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Simonović A D - - 2007
In maize seedlings, chilling causes a reduction of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, while acclimation protects GS (manuscript submitted). Since ROS can oxidize both protein-bound and free Met to methionine sulfoxide (MSO) and further to methionine sulfone (MSO2, a GS inhibitor), it was hypothesized that the chilling-induced oxidative stress may cause ...
Asano Shinji - - 2007
LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1), one of the L-type amino acid transporters, transports the branched and aromatic amino acids. LAT1 requires the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (4F2hc) for the functional expression as an amino acid transporter. The expression of this transporter is up-regulated in tumor cells and rapidly-growing ...
Queirós Odília - - 2007
The present work describes a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of the mechanisms of transport of carboxylic acids in Kluyveromyces lactis. This yeast species presents two homologue genes to JEN1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: KlJEN1 encodes a monocarboxylate permease and KlJEN2 encodes a dicarboxylic acid permease. In the strain K. lactis ...
Fukuhara Daisuke - - 2007
We recently cloned the human Na(+)-independent system L neutral amino acid transporter LAT3. The aim of the present study was to characterize the molecular nature of mouse LAT3 at the protein level. Isolated mouse LAT3 showed 83% identity to human LAT3. Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse LAT3 cRNA showed the ...
Tran Ton Hoai Thi - - 2007
VAMP4 is enriched in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and functions in traffic from the early and recycling endosomes to the TGN, but its trafficking itinerary is unknown. Cells stably expressing TGN-enriched VAMP4 C-terminally-tagged with EGFP (VAMP4-EGFP) are able to internalize and transport EGFP antibody efficiently to the TGN, suggesting that ...
Zhang Zhou Z Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1600 Northwest 10th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33136, - - 2007
Na+-Dependent transmembrane transport of small neutral amino acids, such as glutamine and alanine, is mediated, among others, by the neutral amino acid transporters of the solute carrier 1 [SLC1, alanine serine cysteine transporter 1 (ASCT1), and ASCT2] and SLC38 families [sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1), SNAT2, and SNAT4]. ...
Peluffo R Daniel - - 2007
L-Arginine (L-Arg) is a basic amino acid that plays a central role in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide, creatine, agmantine, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Most tissues, including myocardium, must import L-Arg from the circulation to ensure adequate intracellular levels of this amino acid. This study reports novel L-Arg-activated inward currents ...
Ramadan Tamara - - 2007
The rate of amino acid efflux from individual cells needs to be adapted to cellular demands and plays a central role for the control of extracellular amino acid homeostasis. A particular example of such an outward amino acid transport is the basolateral efflux from transporting epithelial cells located in the ...
Pålsson Erik - - 2007
RATIONALE: The cognitive and attentional deficits observed in schizophrenic patients are now considered central to the pathophysiology of the disorder. These deficits include an inability to filter sensory input as measured by, e.g., prepulse inhibition (PPI) reflex. Administration of phencyclidine (PCP), a drug that can induce a schizophrenia-like psychosis in ...
Zhang Zhou - - 2007
The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 mediates cellular uptake of glutamine and other small, neutral amino acids. Here, we report the existence of a leak anion pathway associated with SNAT2. The leak anion conductance was increased by, but did not require the presence of, extracellular sodium. The transported substrates ...
Visser Wouter F - - 2007
In recent years, much progress has been made with respect to the unravelling of the functions of peroxisomes in metabolism, and it is now well established that peroxisomes are indispensable organelles, especially in higher eukaryotes. Peroxisomes catalyse a number of essential metabolic functions including fatty acid beta-oxidation, ether phospholipid biosynthesis, ...
Freire Celedonio Fernandes, Carla
Over 10 years the solute carrier family SLC10 comprised two well established sodium-dependent bile acid transporters, i.e. the Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide NTCP (SLC10A1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT (SLC10A2). These carriers are essentially involved in the maintenance of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids mediating the first ...
Black Paul N - - 2007
The process of fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane occurs by several mechanisms that involve distinct membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins and enzymes. Amongst these are the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) and long-chain acyl CoA synthetases (ACSL). We have shown the yeast orthologues of FATP and ACSL form a ...
