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Results 201 - 250 of 2421
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Glezakou Vassiliki-Alexandra - - 2007
We describe molecular orbital theory and ab initio molecular dynamics studies of acid/base equilibria of clusters AH:(H2O)n <==> A-: H+ (H2O)n in low hydration regime (n = 1-4), where AH is a model of perfluorinated sulfonic acids, RSO3H (R = CF3CF2), encountered in polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells. Free ...
Beilke Lisa D LD Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University Animal Care, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, - - 2008
The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps) are a family of adenosine triphosphate-dependent transporters that facilitate the movement of various compounds, including bile acids, out of hepatocytes. The current study was conducted to determine whether induction of these transporters alters bile acid disposition as a means of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced cholestasis. ...
Ji Xunhe - - 2007
Chinese hamster ovary cells show endogenous high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport activity. This transport activity is kinetically similar to a glutamate transporter family strategically expressed in the central nervous system and is pharmacologically unlike glutamate transporter-1 or excitatory amino acid carrier 1. The cDNA of a glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST)-like transporter was ...
Chabowski Adrian - - 2007
There is substantial molecular, biochemical and physiologic evidence that long-chain fatty acid transport involves a protein-mediated process. A number of fatty acid transport proteins have been identified, and for unknown reasons, some of these are coexpressed in the same tissues. In muscle and heart FAT/CD36 and FABPpm appear to be ...
Reynolds B - - 2007
The IIS (insulin/IGF (insulin-like growth factor) signalling) cascade has an important role in regulating normal development and physiology, as evidenced by its effects in a host of major human diseases including cancer, Type 2 diabetes and neurodegeneration. Recently, it has become clear that multiple types of local nutrient-sensing mechanisms have ...
Hussainzada Naissan N Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland, 621 HSF-II, 20 Penn Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, - - 2008
The present study characterizes the methanethiosulfonate (MTS) inhibition profiles of 26 consecutive cysteine-substituted mutants comprising transmembrane (TM) helix 6 of the human apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter (SLC10A2). TM6 is linked exofacially to TM7 via extracellular loop 3. TM7 was identified previously as lining part of the substrate permeation path ...
Marion Tracy L - - 2007
Drug-induced liver toxicity is a significant problem in drug development and clinical practice, yet its mechanisms are not well understood. Growing evidence suggests that inhibition of bile acid transport may be one mechanism of hepatotoxicity. A number of hepatic transporters work in concert to transport bile acids and xenobiotics from ...
Su Mingyu - - 2008
Linolenic acid is an inhibitor of electron transport in chloroplasts of higher plants. It has obvious effects on the structure and function of chloroplasts. In the present paper, we investigated the nano-anatase relieving the inhibition of photoreduction activity and oxygen evolution caused by linolenic acid in spinach chloroplasts. The results ...
Poquet Laure - - 2008
Ferulic acid is an important antioxidant found in food, beverages, supplements, and herbal medicines. However, its mechanism of absorption in the colon has never been examined, even though this is its main site of in vivo absorption. Ferulic acid was efficiently transported as the free form through an in vitro ...
Panikashvili David - - 2007
The cuticle fulfills multiple roles in the plant life cycle, including protection from environmental stresses and the regulation of organ fusion. It is largely composed of cutin, which consists of C(16-18) fatty acids. While cutin composition and biosynthesis have been studied, the export of cutin monomers out of the epidermis ...
Spilsberg Bjørn - - 2007
Shiga toxin (Stx) is internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis and transported retrogradely to the endoplasmic reticulum from where the enzymatically active part of the toxin is translocated to the cytosol. In this study, we have investigated the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on intoxication and retrograde transport of Stx. In ...
Cassio Doris - - 2007
Sinusoidal and apical transporters are responsible for the uptake and biliary elimination of many compounds by hepatocytes. Few in vitro models are however available for analyzing such functions. The expression and bile-acid inducibility of 13 transporters and two nuclear receptors were investigated in the new rat polarized lines, Can 3-1 ...
