kidney can lead to progressive tubulointerstitial injury with granuloma formation. We hypothesized that uric acid crystal deposition may induce granuloma formation by stimulating local expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is a known mediator of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). MATERIALS AND ...
Nikas S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: A number of adverse metabolic effects are associated with indapamide administration, including an increase in serum uric acid levels. It has been reported that losartan can significantly decrease serum uric acid levels. However, there are no data on the effects of combination therapy of losartan with indapamide on uric ...
Yamamoto T - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether losartan affects the plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of purine bases and oxypurinol. METHODS: We administered allopurinol (300 mg) and then 9 h later losartan potassium (100 mg) to 5 healthy subjects. RESULTS: The urinary excretion of uric acid increased by 3.9- and 2.6-fold, and that ...
Yin M - - 2000
Organic osmolytes, solutes that regulate cell volume, occur at high levels in marine invertebrates. These are mostly free amino acids such as taurine, which are "compatible" with cell macromolecules, and methylamines such as trimethylamine oxide, which may have a nonosmotic role as a protein stabilizer, and which is higher in ...
Fukuda T - - 2000
CYP2D6 exhibits genetic polymorphism with interindividual differences in metabolic activity. We have found a significant influence on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine by the CYP2D6*10 allele in a Japanese population. CYP2D6.10, which is translated from CYP2D6*10, has two amino acid substitutions: Pro34 --> Ser and Ser486 --> Thr. In this study, ...
Nakamura T - - 2000
Although echocardiography is a useful diagnostic tool in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), it is sometimes difficult to differentiate it from hypertensive heart disease (HHD): some patients with HCM show symmetrical hypertrophy, whereas patients with HHD sometimes show asymmetrical septal hypertrophy. We used a radioiodinated long-chain fatty acid tracer to visualize the ...
van Gelderen C E - - 2000
Because from earlier experiments in rats and a pilot study in humans a no-effect level of glycyrrhizic acid could not be established, a second experiment was performed in healthy volunteers. The experiment was performed in females only, because the effects were most marked in females in the pilot study. Doses ...
Prakash S - - 2000
Increase in systemic uric acid occurs in renal insufficiency, gout, chemotherapy, and other diseases. Dialysis can lower this metabolite but is expensive. The use of drugs can, sometime, result in side effects. Therefore, a suitable affordable method for this is required. In this article, for the first time, we report ...
Ringvold A - - 2000
PURPOSE: To analyze the components responsible for the UV absorbance in diurnal bird aqueous humor. METHODS: The absorbance studies were carried out using a Hitachi spectrophotometer (U 2000). Uric acid was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (LC-10 system; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). Chicken and turkey eyes were examined. RESULTS: The UV ...
Maruyama T - - 2000
A general procedure to obtain tetra-substituted uric acid by stepwise N-alkylation is described. 2,6-Dichloropurine (1) was condensed with 1-propanol by Mitsunobu reaction to give 9-propyl congener (2). Treatment of 2 with ammonia gave adenine derivative (4a), which was converted to the 8-oxoadenine (5b) in 3 steps. Methylation of 5b proceeded ...
Uzun K - - 2000
Uric acid is known to be an end product of purine metabolism. Increases in uric acid may be found in clinical conditions associated with tissue hypoxia. We have investigated the value of uric acid to differentiate between a transudate and exudate. In this study, we measured uric acid in the ...
Bezuglov V V - - 2000
The interaction of organic nitrates (nitroethyleneglycol, dinitroglycerol, and their esters with arachidonic acid) with oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin has been studied. Addition of nitroethyleneglycol and dinitroglycerol to oxyhemoglobin is accompanied by a modest but significant increase in oxidation rate of the heme protein to the high-spin ferri-form--methemoglobin. Arachidonoylglycerol dinitrate exerts a ...
Nakada S Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Several investigators have evaluated noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) in predicting stone composition in vitro. We assessed NCCT in predicting stone composition in patients presenting to our emergency room with flank pain and stone disease. METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine patients presenting to our university hospital with flank pain underwent renal ...
Lin K C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of gout and the interaction between uric acid level and other risk factors in the development of gout. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-three asymptomatic hyperuricemic men initially studied in 1991-92 were reassessed in 1996-97. Gout was clinically diagnosed by a senior rheumatologist based on history and ...
Wang J - - 2000
A micromachined capillary electrophoresis chip is described for simultaneous measurements of glucose, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid. Fluid control is used to mix the sample and enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx). The enzymatic reaction, a catalyzed aerobic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs along the separation ...
Son S M - - 2000
Oxalic acid has a strong antibrowning activity. The inhibitory pattern on catechol-PPO model system appeared to be competitive, with a K(i) value of 2.0 mM. When the PPO was incubated with oxalic acid, the activity was not recovered via dialysis, but the inactivated enzyme partially recovered its activity when cupric ...
Reed D R - - 2000
Plasma uric acid concentration aggregates in families, and this similarity has been suggested to be due, in part, to multiple shared genes. Men have higher plasma uric acid concentrations than women and are affected with gout nine times more frequently. Rare forms of hyperuricemia and gout are due to mutations ...
Zampronio C G - - 2000
In this work a stainless steel electrode was prepared, characterised and used as indicator electrode in a potentiometric flow cell. Due to its versatility, it was possible to study different electrode geometries and flow cell arrangements. After optimising the system, mixtures of succinic and oxalic acids were determined by titration. ...
Yamakita J - - 2000
Accurate determination of serum and urinary uric acid concentrations is essential for the diagnosis and classification of gout according to uric acid metabolism derangement. Urine and/or serum samples are often kept at either 4 degrees C or -20 degrees C until assayed, when a large number of samples are handled ...
Rafique M - - 2000
To study the chemical composition of upper renal tract (renal and ureteric) calculi in Multan. Department of Urology, Nishtar Hospital, Multan. September 1992 to February 1999. A total of 700 renal and ureteric calculi were analyzed by chemical method of Hodgkinson. The commonest were uric acid (28.1%) calculi, followed in ...
Squadrito G L - - 2000
Peroxynitrite, a biological oxidant formed from the reaction of nitric oxide with the superoxide radical, is associated with many pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Gout (hyperuricemic) and MS are almost mutually exclusive, and uric acid has therapeutic effects in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal ...
Shibutani Y - - 2000
We investigated the renal transport of purine bases (uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine) after rapid and continuous ACTH loading tests in a patient with isolated ACTH deficiency, a rare cause of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency. Plasma uric acid concentration and the urinary ratio of uric acid/creatinine did not change in the ...
Popa E - - 2000
Electrochemically anodized diamond film electrodes were used for selective detection of uric acid (UA) in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) by differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Because the oxidation peak potential for AA is approximately 450 mV more positive than that for UA at anodized diamond ...
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