Kottegoda Sumith - - 2007
PURPOSE: An understanding of the chemical microenvironments at different locations on the retina can provide unique insights into retinal neurochemistry and pathology. The anatomical shape and the small volumes available from a spatially restricted volume greatly complicate these types of measurements. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an ...
Hajarabeevi N - - 2007
The recovery of anionic dyes Acid Red10 B (CI Acid Violet 54) and Acid Pink BE (CI Acid Red 183) in flat type supported liquid membrane (SLM) using tri-n-butyl phosphate as carrier was studied. The parameters studied were the effect of feed phase pH, stripping reagent concentration, string speed and ...
Kaneyasu Tomoko - - 2007
Plants are sessile in nature, and need to detect and respond to many environmental cues in order to regulate their growth and orientation. Indeed, plants sense numerous environmental cues and respond via appropriate tropisms, and it is widely accepted that auxin plays an important role in these responses. Recent analyses ...
Liu Yu - - 2006
We have synthesized amino acids conjugated at the alpha-carbon through an alkyl spacer to a small tripod ligand. The tripod coordinates to the fac-[M(CO)3]+ moiety (M = Re, 99mTc). Depending on the lengths of the spacers, these metal complexes with pendent alpha-amino acids are recognized and transported by the l-type ...
Danilczyk Ursula - - 2006
Angiotensin -converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a regulator of the renin angiotensin system involved in acute lung failure, cardiovascular functions and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infections in mammals. A gene encoding a homologue to ACE2, termed collectrin (Tmem27), has been identified in immediate proximity to the ace2 locus. The ...
Johnston Lauren - - 2007
The characteristics of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ASC) transport were studied in polarized cultured monolayers of the chick (Gallus gallus) renal proximal tubule in Ussing chambers. Under voltage clamp conditions, monolayers responded to apical addition of ASC in a dose-dependent manner, with positive short circuit currents (I(SC)), ranging from 3 ...
Takada Ritsuko - - 2006
The secretion and extracellular transport of Wnt protein are thought to be well-regulated processes. Wnt is known to be acylated with palmitic acid at a conserved cysteine residue (Cys77 in murine Wnt-3a), and this residue appears to be required for the control of extracellular transport. Here, we show that murine ...
Glatz Jan F C - - 2006
Long-chain fatty acids and glucose are the predominant substrates for cardiac metabolic energy production. While in the healthy heart there is a distinctive and very finely tuned balance between the utilization of these metabolic substrates, in chronic cardiac disease this balance is upset to the use of primarily glucose (e.g., ...
Conrad E M - - 2007
The intestine of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, was isolated and perfused in vitro with a physiological saline, based on the ion composition of the blood, to characterize the mechanisms responsible for transmural transport of zinc and how the amino acid, L-histidine, affects the net movement of the metal across ...
Snow Kris L - - 2007
The thiazolidinedione derivatives, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone, are novel insulin-sensitizing drugs that are useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, hepatotoxicity associated with troglitazone led to its withdrawal from the market in March 2000. In view of case reports of hepatotoxicity from rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, it is unclear ...
Li Sheng - - 2007
System L amino acid transporters have been shown to be responsible for cellular uptake of S-nitroso-L-cysteine (l-CSNO). In this study, we examined the characteristics of L-CSNO uptake in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing system L transporters and found that uptake increased only when both 4F2 heavy chain (4F2HC) and either L-type ...
Kemp Stephan - - 2007
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal membrane located ABC half-transporter named ALDP. Mutations in ALDP result in elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and reduced VLCFA beta-oxidation in peroxisomes. The peroxisomal membrane harbors three additional closely related ABC half-transporters, ...
Faure Sophie - - 2006
The four stereoisomers of l-2-(2-carboxycyclobutyl)glycine, l-CBG-I, l-CBG-II, l-CBG-III, and l-CBG-IV, were synthesized in good yield and high enantiomeric excess, from the corresponding cis and trans-2-oxalylcyclobutanecarboxylic acids 5 and 6 using the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) and branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT) from Escherichia coli. The four stereoisomeric compounds were evaluated as ...