Parrott Meredith Snook - - 2007
Using intact villous fragments from normal term placentas, the authors characterize the effect of reduced amino acid availability on amino acid uptake via the system A amino acid transporter. Villous fragments deprived of amino acids demonstrate increased system A activity compared with those incubated in an amino acid-sufficient medium (P ...
Shim Yongki - - 2007
Crossflow nanofiltration experiments were performed to investigate the factors influencing the removal of amino acids by a commercially available polymeric thin-film composite membrane. The removals of five monoprotic (Ala, Val, Leu, Gly, and Thr), one diprotic (Asp), and one dibasic (Arg) amino acids in a range of permeate fluxes, feed ...
Nickerson James G - - 2007
Fatty acid transport into heart and skeletal muscle occurs largely through a highly regulated protein-mediated mechanism involving a number of fatty acid transporters. Chronically altered muscle activity (chronic muscle stimulation, denervation) alters fatty acid transport by altering the expression of fatty acid transporters and (or) their subcellular location. Chronic exposure ...
Hirano Takeshi - - 2008
L-Carnitine plays an important role in lipid metabolism by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane followed by fatty acid beta-oxidation. It is known that members of the OCTN family play an important role in L-carnitine transport in the placenta. Investigation of drug-drug or drug-nutrient ...
Drgonova Jana - - 2007
V7-3 (SLC6A15) is the prototype for a gene subfamily whose members have sequence homologies to classical Na+- and Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters but display unusual features that include characteristic large fourth extracellular loops. Interest in v7-3 has been increased by the elucidation of its expression in neurons located in cerebral cortex, ...
Magalhaes Jurandir V - - 2007
Crop yields are significantly reduced by aluminum toxicity on highly acidic soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable land. Candidate aluminum tolerance proteins include organic acid efflux transporters, with the organic acids forming non-toxic complexes with rhizosphere aluminum. In this study, we used positional cloning to identify ...
González Marco I - - 2007
The sodium-dependent glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), has been implicated in the regulation of excitatory signaling and prevention of cell death in the nervous system. There is evidence that EAAC1 constitutively cycles on and off the plasma membrane and that under steady state conditions up to 80% ...
Pajor Ana M AM Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0645, USA. - - 2007
The Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC1 absorbs citric acid cycle intermediates from the lumen of the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. No effective inhibitor has been identified yet, although previous studies showed that the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flufenamate, inhibits the human (h) NaDC1 with an IC(50) value of 2 mM. In ...
Coe Kevin J - - 2007
Flutamide (FLU) is an antiandrogen primarily used in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. It is an idiosyncratic hepatotoxicant that sometimes results in severe liver toxicity. FLU possesses a nitroaromatic group, which may be a contributor to its mechanism of toxicity. A nitro to cyano analogue of FLU (CYA) was ...
Miranda Kildare - - 2008
Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to man. They posses an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as ...
Bodor N - - 2007
Various cell-penetrating peptides have been discovered recently that can translocate across plasma membranes and can even carry large cargo molecules into the cells. Because under physiological conditions most of these peptides carry considerable positive charges due to the presence of basic amino acids such as arginine, we decided to investigate ...
Schlumberger Markus C - - 2007
Salmonella Typhimurium causes bacterial enterocolitis. The type III secretion system (TTSS)-1 is a key virulence determinant of S. Typhimurium mediating host cell invasion and acute enterocolitis. The TTSS-1 effector protein SipA is transported into host cells, accumulates in characteristic foci at the bacteria-host cell interface, manipulates signalling and affects virulence. ...
Su Qiao - - 2007
High-affinity K(+) transporters play an important role in K(+) absorption of plants. We isolated a HAK gene from Aeluropus littoralis, a graminaceous halophyte. The amino acid sequence of AlHAK showed high homology with HAK transporters obtained from Oryza sativa (82%) and Hordeum vulgare (82%). When expressed in Saccharomyces cereviae WDelta3, ...
