Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2420
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Nicolás Juana Inés López - - 2007
The relationship between the variation in polar auxin transport (PAT) and elongating growth in etiolated Lupinus albus hypocotyls was investigated. Parameters of auxin transport, such as the amount transported, intensity of the transport and sensitivity to 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) inhibition were measured in isolated sections from different sites (apical, middle ...
Wiles Amy L - - 2006
N-arachidonyl-glycine is one of a series of N-arachidonyl-amino acids that are derived from arachidonic acid. N-arachidonyl-glycine is produced in a wide range of tissues with greatest abundance in the spinal cord. Here we report that N-arachidonyl-glycine is a reversible and non-competitive inhibitor of glycine transport by GLYT2a, but has little ...
Zeuthen Thomas - - 2006
Plasmodium falciparum uses amino acids from haemoglobin degradation mainly for protein biosynthesis. Glutamine, however, is mostly oxidized to 2-oxoglutarate to restore NAD(P)H + H+. In this process two molecules of ammonia are released. We determined an ammonia production of 9 mmol h(-1) per litre of infected red blood cells in ...
Risinger April L - - 2006
The general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transports all naturally occurring amino acids into yeast cells for use as a nitrogen source. Previous studies have shown that a nonubiquitinateable form of the permease, Gap1p(K9R,K16R), is constitutively localized to the plasma membrane. Here, we report that amino acid transport ...
Watanabe Hirohito - - 2006
Phenolic acids such as p-coumaric acid and microbial metabolites of poorly absorbed polyphenols are absorbed by the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT)-mediated transport system which is identical to the fluorescein/H(+) cotransport system. We focus here on the physiological impact of MCT-mediated absorption and distribution. We examined whether MCT1, the best-characterized isoform ...
Prommer Henning - - 2006
Data obtained from a field study of an aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate and related laboratory experiments suggest that natural attenuation of phenoxy acid herbicides such as mecoprop (MCPP) occurs in the transition zone between the anaerobic plume core and the overlying aerobic water body. The location of this transition ...
Nawashiro Hiroshi - - 2006
L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is a Na+-independent neutral amino acid transport agency and essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. LAT1 has been identified as a light chain of the CD98 heterodimer from C6 glioma cells. LAT1 also corresponds to TA1, an oncofetal antigen that is ...
Meleshkevitch Ella A EA The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 Ocean Shore Blvd., St Augustine, FL 32080, - - 2006
Nutrient amino acid transporters (NATs, subfamily of sodium neurotransmitter symporter family SNF, a.k.a. SLC6) represent a set of phylogenetically and functionally related transport proteins, which perform intracellular absorption of neutral, predominantly essential amino acids. Functions of NATs appear to be critical for the development and survival in organisms. However, mechanisms ...
Carroll F Ivy - - 2006
A series of cyclo-3beta-(4-aminophenyl)-2beta-tropanemethanol analogues (5a-m) possessing varying linker groups between the 2- and 3-position on the tropane ring were synthesized and evaluated for their monoamine transporter binding properties. The results show that binding to the dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and 5-HTT) is highly dependent on the specific linker ...
Zhang Jing - - 2006
The uptake of Urd into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by Fui1p, a Urd-specific nucleoside transporter encoded by the FUI1 gene and a member of the yeast Fur permease family, which also includes the uracil, allantoin, and thiamine permeases. When Fui1p was produced in a double-permease knock-out strain (fur4Deltafui1Delta) ...
Hirano Takeshi - - 2006
L-Carnitine plays an important role in lipid metabolism by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane followed by fatty acid beta-oxidation. It is known that L-carnitine exists as a zwitterion and that member of the OCTN family play an important role in its transport. The ...
Prayitno Joko - - 2006
We studied the ethylene-insensitive, hypernodulating mutant, sickle (skl), to investigate the interaction of ethylene with auxin transport during root nodulation in Medicago truncatula. Grafting experiments demonstrated that hypernodulation in skl is root controlled. Long distance transport of auxin from shoot to root was reduced by rhizobia after 24 h in ...