Usui Takeo - - 2006
Lymphocytes in T cell activation require extracellular nutrients to provide energy for cellular proliferation and effector functions. Therefore, inhibitors of nutrient transporters are expected to be a new class of immunosuppressant. Here, we report that the molecular target of brasilicardin A (BraA), an immunosuppressive compound, is the amino acid transporter ...
Hammes Ulrich Z - - 2006
Amino acids represent the major form of reduced nitrogen that is transported in plants. Amino acid transporters in plants often show tissue-specific expression patterns and are used by plants to transport these metabolites from source to sink during development and under changing environmental conditions. We identified one amino acid transporter, ...
Takaishi Naoki - - 2006
Some of the non-ionic surfactants used in pharmaceutical formulations inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multi-drug transporter. The effect of such food emulsifiers as polyglycerol esters (PGE) and sugar esters (SE) of fatty acids on the P-gp activity was studied by using human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The cellular accumulation of [(3)H]-daunomycin, a ...
Rexhepaj Rexhep R Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Gmelinstr. 5, D-72076 Tübingen, - - 2006
The phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 activates the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoforms SGK1, SGK2, and SGK3 and protein kinase B, which in turn are known to up-regulate a variety of sodium-coupled transporters. The present study was performed to explore the role of PDK1 in amino acid transport. As mice completely lacking ...
Hatanaka Takahiro - - 2006
Recently, we cloned the ATA/SNAT transporters responsible for amino acid transport system A. System A is one of the major transport systems for small neutral and glucogenic amino acids represented by alanine and is involved in the metabolism of glucose and fat. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms that participate ...
Martin Rowena E - - 2007
The intraerythrocytic malaria parasite derives much of its requirement for amino acids from the digestion of the hemoglobin of its host cell. However, one amino acid, isoleucine, is absent from adult human hemoglobin and must therefore be obtained from the extracellular medium. In this study we have characterized the mechanisms ...
Lindhurst Marjorie J - - 2006
SLC25A19 mutations cause Amish lethal microcephaly (MCPHA), which markedly retards brain development and leads to alpha-ketoglutaric aciduria. Previous data suggested that SLC25A19, also called DNC, is a mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide transporter. We generated a knockout mouse model of Slc25a19. These animals had 100% prenatal lethality by embryonic day 12. Affected embryos ...
Thwaites David T - - 2007
The absorption of zwitterionic imino and amino acids, and related drugs, is an essential function of the small intestinal epithelium. This review focuses on the physiological roles of transporters recently identified at the molecular level, in particular SLC36A1, by identifying how they relate to the classical epithelial imino and amino ...
Kim Seong-Kyoun - - 2006
Candida parapsilosis is responsible for severe cases of non-albicans systemic candidiasis and is one of the leading causes of mortality in neonates. The molecular mechanisms underlying this organism's virulence remain unknown. Unlike C. albicans, which can exist in several morphogenetic forms, C. parapsilosis exists in either the yeast or pseudohyphal ...
Joshi Pratibha - - 2006
The extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) was studied through chloroform bulk liquid membrane system using a series of non-cyclic receptors such as diethylene glycol (1), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (2), diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (3), diethylene glycol dibenzoate (4), triethylene glycol (5) and tetraethylene ...
Godoy Alejandro - - 2007
We characterized the human Na(+)-ascorbic acid transporter SVCT2 and developed a basic model for the transport cycle that challenges the current view that it functions as a Na(+)-dependent transporter. The properties of SVCT2 are modulated by Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) and a reciprocal functional interaction between Na(+) and ascorbic acid that defines the ...
Moret Caroline - - 2007
The kidney plays a major role in acid-base homeostasis by adapting the excretion of acid equivalents to dietary intake and metabolism. Urinary acid excretion is mediated by the secretion of protons and titratable acids, particularly ammonia. NH(3) is synthesized in proximal tubule cells from glutamine taken up via specific amino ...