Duarte Alejandra - - 2007
Recent studies demonstrated the importance of the mitochondrial ATP in the regulation of a novel long-chain fatty acid generation/export system in mitochondria of diabetic rat heart. In steroidogenic systems, mitochondrial ATP and intramitochondrial arachidonic acid (AA) generation are important for steroidogenesis. Here, we report that mitochondrial ATP is necessary for ...
Kanaan Amjad - - 2007
Several pulmonary and neurological conditions, both in the newborn and adult, result in hypercapnia. This leads to disturbances in normal pH homeostasis. Most mammalian cells maintain tight control of intracellular pH (pH(i)) using a group of transmembrane proteins that specialize in acid-base transport. These acid-base transporters are important in adjusting ...
Mansbach Charles M CM 2nd Division of Gastroenterology, The Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., Suite 240, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. - - 2007
Research in dietary fat absorption has developed urgency because of the widely recognized epidemic of obesity in the United States. Despite its clinical importance, many controversies exist over some of the basic aspects of this process from the mechanisms of fatty acid uptake to the control of triacylglycerol export in ...
Kim Hye-Ryoung - - 2007
We have studied gene expression profiles of intestinal transporters in model animals and humans. Total RNA was isolated from duodenum and the mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays. Detected genes from the intestine of mice, rats, and humans were about 60% of 22,690 sequences, 40% of 8739, ...
Skrovanek S - - 2007
Restriction of sulfur-containing amino acids (SCAA) has been shown to elicit a similar increase in life span and decrease in age-related morbidity as caloric restriction. The singular importance of epithelial barrier function in both physiological homeostasis and prevention of inflammation raised the issue of examining the effect of SCAA restriction ...
Bottini Massimo - - 2007
We report the fabrication and characterization of neutravidin-conjugated silica nanobeads doped with a ruthenium-complex luminophore and functionalized with antihuman CD3, antihuman CD28, and an acid-sensitive polymer. We observed that the nanobeads were readily delivered into Jurkat T leukemia cells by endocytosis, transported into lysosomes and subsequently into the cytoplasm as ...
Visser W Edward - - 2007
Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for the normal development and metabolism of different tissues. TH action and metabolism take place intracellularly, which requires cellular uptake via transporters. Several transporter families have been identified, of which the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family deserves special attention. So far, only MCT1, MCT2, MCT3, MCT4 ...
Gimeno Ruth E - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid transport proteins are a family of proteins involved in fatty acid uptake and activation. This review summarizes recent progress in elucidating the function of fatty acid transport proteins. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments clearly establish FATP1 as a regulated fatty acid transporter in both adipose tissue ...
Taylor Peter M - - 2007
Thyroid hormones (THs) -- thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) -- are iodinated derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine, which regulates growth, development and critical metabolic functions. THs are taken up by target cells and act at the genomic level via nuclear thyroid receptors. Saturable transport mechanisms mediate the greater part ...
Teichman Shlomit - - 2007
In the central nervous system, electrogenic sodium- and potassium-coupled glutamate transporters terminate the synaptic actions of this neurotransmitter. In contrast to acidic amino acids, dicarboxylic acids are not recognized by glutamate transporters, but the related bacterial DctA transporters are capable of transporting succinate and other dicarboxylic acids. Transmembrane domain 8 ...
Takaishi Naoki - - 2007
Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is used in dietary supplements or food with antioxidative functions. The mechanism for the intestinal absorption of alpha-lipoic acid was investigated in this study by using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. LA was rapidly transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers, this transport being energy-dependent, suggesting transporter-mediated transport ...
Weerachayaphorn Jittima J Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0645, - - 2007
The Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter transports Na(+) with citric acid cycle intermediates such as succinate and citrate. The present study focuses on transmembrane helix 3, which is highly conserved among the members of the SLC13 family. Fifteen amino acids in the extracellular half of transmembrane helix (amino acids 98-112) as well as ...
Bröer Stefan - - 2007
Brain glutamate/glutamine cycling is incomplete without return of ammonia to glial cells. Previous studies suggest that alanine is an important carrier for ammonia transfer. In this study, we investigated alanine transport and metabolism in Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slices and prisms, in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes, and ...
Geyer Joachim - - 2007
We have cloned human sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (SOAT) cDNA, which consists of 1502 bp and encodes a 377-amino acid protein. SOAT shows 42% sequence identity to the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT and 33% sequence identity to the hepatic Na(+)/taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide NTCP. Immunoprecipitation of a SOAT-FLAG-tagged protein ...
Schönfeld Peter - - 2007
Long-chain nonesterified ("free") fatty acids (FFA) can affect the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two ways: (i) by depolarisation of the inner membrane due to the uncoupling effect and (ii) by partly blocking the respiratory chain. In the present work this dual effect was investigated in rat ...
Holloway Graham P - - 2007
The transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) across mitochondrial membranes is regulated by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) activity. However, it appears that additional fatty acid transport proteins, such as fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, influence not only LCFA transport across the plasma membrane, but also LCFA transport into mitochondria. Plasma membrane-associated ...
Thwaites David T - - 2007
The H(+)-electrochemical gradient was originally considered as a driving force for solute transport only across cellular membranes of bacteria, plants and yeast. However, in the mammalian small intestine, a H(+)-electrochemical gradient is present at the epithelial brush-border membrane in the form of an acid microclimate. Over recent years, a large ...
Roos Sara - - 2007
Pathological fetal growth is associated with perinatal morbidity and the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Placental nutrient transport is a primary determinant of fetal growth. In human intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) the activity of key placental amino acid transporters, such as systems A and L, is ...
Schaiff W Timothy - - 2007
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is essential for murine placental development. We previously showed that activation of PPARgamma in primary human trophoblasts enhances the uptake of fatty acids and alters the expression of several proteins associated with fatty acid trafficking. In this study we examined the ...
Maekawa Satoshi - - 2007
A novel organic cation transporter OCTN2 is indispensable for carnitine transport across plasma membrane and subsequent fatty acid metabolism in the mitochondria. Here, we report a novel splice variant of OCTN2 (OCTN2VT), in which a 72-base-pair sequence located in the first intron of OCTN2 gene was spliced between exons 1 ...
Moyen Christelle - - 2007
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid applied to excised leaves of Mimosa pudica L. inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the shock-induced pulvinar movement. This inhibition was negatively correlated with the amount of [(14)C] 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid present in the vicinity of the motor cells. Although 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a weak acid, its greatest physiological efficiency ...
Mohebbi Nilufar - - 2007
Hypothyroidism in humans is associated with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis, presenting as the inability to respond appropriately to an acid challenge by excreting less acid. Here, we induced hypothyroidism in rats with methimazole (HYPO) and in one group substituted with l-thyroxine (EU). After 4 wk, acid-base status was similar ...
Pelsers M M A L - - 2007
AIM: Membrane fatty acid transporters can modulate the balance between fatty acid uptake and subsequent storage and/or oxidation in muscle tissue. As such, skeletal muscle fatty acid transporter protein expression could play an important role in the etiology of insulin resistance and/or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In the present study, ...
Canepa Gaspar E - - 2007
Phytomonas cells (Phytomonas Jma) isolated from the latex of Jatropha macrantha were assayed for amino acid, hexose and polyamine transport. Results showed high transport rates for glucose and fructose (193 and 128 pmol min(-1) 10(-7) cells, respectively) and lower, but significant rates, for proline, arginine, cysteine and glutamate (between 1.7 ...
Bridges Christy C - - 2007
Inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) is a prevalent environmental contaminant to which exposure to can damage rod photoreceptor cells and compromise scotopic vision. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) likely plays a role in the ocular toxicity associated with Hg(2+) exposure in that it mediates transport of substances to the photoreceptor cells. In ...
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