Yoshida Naoko - - 2006
Terpenoids form a large and structurally diverse family of natural products and are ingredients of various herbal medicines. We have investigated possible interactions between herbal medicines and conventional medicines, and recently reported that monoterpenoids contained in Zanthoxyli Fructus can be potent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In the present study, the ...
Kim Chang-Hyun - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Amino acid transporters are essential for growth and proliferation in all living cells. Among the amino acid transporters, the system L amino acid transporters are the major nutrient transport system responsible for the Na+-independent transport of neutral amino acids, including several essential amino acids. The L-type amino acid transporter ...
Cheon Eun-Pa - - 2006
This study aimed to investigate the gastrointestinal stability and the cellular uptake characteristics of L-valyl-ara-C, a peptidomimetic prodrug of ara-C (cytarabine). After the synthesis of L-valyl-ara-C via the incorporation of L-valine into the N4-amino group of the cytosine ring in araC, the gastrointestinal stability of L-valyl-ara-C was examined using artificial ...
Barth Astrid - - 2006
Verapamil (V) is a specific inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane. Cyclosporin A (CsA) as an essential immunosuppressive drug has potentially cholestatic adverse effects on the liver, but increases the expression of mdr1. In precision-cut liver slices from 34- to 40-day-old male Wistar rats 26 individual ...
López Adriana - - 2006
Amino acid transport via system A plays an important role during lactation, promoting the uptake of small neutral amino acids, mainly alanine and glutamine. However, the regulation of gene expression of system A [sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT)2] in mammary gland has not been studied. The aim of the ...
Blanchard-Fillion Béatrice - - 2006
Intrastriatal injection of 3-nitrotyrosine, which is a biomarker for nitrating oxidants, provokes dopaminergic neuronal death in rats by unknown mechanisms. Herein, we show that extracellular 3-nitrotyrosine is transported via the l-aromatic amino acid transporter in nondopaminergic NT2 cells, whereas in dopaminergic PC12 cells, it is transported by both the l-aromatic ...
Li Fujun - - 2006
The transport of 10 amino acid ester prodrugs of levovirin (LVV) was investigated in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line in order to overcome the poor oral bioavailability of LVV, an investigational drug for the treatment of hepatitis C infection. The prodrugs were designed to improve the permeability of LVV ...
Chabowski Adrian - - 2006
Protein-mediated LCFA transport across plasma membranes is highly regulated by the fatty acid transporters FAT/CD36 and FABPpm. Physiologic stimuli (insulin stimulation, AMP kinase activation) induce the translocation of one or both transporters to the plasma membrane and increase the rate of LCFA transport. In the hypoxic/ischemic heart, intramyocardial lipid accumulation ...
Bonen Arend - - 2006
Rates of fatty acid oxidation increase rapidly in both rat heart and skeletal muscle in the early postnatal period. Therefore, we examined in heart and soleus muscle, (a) whether there were rapid changes in fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36, FABPpm) mRNA and protein expression early in life (days 10 -36) and ...
Lungkaphin Anusorn - - 2006
The expression of both OAT1 and OAT3 along the isolated rabbit renal proximal tubule (RPT) was determined using RT-PCR. They were found to be very strong in S2 segment and weak in S1 and S3 segments. We further examined the relative transport activity of these transporters in isolated perfused rabbit ...
Chabowski Adrian - - 2006
Recently, fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane has been shown to be a key process that contributes to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in the heart. Since AMP kinase activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D: -ribofuranoside (AICAR) stimulates fatty acid oxidation, as well as the expression of selected proteins involved with ...
Oshiro Naomi - - 2006
The Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporters from mouse (mNaDC1) and rabbit (rbNaDC1) differ in their ability to handle adipate, a six-carbon terminal dicarboxylic acid. The mNaDC1 and rbNaDC1 amino acid sequences are 75% identical. The rbNaDC1 does not transport adipate and only succinate produced inward currents under two-electrode voltage clamp. In contrast, oocytes ...
