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Riego Joseph A - - 2009
In this study the mechanism by which S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO) activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) has been investigated. CysNO is the S-nitrosated derivative of the amino acid cysteine and has previously been shown to be transported into various cell types by amino acid transport system L. Here we show, using both ...
Montagnani M - - 2009
Intestinal bile acid absorption is mediated by a sodium-dependent transporter located in the brush border apical membrane of ileocytes. The transmembrane topology and the role of individual amino acid residues in the bile acid transport process have been investigated by means of various experimental approaches, leading to multiple hypotheses. We ...
Lan Jiaqi - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate whether ellagic acid in pomegranate leaf tannins could be transported into HepG2 cells and its transport behavior. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a 996 photodiode array detector at 254 nm was applied. The mobile phase was an acetonitrile-water solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine, ...
Nickerson James G - - 2009
In selected mammalian tissues, long chain fatty acid transporters (FABPpm, FAT/CD36, FATP1, and FATP4) are co-expressed. There is controversy as to whether they all function as membrane-bound transporters and whether they channel fatty acids to oxidation and/or esterification. Among skeletal muscles, the protein expression of FABPpm, FAT/CD36, and FATP4, but ...
Ortiz Diana D Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Neuroscience Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2009
Parasitic protozoa are unable to synthesize purines de novo and must import preformed purine nucleobases or nucleosides from their hosts. Leishmania major expresses two purine nucleobase transporters, LmaNT3 and LmaNT4. Previous studies revealed that at neutral pH, LmaNT3 is a broad specificity, high affinity nucleobase transporter, whereas LmaNT4 mediates the ...
Castagna M - - 2009
K-activated amino acid transporter 1 (KAAT1) and cation-anion-activated amino acid transporter/channel 1 (CAATCH1) are amino acid cotransporters, belonging to the Na/Cl-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (also called SLC6/NSS), that have been cloned from Manduca sexta midgut. They have been thoroughly studied by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and structure/function analyses have ...
Nickel A - - 2010
Influx of [(3)H]-L-proline into renal OK cells revealed that basal transport was mediated by the transporter SIT1. When cells were submitted for 8 h to amino acid deprivation, uptake of L-proline was now dominated by a low-affinity system with an apparent K (m) of 4.4 +/- 0.6 mM and a ...
Todesco Liliane - - 2009
Patients ingesting pivalic acid containing prodrugs develop hypocarnitinemia. Pivalic acid is cleaved from such drugs and excreted renally as pivaloylcarnitine. Plasma concentrations (reflecting the concentration in the glomerular filtrate entering the proximal tubule) in patients treated with cefditoren pivoxil are approximately 5 microM for pivaloylcarnitine and 10 microM for carnitine. ...
Boina Dhana Raj - - 2009
In this study, four blockers of anion transporters (ATs) belonging to four different classes of organic acids, including DIDS (4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'- disulfonic acid; a stilbene disulfonic acid), NPPB [(5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid; an anthranilic acid)], 9-AC (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid; an aromatic carboxylic acid), and IAA-94 (indanyloxy acetic acid; an indanyloxy alkanoic ...
Mauerer Richard - - 2009
The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are highly expressed in macrophage-derived foam cells and promote reverse cholesterol efflux via biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to analyze the direct effects of bioactive factors related to the metabolic syndrome on macrophage transcript levels of all 47 ...
Grewal Sukhjeevan - - 2009
System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2 mediate uptake of neutral alpha-amino acids (e.g. glutamine, alanine, and proline) and are expressed in central neurons. We tested the hypothesis that SNAT2 is required to support neurotransmitter glutamate synthesis by examining spontaneous excitatory activity after inducing or repressing SNAT2 expression for prolonged periods. ...