Seymour Robert L - - 2006
Tryptophan catabolism via the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) allows human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and other APC to suppress T cell proliferation. IDO helps protect murine fetuses from rejection by the maternal immune system and can promote tolerance and immunosuppression. For tryptophan to be catabolized by IDO, it must first enter ...
Penaud S - - 2006
Lactobacillus bulgaricus is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that, through the production of lactic acid, gradually acidifies its environment during growth. In the course of this process, L. bulgaricus acquires an improved tolerance to acidity. A survey of the recently established genome sequence shows that this bacterium possesses few of ...
Malakauskas Sandra M - - 2007
Defects in renal proximal tubule transport manifest in a number of human diseases. Although variable in clinical presentation, disorders such as Hartnup disease, Dent's disease, and Fanconi syndrome are characterized by wasting of solutes commonly recovered by the proximal tubule. One common feature of these disorders is aminoaciduria. There are ...
Oppedisano Francesca - - 2007
The glutamine/amino acid transporter solubilized from rat renal apical plasma membrane (brush-border membrane) with C12E8 and reconstituted into liposomes has been previously identified as the ASCT2 transporter. The reconstituted transporter catalyses an antiport reaction in which external glutamine and Na+ are cotransported in exchange with internal glutamine (or other amino ...
Cuin Tracey Ann - - 2007
The amino acid content increases substantially in salt-stressed plants. The physiological relevance of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Using the MIFE ion flux measuring technique, we studied the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of 26 amino acids on NaCl-induced K(+) flux from barley root epidermis. We show that 21 (of ...
Soleimani Manoocher - - 2006
Solute-linked carrier 26 (SLC26) isoforms are members of a large, conserved family of anion exchangers, many of which display highly restricted and distinct tissue distribution. Cloning experiments have identified 10 SLC26 genes or isoforms (SLC26A1-11). Except for SLC26A5 (prestin), all function as anion exchangers with versatility with respect to transported ...
Nozawa Akira - - 2006
The roles of three membrane proteins, BOR1, DUR3, and FPS1, in boron (B) transport in yeast were examined. The boron concentration in yeast cells lacking BOR1 was elevated upon exposure to 90 mM boric acid, whereas cells lacking DUR3 or FPS1 showed lower boron concentrations. Compared with control cells, cells ...
Stevenson Charlotte N - - 2006
The toxicological effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the p-glycoprotein (p-gp) cellular efflux transporter were investigated using the marine mussel Mytilus californianus as a model system. Four of the perfluoroalkyl acids studied exhibit chemosensitizing behavior, significantly inhibiting p-gp transporter activity. The inhibitory potency is maximal for the longer chain acids perfluorononanoate ...
Bridges Christy C CC Mercer University School of Medicine, 1550 College Street, Macon, GA 31207, USA. - - 2006
Methylmercury (CH(3)Hg(+)) is a clinically relevant toxicant that is the most abundant form of mercury found in the environment. After exposure, it accumulates in the kidneys, liver, and central nervous system. The mechanisms by which this toxicant is taken up by target cells are only now beginning to be understood. ...
Zhao Weihan - - 2006
The addition of sialic acid to glycoproteins and glycolipids requires Golgi sialyltransferases to have access to their glycoconjugate substrates and nucleotide sugar donor, CMP-sialic acid. CMP-sialic acid is transported into the lumen of the Golgi complex through the CMP-sialic acid transporter, an antiporter that also functions to transport CMP into ...
Xu Wen - - 2006
Human organic anion transporter hOAT1 plays critical roles in the body disposition of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. In the present study, we examined the role of the C terminus of hOAT1 in its function. Combined approaches of cell surface biotinylation and transport analysis were employed for such purposes. ...
Boron Walter F - - 2006
One of the major tasks of the renal proximal tubule is to secrete acid into the tubule lumen, thereby reabsorbing approximately 80% of the filtered HCO3- as well as generating new HCO3- for regulating blood pH. This review summarizes the cellular and molecular events that underlie four major processes in ...
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