Metzner L - - 2006
The proton coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 expressed in intestine, brain, and other organs accepts L- and D-proline, glycine, and L-alanine but also pharmaceutically active amino acid derivatives such as 3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline as substrates. We systematically analyzed the structural requirements for PAT1 substrates by testing 87 ...
Baydoun A R - - 2006
This study has characterised the transport mechanism(s) for the novel and selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), GW274150, in murine macrophage J774 cells. Transport of GW274150 was saturable (K(m) = 0.24 +/- 0.01 mM and V(max) of 8.5 +/- 0.12 pmol.microg protein(-1) min(-1)), pH-insensitive and largely Na(+)-independent. Transport ...
Gomes L C - - 2006
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of density, duration and the use of additives to the water during the transportation of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and use of this data to establish a safe transportation protocol for the species. The tested products and dosages were: salt ...
den Hengst Chris D - - 2006
Transcriptome analyses have previously revealed that a gene encoding the putative amino acid transporter CtrA (YhdG) is one of the major targets of the pleiotropic regulator CodY in Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis. The role of ctrA in L. lactis was further investigated with respect to both transport activity as ...
Wu Boqian - - 2006
Recent studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed sensors that detect extracellular amino acids (Ssy1p) or glucose (Snf3p and Rgt2p) and are evolutionarily related to the transporters of these nutrients. An intriguing question is whether the evolutionary transformation of transporters into nontransporting sensors reflects a homeostatic capability of transporter-like sensors that could ...
Palii Stela S - - 2006
The neutral amino acid transport activity, System A, is enhanced by amino acid limitation of mammalian cells. Of the three gene products that encode System A activity, the one that exhibits this regulation is SNAT2 (sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2). Fibroblasts that are deficient in the amino acid response ...
Sakamoto Shingo - - 2006
We investigated the contribution of multidrug resistance associated protein 3 (Mrp3/ABCC3) to the transport of bile acids across the rat intestinal basolateral membrane using the everted sacs. The permeability-surface area (PS) products of taurocholate in the everted sacs of rat jejunum, ileum, and colon were determined in the absence or ...
Balakrishnan Anand - - 2006
A major hurdle impeding the successful clinical development of drug candidates can be poor intestinal permeability. Low intestinal permeability may be enhanced by a prodrug approach targeting membrane transporters in the small intestine. Transporter specificity, affinity, and capacity are three factors in targeted prodrug design. The human apical sodium dependent ...
Jones H N - - 2006
Trans-placental transport of amino acids is vital for the developing fetus. Using the BeWo cell line as a placental model, we investigated the effect of restricting amino acid availability on amino acid transport system type A. BeWo cells were cultured either in amino acid-depleted (without non-essential amino acids) or control ...
Franchi-Gazzola R - - 2006
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high ...
Kim Su-Gwan - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The amino acid transport system L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for Na(+)-independent transport of neutral amino acids, including several essential amino acids. The system L is divided into two major subgroups, the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and the L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2). ...
Kolbe Anna - - 2006
In this study, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis in combination with flux analysis and the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip to survey the metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves in response to manipulation of the thiol-disulfide status. Feeding low concentrations of the sulfhydryl reagent dithiothreitol for 1 h at ...
Kasahara Toshiko - - 2006
Hxt2 and Hxt1 are high affinity and low affinity facilitative glucose transporter paralogs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, that differ at 75 amino acid positions in their 12 transmembrane segments (TMs). Comprehensive analysis of chimeras of these two proteins has previously revealed that TMs 1, 5, 7, and 8 of Hxt2 ...
Gaccioli Francesca - - 2006
Nutritional stress caused by amino acid starvation involves a coordinated cellular response that includes the global decrease of protein synthesis and the increased production of cell defense proteins. Part of this response is the induction of transport system A for neutral amino acids that leads to the recovery of cell ...