Dündar Ekrem - - 2009
The Arabidopsis thaliana At2g01170 gene is annotated as a putative gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) permease based on its sequence similarity to a yeast GABA transporting gene (UGA4). A cDNA of At2g01170 was expressed in yeast and analyzed for amino acid transport activity. Both direct measurement of amino acid transport ...
von Versen-Höynck F F Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, - - 2009
Amino acids are important nutrients during fetal development, and the activity of placental amino acid transporters is crucial in the regulation of fetal growth. Leptin, an adipocyte- and placenta-derived hormone, has been proposed to act as a peripheral signal in reproduction in humans. Leptin is elevated during pregnancy and elevated ...
Ljungdahl Per O - - 2009
Yeast cells rely on the SPS-sensing pathway to respond to extracellular amino acids. This nutrient-induced signal transduction pathway regulates gene expression by controlling the activity of two redundant transcription factors: Stp1 and Stp2. These factors are synthesized as latent cytoplasmic proteins with N-terminal regulatory domains. Upon induction by extracellular amino ...
Merezhinskaya Natalya - - 2009
We review here the 14 members of the Monocarboxylate transporter family (MCTs), their relationship based on sequence homology. The range of substrates transported by different members of this family extends from the standard monocarboxylate metabolites, lactic and pyruvic acids, to aromatic amino acids and thyroid hormones. The family is denoted ...
Harvey William R - - 2009
Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and other metabolic pathways of living organisms generate potentially toxic acids within all cells. One ubiquitous mechanism for ridding cells of the acids is to expel H(+) in exchange for extracellular Na(+), mediated by electroneutral transporters called Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) that are driven by Na(+) ...
Kien Craig Lawrence CL University of Vermont College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, E203 Given Building, 89 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405-0068, USA. - - 2009
In humans, insulin sensitivity is relatively impaired by diets that are low in oleic acid (OA), a cis monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), or rich in trans MUFA or palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid (FA). Emerging evidence exists that PA, in contrast to OA, causes insulin resistance via stimulation ...
Caputo Carla - - 2009
The possible regulation of amino acid remobilization via the phloem in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the primary enzyme in nitrogen (N) assimilation and re-assimilation, glutamine synthetase (GS, E.C. 6.3.1.2) was studied using two conditions known to alter N phloem transport, N deficiency and cytokinins. The plants were grown for ...
Verrey François - - 2009
Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule. This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number ...
Hundal Harinder S - - 2009
Amino acid transporters at the surface of cells are in an ideal location to relay nutritional information, as well as nutrients themselves, to the cell interior. These transporters are able to modulate signaling downstream of intracellular amino acid receptors by regulating intracellular amino acid concentrations through processes of coupled transport. ...
Sakamoto Shinichi - - 2009
The heterodimeric complex composed of rBAT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter), a single-membrane-spanning glycosylated heavy chain, and b(0,+)AT, a putative 12-membrane-spanning non-glycosylated light chain, is an amino acid transporter that mediates the activity of system b(0,+), a major apical transport system for cystine and dibasic amino acids in renal ...
Ganapathy Vadivel - - 2009
Heterodimeric amino acid transporters represent a unique class of transport systems that consist of a light chain that serves as the 'transporter proper' and a heavy chain that is necessary for targeting the complex to the plasma membrane. The currently prevailing paradigm assigns no role for the light chains in ...
Arias-Barrau Elsa - - 2009
The process of fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane occurs by several mechanisms that involve distinct membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins and enzymes. Among these are the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) and long-chain acyl CoA synthetases (Acsl). Previous studies in yeast and adipocytes have shown FATP and Acsl form ...
Roxas Bryan Ap - - 2009
Acidity in vesicles of macrophages is a general signal that bacteria respond to during infection. Mycobacteria are particularly capable of resisting the acidification in macrophages that engulf the bacteria. In this work, we used label-free quantitative proteomics to study the Mycobacterium smegmatis proteome under acid stress so as to gain ...
Schriek Sarah - - 2009
The protein Slr0782 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which has similarity to L-amino acid oxidase from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 and PCC 7942, has been characterized in part. Immunoblot blot analysis showed that Slr0782 is mainly thylakoid membrane-associated. Moreover, expression of slr0782 mRNA and Slr0782 protein were analyzed and an ...
Iruloh Chibuike G - - 2009
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with reduced activity of placental amino acid transport systems beta and A. Whether this phenotype is maintained in fetal cells outside the placenta is unknown. In IUGR, cord blood tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations are raised, potentially influencing amino acid transport in fetal cells. ...
Jin Chunyang C Center for Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709-2194, - - 2008
Previous studies showed that the mixed monoamine transporter inhibitor (6, RTI-112) reduced cocaine self-administration at a high level of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) occupancy with no detectable dopamine transporter (DAT) occupancy. In this study, a series of 3beta-(substituted phenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters (7a-g), 3beta-(4-methoxyphenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid esters (8a-j), and 3beta-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2beta-[3-(4'-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]tropane (9) were ...
Dabas Neelam - - 2009
The ammonium permease Mep2p mediates ammonium uptake and also induces filamentous growth in the human-pathogenic yeast Candida albicans in response to nitrogen limitation. The C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of Mep2p contains a signaling domain that is not required for ammonium transport but is essential for Mep2p-dependent morphogenesis. Progressive C-terminal truncations showed ...
Rivas C I - - 2008
Vitamin C is a wide spectrum antioxidant essential for humans, which are unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it from dietary sources. There are two biologically important forms of vitamin C, the reduced form, ascorbic acid, and the oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C exerts most of its ...
Morimoto Emiko - - 2008
System L (SL), a basolateral amino acid transporter, transports large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) in a Na(+)-independent manner. Previously, we identified two isoforms of transporters: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and 2 (LAT2) and revealed their distinct substrate selectivity and transport properties. In this study, to establish more stable ...
Desforges M - - 2009
Placental system A activity is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. There are three system A isoforms: SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4, but the contribution of each to system A-mediated transport is unknown. Here, we have used immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that all three isoforms are ...
Polgar Orsolya - - 2009
ABCG2 is a half-transporter initially described in multidrug-resistant cancer cells and lately identified as an important factor in the pharmacokinetics of its substrates. Q141K is by far the most intensively studied single nucleotide polymorphism of ABCG2 with potential clinical relevance. Here we used stably transfected HEK cells to study the ...
Roos S - - 2009
The activity of placental amino acid transporters is decreased in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been established. Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been shown to decrease the activity of the system L amino acid transporter in human placental ...
Hosoya Ken-Ichi - - 2008
The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5) is an Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter the expression of which is located in retinal endothelial cells. Due to its broad substrate selectivity, LAT1 has been proposed to mediate the transport of amino acid-related drugs across the blood-tissue barriers. Here, we have ...
Majumdar Soumyajit - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of amino acid transporters in the transcorneal permeation of the aspartate (Asp) ester acyclovir (ACV) prodrug. Physicochemical characterization, solubility and stability of acyclovir L-aspartate (L-Asp-ACV) and acyclovir D-aspartate (D-Asp-ACV) were studied. Transcorneal permeability was evaluated across excised rabbit cornea. Solubility ...
Kulkarni Raghavendra V - - 2008
Novel pH-sensitive carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel beads loaded with ketoprofen were prepared using ionotropic gelation and covalent crosslinking method. Polyacrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate (PAAm-g-SA) copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) as free radical initiator under the nitrogen atmosphere followed by hydrolysis using sodium hydroxide. The ...
Zou Hanjun - - 2008
FadL is an important member of the family of fatty acid transport proteins within membranes. In this study, 11 conventional molecular dynamics (CMD) and 25 steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations were performed to investigate the dynamic mechanism of transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) across FadL. The CMD simulations addressed ...
Nickel A - - 2009
Selenoamino acids are the main form of organic selenium derived from the diet. They are efficiently absorbed in the intestine and reabsorbed in kidney, but the transporter proteins that mediate their cellular uptake have not yet been identified. We here describe the transport pathways of selenoamino acids and derivatives, including ...
Mansour S - - 2008
The consumption of lactate and amino acids is very important for microbial development and/or aroma production during cheese ripening. A strain of Yarrowia lipolytica isolated from cheese was grown in a liquid medium containing lactate in the presence of a low (0.1x) or high (2x) concentration of amino acids. Our ...
Paes Lisvane S - - 2008
Leishmania spp. are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is a main etiological agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp., as other trypanosomatids, possess a metabolism based significantly on the consumption of amino acids. However, the transport ...
Lolkema Juke S - - 2008
The sodium solute symporters (SSS) and neurotransmitter sodium symporters (NSS) are two families of secondary transporters that are not related in amino acid sequence. Nonetheless, recent crystal structures showed that the Na(+)/galactose (SSS) and Na(+)/leucine (NSS) transporters have similar core structures. The structural relatedness highlights the need for classification methods ...
Giese Christoph - - 2008
Nonproteinogenic amino acids that either occur naturally or are synthesized chemically are becoming important tools in modern drug discovery. In this context, fluorinated amino acids have great potential in the development of novel pharmaceuticals and drugs. To assess whether different fluorinated aromatic amino acid analogues of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan ...
Park No-Seung - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The amino acid transport system L is a major nutrient transport system that is responsible for transport of neutral amino acids, including several essential amino acids. The current study attempted to investigate the expression and functional characterization of amino acid transport system L in HTB-41 human submaxillary salivary gland ...
Yanase Haruko - - 2008
Expression analysis of transporters selective for monocarboxylates such as lactate and ketone bodies in the kidney contributes to understanding the renal energy metabolism. Distribution and expression intensity of a sodium-dependent monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT) and proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) were examined in the mouse kidney. In situ hybridization survey detected significant ...
Krige David - - 2008
CHR-2797 is a novel metalloenzyme inhibitor that is converted into a pharmacologically active acid product (CHR-79888) inside cells. CHR-79888 is a potent inhibitor of a number of intracellular aminopeptidases, including leucine aminopeptidase. CHR-2797 exerts antiproliferative effects against a range of tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo and shows ...
Xia Zanxian - - 2008
Multiple pathways link expression of PTR2, the transporter of di- and tripeptides in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the availability and quality of nitrogen sources. Previous work has shown that induction of PTR2 by extracellular amino acids requires, in particular, SSY1 and PTR3. SSY1 is structurally similar to amino acid ...
Neuhaus Winfried - - 2008
The roots and rhizome of Valeriana officinalis L . s. l. are therapeutically used for their sedative and sleep-enhancing effects. Some of the active compounds found in commonly used extracts are the sesquiterpenic acids, especially valerenic acid, which was recently identified as a GABA (A) receptor modulator. To interact with ...
Sekito Takayuki - - 2008
Amino acids are compartmentalized in the vacuoles of microorganisms and plants. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, basic amino acids accumulate preferentially into vacuoles but acidic amino acids are almost excluded from them. This indicates that selective machineries operate at the vacuolar membrane. The members of the amino acid/auxin permease family and the ...
Miller Melissa M MM The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, St. Augustine, FL 32080, - - 2008
The CG3252 gene product, DmNAT1, represents the first Nutrient Amino acid Transporter cloned from Drosophila. It absorbs a broader set of neutral amino acids versus earlier characterized insect NATs and mammalian NATs-B(0) system transporters from the Sodium Neurotransmitter symporter Family (SNF, a.k.a. solute carrier family 6, SLC6). In addition to ...
El-Sheikh Azza A K - - 2008
Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 4 transports a variety of endogenous and xenobiotic organic anions. MRP4 is widely expressed in the body and specifically localized to the renal apical proximal tubule cell membrane, where it mediates the excretion of these compounds into urine. To characterize the MRP4 substrate-binding site, the amino ...
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