Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2420
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Ramadan Tamara - - 2006
Basolateral efflux is a necessary step in transepithelial (re)absorption of amino acids from small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. The best characterized basolateral amino acid transporters are y+LAT1-4F2hc and LAT2-4F2hc that function as obligatory exchangers and thus, do not contribute to net amino acid (re)absorption. The aromatic amino acid transporter ...
Geyer J - - 2006
The solute carrier family 10 (SLC10) comprises two sodium-dependent bile acid transporters, i.e. the Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP; SLC10A1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2). These carriers are essentially involved in the maintenance of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids mediating the first step of active bile ...
Oshiro Naomi - - 2006
The Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporters (NaDC1) from mouse (m) and rabbit (rb) differ in their ability to handle glutarate. Substrate-dependent inward currents, measured using two-electrode voltage clamp, were similar for glutarate and succinate in Xenopus oocytes expressing mNaDC1. In contrast, currents evoked by glutarate in rbNaDC1 were only about 5% of the ...
Repetto Esteban M - - 2006
Nitric oxide synthesis depends on the availability of its precursor L-arginine, which could be regulated by the presence of a specific uptake system. In the present report, the characterization of the L-arginine transport system in mouse adrenal Y1 cells was performed. L-arginine transport was mediated by the cationic/neutral amino acid ...
Ali O - - 2006
We have studied the transport of acetate across the isolated epithelium of sheep omasum; no net transport was observed (J(ms) approximately = J(sm)) under Ussing chamber conditions. Low mucosal pH (pH 6.4) significantly enhanced J(ms) acetate and the transport rates of acetate increased linearly and significantly (r2=0.99) with the luminal ...
Trevaskis Natalie L - - 2006
The current study has examined whether drugs that are transported to the systemic circulation via the intestinal lymph (and therefore associate with lipoproteins within the enterocyte) are accessible to enterocyte-based metabolic processes. The impact of changes to the mass of lipid present within the enterocyte-based lymph lipid precursor pool (LLPP) ...
Osawa Hiroki - - 2006
Aluminum (Al) tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is mainly achieved by malate efflux, which is regulated by the expression of the recently identified gene, presumably encoding an Al-activated malate efflux transporter (ALMT1). However, the transport mechanism is not fully understood, partly as a result of the rapid turnover of ...
Maupin C Mark - - 2006
The multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) model, which was developed for molecular dynamics simulations of proton transport in water and biomolecular systems, is extended for the modeling of protonatable amino acid residues in aqueous environments, specifically histidine and glutamic acid. The parameters of the MS-EVB force field are first determined ...
O'Mara M - - 2006
The Na(+)-dependent transport of neutral amino acids in epithelial cells and neurons is mediated by B(0)-type neutral amino acid transporters. Two B(0)-type amino acid transporters have been identified in the neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6, namely B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and B(0)AT2 (SLC6A15). In contrast to other members of this family, B(0)-like transporters ...
Jung H - - 2006
Amino acid transport is a ubiquitous phenomenon and serves a variety of functions in prokaryotes, including supply of carbon and nitrogen for catabolic and anabolic processes, pH homeostasis, osmoprotection, virulence, detoxification, signal transduction and generation of electrochemical ion gradients. Many of the participating proteins have eukaryotic relatives and are successfully ...
Fezza Filomena - - 2006
Anandamide (AEA) is the most studied member of a new class of lipid mediators, collectively called endocannabinoids. The biological activity of AEA at cannabinoid and noncannabinoid receptors depends on its life span in the extracellular space, which is regulated by a rapid cellular uptake, followed by intracellular degradation by the ...
Sakaeda Toshiyuki - - 2006
PURPOSE: With the growing clinical usage of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), the number of reports concerning serious drug-drug interaction has been increasing. Because recent studies have shown that conversion between acid and lactone forms occurs in the body, drug-drug interaction should be considered on both acid and lactone ...
Dunlop John - - 2006
This review provides an overview of ligands for the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), a family of high-affinity glutamate transporters localized to the plasma membrane of neurons and astroglial cells. Ligand development from the perspective of identifying novel and more selective tools for elucidating transporter subtype function, and the potential ...
Bröer Angelika - - 2006
Transporters of the SLC6 (solute carrier 6) family play an important role in the removal of neurotransmitters in brain tissue and in amino acid transport in epithelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that mouse v7-3 (slc6a15) encodes a transporter for neutral amino acids. The transporter is functionally and ...
Bolder Ulrich - - 2006
Heat stress (HS) reduces the many sequelae of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia. Without HS, endotoxins have been shown to induce a transcriptional down-regulation of hepatocyte transport proteins for bile acids and organic anions. We performed experiments in isolated perfused rat livers at various times after LPS administration with and without HS ...
Richards M Rachel - - 2006
The fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) and long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACSL) proteins have been shown to play a role in facilitating long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) transport in mammalian cells under physiologic conditions. The involvement of both FATP and ACSL proteins is consistent with the model of vectorial acylation, ...
Ganapathy M E - - 2005
ATB(0,+) is a unique amino acid transporter because of its broad substrate specificity and concentrative ability. This transporter recognizes neutral as well as cationic amino acids. It is energized by Na(+) and Cl(-) gradients and membrane potential. Many of the amino acids and amino acid derivatives that are substrates for ...
Pastor-Soler Nuria - - 2005
Acid/base transporters play a key role in establishing an acidic luminal environment for sperm maturation and storage in the male reproductive tract. Impairment of the acidification capacity of the epididymis, via either genetic mutations or exposure to environmental factors, may have profound consequences on male fertility.
Yamasaki Masahiro - - 2005
Babesia gibsoni multiplies well in canine red blood cells (RBCs) containing high concentrations of potassium (HK), reduced glutathione, and free amino acids as a result of an inherited high Na,K-ATPase activity, i.e., HK RBCs. To determine the role of Na,K-ATPase in the multiplication of B. gibsoni, the effect of ouabain ...
Silber Ariel M - - 2006
The role of amino acids in trypanosomatids goes beyond protein synthesis, involving processes such as differentiation, osmoregulation and energy metabolism. The availability of the amino acids involved in those functions depends, among other things, on their transport into the cell. Here we characterize a glutamate transporter from the human protozoan ...
Kirchhoff Philipp - - 2006
Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described ...
Janout Vaclav - - 2005
A series of molecular umbrella conjugates, derived from cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, spermidine, lysine, and 5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid, have been synthesized and found capable of transporting an attached 16-mer oligonucleotide (S-dT16) across liposomal membranes made from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyldglycerol (POPG), and cholesterol [POPC/POPG/cholesterol (65/5/30; mol/mol/mol, v/v/v)] at 37 degrees C. Those ...
Miyauchi Seiji - - 2005
Reabsorption of amino acids is an important function of the renal proximal tubule. pH-dependent amino acid transport has been measured previously using rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether this pH-dependent uptake represents H(+)/amino acid cotransport via a PAT1-like transport system. The ...
Hosoi Masatomi - - 2005
Most aquatic invertebrates adapt to environmental osmotic changes primarily by the cellular osmoconforming process, in which osmolytes accumulated in their cells play an essential role. Taurine is one of the most widely utilized osmolytes and the most abundant in many molluscs. Here, we report the structure, function and expression of ...
Severi Emmanuele - - 2005
Sialylation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important mechanism used by the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae to evade the innate immune response of the host. We have demonstrated that N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or sialic acid) uptake in H. influenzae is essential for the subsequent modification of the LPS and that ...
Fitze Dorothee - - 2005
While the levels of free auxins in maize (Zea mays L.) roots during arbuscular mycorrhiza formation have been previously described in detail, conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with amino acids and sugars were neglected. In this study, we have therefore determined free, ester and amide bound ...
Katragadda Suresh - - 2005
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter, ASCT1, in rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell culture and rabbit cornea. METHODS: Uptake studies were carried out on rabbit primary corneal epithelial culture (rPCEC) cells using 12-well plates. Transport studies were conducted ...
Poupart Julie - - 2005
Polar transport of the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has recently been shown to occur in Arabidopsis (Arabidopis thaliana) seedlings, yet the physiological importance of this process has yet to be fully resolved. Here we describe the first demonstration of altered IBA transport in an Arabidopsis mutant, and show that the ...
Wender Paul A - - 2005
[reaction: see text] Nine fluorescently labeled structurally varied polyguanidino dendrimers based on diamino acid monomeric units were individually synthesized in an efficient, scalable sequence using a trifluoroacetamide protecting group-perguanidinylation strategy. While the dendrimers varied significantly in their ability to enter a human lymphocyte cell line, the best transporters out-performed an ...
Ristic Zorica - - 2006
Most neutral l-amino acid acids are transported actively across the luminal brush-border membrane of small intestine and kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells by a Na(+) cotransport system named B(0) that has been recently molecularly identified (B(0)AT1, SLC6A19). We show here that the opossum kidney-derived cell line OK also displays a ...
Slowey Aaron J - - 2005
A number of factors affect the transport of dissolved and particulate mercury (Hg) from inoperative Hg mines, including the presence of organic acids in the rooting zone of vegetated mine waste. We examined the role of the two most common organic acids in soils (oxalic and citric acid) on Hg ...
Bruce Lesley J - - 2005
We identified 11 human pedigrees with dominantly inherited hemolytic anemias in both the hereditary stomatocytosis and spherocytosis classes. Affected individuals in these families had an increase in membrane permeability to Na and K that is particularly marked at 0 degrees C. We found that disease in these pedigrees was associated ...
Lamhonwah Anne-Marie - - 2005
Campylobacter jejuni and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. The presence of bacterial metabolites in the colonic lumen causing a specific breakdown of fatty acid oxidation in colonic epithelial cells has been suggested as an initiating event in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). l-Carnitine is a ...
Geisler Markus - - 2005
Directional transport of the phytohormone auxin is required for the establishment and maintenance of plant polarity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Plant homologs of human multiple drug resistance/P-glycoproteins (MDR/PGPs) have been implicated in auxin transport, as defects in MDR1 (AtPGP19) and AtPGP1 result in reductions ...
Trotter Pamela J - - 2005
Utilization of fatty acids such as oleic acid as sole carbon source by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires coordinated function of peroxisomes, where the fatty acids are degraded, and the mitochondria, where oxidation is completed. We identified two mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate transporters, Odc1p and Odc2p, as important in efficient utilization of ...
Fujino Hideki - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the transport mechanism of pitavastatin, a novel synthetic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Experiments were performed using oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing several solute carrier (SLC) transporters and recombinant membrane vesicles expressing several human ABC transporters. The acid form of ...
Takanaga Hitomi - - 2005
The SLC6 gene family comprises membrane proteins that transport neurotransmitters, amino acids, or osmolytes. We report the first functional characterization of the human SLC6A15 gene, which codes for a sodium-coupled branched-chain amino-acid transporter 1 (SBAT1). SBAT1 expression is specific to the brain. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, SBAT1 mediated Na+-coupled ...
Klepper Jörg - - 2005
In 2000, amino acid residue G75 of the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT1 was identified by mutagenesis as being essential for transport function [Olsowski, A., et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2469-74]. In 2002, we identified a heterozygous missense mutation substituting glycine at residue 75 for tryptophan in a 10-year-old girl with ...
Calace Nicoletta - - 2005
We performed a study of fulvic acids extracted from fresh and aged snow, and from recent and ancient ice in Antarctica. The fresh snow samples were collected in coastal and inland sites to evaluate the influence of the distance from the sea on organic matter transport. Moreover, in a site ...
Romeo Elisa - - 2006
The B degrees transport system mediates the Na(+)-driven uptake of a broad range of neutral amino acids into epithelial cells of small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. A corresponding transporter was identified in 2004 (A. Broer, K. Klingel, S. Kowalczuk, J. E. Rasko, J. Cavanaugh, and S. Broer. J Biol ...
Boado Ruben J - - 2005
The large neutral amino acid transporter type 1, LAT1, is the principal neutral amino acid transporter expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Owing to the high affinity (low Km) of the LAT1 isoform, BBB amino acid transport in vivo is very sensitive to transport competition effects induced by hyperaminoacidemias, such ...
Metzner Linda - - 2005
The proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1, cloned recently from brain and intestine, mediates the uphill transport of l- and d-proline, l-alanine, glycine, taurine, d-serine, GABA, and many other related compounds and drugs. Here we describe the novel finding that l-tryptophan and its derivatives tryptamine, 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, serotonin, and indole-3-propionic acid strongly ...
Camargo Simone M R - - 2005
The members of the neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6A exhibit a high degree of structural homology; however differences arise in many aspects of their transport mechanisms. In this study we report that mouse B(0)AT1 (mouse Slc6a19) mediates the electrogenic transport of a broad range of neutral amino acids but not of ...
Stukkens Yvan - - 2005
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia NpPDR1, a plasma membrane pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter formerly named NpABC1, has been suggested to transport the diterpene sclareol, an antifungal compound. However, direct evidence for a role of pleiotropic drug resistance transporters in the plant defense is still lacking. In situ immunolocalization and histochemical analysis ...
Sharpe J G - - 2005
Due to the similarity in transport characteristics of polyamines and the y+ basic amino acid system, we hypothesized that both substrates could be moving through a common carrier site. Competitive and cross inhibition experiments in intestinal epithelial cells revealed the possibility of a common transport site. N-ethylmalemide (NEM) inhibited both ...
Novak Don - - 2006
Amino acid transport System A (SysA) plays an important role in mediating the transplacental transfer of neutral amino acids from mother to fetus. Given that prior work has demonstrated that SysA activity is regulated, both over gestation and in response to dietary restriction during pregnancy, we examined the response of ...
Zhou Xiaolan - - 2005
The transport of amino acids across membranes is critical to all cells. As amino acids freely pass through the glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney, they must be efficiently resorbed to avoid depletion of circulating amino acid reserves. Not only do defects in amino acid resorption lead to costly wastage, ...
Kai Saori - - 2005
Among the organic cation transporters, OCTN2 is identified as the most important carnitine transporter owing to the ability to transport carnitine. Although the OCTN2 is previously found in various tissues, there have been no reports showing the OCTN2 in the pancreas. In this study, we examined the expression and localization ...
Anderson Catriona M H - - 2005
A H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter has been characterised functionally at the brush border membrane of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. This carrier, hPAT1 (human Proton-coupled Amino acid Transporter 1) or SLC36A1, has been identified recently at the molecular level and hPAT1 protein is localised to the brush border membrane ...
Leyser Ottoline - - 2005
The plant hormone auxin, synthesised in the shoot apex, moves down the stem and inhibits lateral branching. Auxin does not travel upward into the branches, so it must act indirectly; for example, through a second messenger. However, recent work on auxin transport suggests a possible additional mechanism whereby auxin transport ...
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