Melone M - - 2006
We studied the distribution and cellular localization of Na(+)-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2, a member of the system A family of amino acid transporters, in the rat and human cerebral cortex using immunocytochemical methods. Na(+)-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2-positive neurons were pyramidal and non-pyramidal, and Na(+)-coupled neutral amino ...
Sun An-Qiang - - 2006
The mechanisms underlying the transport of bile acids by apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) are not well defined. To further identify the functionally relevant residues, thirteen conserved negatively (Asp and Glu) and positively (Lys and Arg) charged residues plus Cys-270 of rat Asbt were replaced with Ala or Gln ...
Tsuda Masahiro - - 2006
Midodrine is an oral drug for orthostatic hypotension. This drug is almost completely absorbed after oral administration and converted into its active form, 1-(2',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminoethanol) (DMAE), by the cleavage of a glycine residue. The intestinal H+-coupled peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) transports various peptide-like drugs and has been used as a target ...
Iñigo C - - 2006
AIMS: Early characterization of intestinal absorption of imino acids in mammals has demonstrated the existence of a Na+-dependent, Cl- -independent transport system in rat small intestine, which is the only carrier for beta-alanine. Based on the substrate selectivity, it was proposed that the Proton Amino Acid Transporter 1 (PAT1) could ...
Shaked-Mishan Pninit - - 2006
We describe the first functional and molecular characterization of an amino acid permease (LdAAP3) from the human parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in humans. This permease contains 480 amino acids with 11 predicted trans-membrane domains. Expressing LdAAP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants revealed that LdAAP3 codes ...
Kakoki Masao - - 2006
To examine the mechanisms whereby amino acids modulate nitric oxide (NO) production and blood flow in the renal vasculature, chemiluminescence techniques were used to quantify NO in the renal venous effluent of the isolated, perfused rat kidney as different amino acids were added to the perfusate. The addition of 10(-4) ...
Hinault C - - 2006
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Amino acids are well known to activate the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in synergy with insulin to regulate cell functions. Despite recent important advances, the mTOR signalling pathway is poorly understood. Our previous results revealed a new pathway in which amino acids permit insulin-induced activation of ...
Bröer Stefan - - 2006
Transporters in the human genome are grouped in solute carrier families (SLC). The SLC6 family is one of the biggest transporter families in the human genome comprising 20 members. It is usually referred to as the neurotransmitter transporter family because its founding members encode transporters for the neurotransmitters GABA, noradrenaline, ...
Yamaguchi Hiroaki - - 2006
This study sought to clarify the contributions of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 to the liver uptake of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). We synthesized a fluorescent version of CDCA, chenodeoxychilyl-(Nepsilon-NBD)-lysine (CDCA-NBD), to characterize transporter-mediated uptake. CDCA-NBD is efficiently transported by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 with high affinities. The Michaelis-Menten constants ...
Metzner Linda - - 2006
The recently cloned proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) not only accepts several amino acids as substrates but also pharmaceutically relevant L-proline or GABA derivatives such as cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (LACA), 3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid, nipecotic acid, and the antituberculotic agent D-cycloserine. Because human intestine expresses hPAT1 at the brush border membrane, ...
Ho Richard H - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, target liver HMG-CoA and are of proven benefit in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Rosuvastatin is an effective statin notable for liver selectivity and lack of significant metabolism. We assessed the extent and relevance of hepatic transporters ...
Baier P K - - 2006
Pericentral and periportal hepatocytes differ in their capacity to eliminate and velocity of eliminating bile acids and other organic anions. We wonder whether differences in the distribution of anion transporters (ntcp [M77479], besp [NM_031760], mrp2 [NM_012833], oatp1 [NM_017111], oatp2 [NM_131906]) cause the differences in bile acid excretion. Therefore, we analyzed ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >