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Sengers B G - - 2010
Amino acid transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta plays a critical role in normal development, and restricted transfer is associated with fetal growth restriction. Placental amino acid transfer involves the interaction of 15 or more transporters and 20 amino acids. This complexity means that knowing which transporters are ...
Cattoor Ko - - 2010
Several health-beneficial properties of hop bitter acids have been reported (inhibition of bone resorption and anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities); however, scientific data on the bioavailability of these compounds are lacking. As a first approach to study the bioavailability, the epithelial transport of hop alpha- and beta-acids across Caco-2 monolayers was ...
Kato Takuya - - 2010
The reduced expression of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) at the canalicular membrane is associated with cholestasis-induced hepatotoxicity due to the accumulation of bile acids in hepatocytes. We previously reported that 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA), an approved drug for urea cycle disorders, is a promising agent for intrahepatic cholestasis because it ...
Ling Binbing - - 2010
Glucose, fatty acids, and L-carnitine are important substrates that support mammary epithelial cell metabolism, biosynthetic capacity, and milk yield and composition. Our study investigated the effects of LPS-induced inflammation on the expression of several glucose, fatty acid, and L-carnitine transporters in the lactating rat mammary gland at different lactation stages. ...
Leduc Damien - - 2010
In addition to their classical roles as carbon or nitrogen sources, amino acids can be used for bacterial virulence, colonization, or stress resistance. We found that original deamidase-transport systems impact colonization by Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen associated with gastric pathologies, including adenocarcinoma. We demonstrated that l-asparaginase (Hp-AnsB) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase ...
Zhao Gang - - 2010
Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. (SY) is a central nervous system-oriented herb material that has actions of anti-dementia, anti-epilepsy, and anti-stress. It is unclear whether SY would be biologically active in functionally regulating neurotransmitter transporters. Here, we assessed these potential actions using Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (GAT-1), ...
Sauer Sven W - - 2010
Intracerebral accumulation of neurotoxic dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) plays an important pathophysiological role in glutaric aciduria type I and methylmalonic aciduria. Therefore, we investigated the transport characteristics of accumulating DCAs - glutaric (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OH-GA) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) - across porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (pBCEC) and human choroid plexus ...
Young Steven H - - 2010
The results presented here show that STC-1 cells, a model of intestinal endocrine cells, respond to a broad range of amino acids, including l-proline, l-serine, l-alanine, l-methionine, l-glycine, l-histidine, and alpha-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid (MeAIB) with a rapid increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). We sought to identify the mechanism by ...
Schwenk Robert W - - 2010
Transport of long-chain fatty acids across the cell membrane has long been thought to occur by passive diffusion. However, in recent years there has been a fundamental shift in understanding, and it is now generally recognized that fatty acids cross the cell membrane via a protein-mediated mechanism. Membrane-associated fatty acid-binding ...
Couturier J?r?my - - 2010
Amino acids are the currency of nitrogen exchange between source and sink tissues in plants and constitute a major source of the components used for cellular growth and differentiation. The characterization of a new amino acid transporter belonging to the amino acid permease (AAP) family, AAP11, expressed in the perennial ...
Carrillo Carolina - - 2010
Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas' disease, is exposed to extremely different environment conditions during its life cycle, and transporters are key molecules for its adaptive regulation. Amino acids, and particularly arginine, are essential components in T. cruzi metabolism. In this work, a novel T. cruzi arginine permease was ...
Zhao Yingchun - - 2010
The compound 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA) typically promotes root elongation but inhibits hypocotyl elongation and therefore can be described as antiauxin. We compared the mode of action of TFIBA with the classical antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB). TFIBA, more than PCIB, promoted primary root elongation in young flax (Linum usitatissimum) roots on ...
Lee Jeong Wook - - 2010
The succinic acid producer Mannheimia succiniciproducens can efficiently utilize sucrose as a carbon source, but its metabolism has not been understood. This study revealed that M. succiniciproducens uses a sucrose phosphotransferase system (PTS), sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase, and a fructose PTS for the transport and utilization of sucrose.
Babu Ellappan - - 2010
Aristolochic acids (AAs), contained in Chinese herbal preparations, have been considered to induce nephropathy. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of AA-induced nephrotoxicity, we have elucidated the interaction of human organic anion transporters (hOATs) with AAs using their stable cell lines. AA-I and AA-II inhibited organic anion uptake by ...
Jäger Kristin - - 2010
Several diseases concomitant with L-arginine deficiency (diabetes, chronic kidney failure, psoriasis) are significantly associated with dry eye syndrome. One important factor that has so far been neglected is the y(+) transporter. In humans, y(+) accounts for nearly 80% of arginine transport, exclusively carrying the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine and ...
Indiveri Cesare - - 2010
The transport of amino acid across the membranes has great importance in cell metabolism. Specific experimental methodologies are required for measuring the vectorial reactions catalyzed by the membrane transporters. So far, the most widely used technique to study amino acid transport was the measure of amino acid flux in intact ...
Miyaji Takaaki - - 2010
Aspartate, an excitatory amino acid, is known to be stored in synaptic vesicles and exocytosed from some neurons to perform aspartergic neurotransmission. Through in vitro reconstitution, we found that sialin, a lysosomal sialic acid exporter, is responsible for the vesicular storage of aspartate in hippocampal neurons and pinealocytes. Mutations found ...
Bianchi Laura - - 2010
Sodium-glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLT) belong to the SLC5A family, characterized by the cotransport of Na(+) with solute. SGLT1 is responsible for intestinal glucose absorption. Until recently the only role described for SGLT proteins was to transport sugar with Na(+). However, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3) does not transport sugar but causes depolarization ...
Yang Huaiyu - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Glutamine is one of the primary amino acids in nitrogen assimilation and often the most abundant amino acid in plant roots. To monitor this important metabolite, a novel genetically encoded fluorescent FRET-reporter was constructed and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. As a candidate for the glutamine fluxes, the root tip ...
Mitchell Fiona E - - 2010
Thyroid hormones enter isolated white adipocytes largely by a System L1-type amino acid transporter en route to exerting genomic actions. Differentiated 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes in culture express mRNA for LAT1 (the catalytic subunit of high-affinity System L1). L-[(125)I]-T(3) uptake into 3T3-L1 adipocytes included a substantial saturable component inhibited by leucine. ...
Sugimoto Naoko - - 2010
A recent study filling the gap in the genome sequence in the left arm of chromosome 2 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe revealed a homolog of budding yeast Vba2p, a vacuolar transporter of basic amino acids. GFP-tagged Vba2p in fission yeast was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Upon disruption of vba2, the ...
Pratelli Réjane - - 2010
Phloem and xylem transport of amino acids involves two steps: export from one cell type to the apoplasm, and subsequent import into adjacent cells. High-affinity import is mediated by proton/amino acid cotransporters, while the mechanism of export remains unclear. Enhanced expression of the plant-specific type I membrane protein Glutamine Dumper1 ...
Lim Liting - - 2010
The malaria parasite harbours an indispensable plastid known as the 'apicoplast'. The apicoplast's exact role remains uncertain, but it houses components involved in fatty acid, isoprenoid and haem biosyntheses. These pathways offer opportunities to develop anti-malarials. In the absence of photosynthesis, how apicoplast anabolism is fuelled is unclear. Here we ...
Nabekura Tomohiro - - 2010
The effects of dietary antioxidative and chemopreventive rosemary phytochemicals on the function of the human drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) were investigated using P-glycoprotein-overexpressing human carcinoma KB-C2 cells and human MRP1 gene-transfected KB/MRP cells. The effects of natural phytochemicals found in rosemary ...
Sandoval Angel - - 2010
Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins, which transport long chain fatty acids into cells and activate very long chain fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. In an effort to understand the linkage between cellular fatty acid transport and the pathology associated with excessive accumulation of exogenous fatty ...
Fiandra L - - 2010
The larval midgut of the hymenopteran parasitoid Aphidius ervi accomplishes a large transport of nutrients from the lumen to the haemocoel, providing most of the organic molecules necessary for rapid insect development. l-amino acids in general, and leucine in particular, are efficiently accumulated in the larval body. We show here ...
Oda Koji - - 2010
Most tumor cell membranes overexpress L-type amino acid transporter 1, while normal cell membranes contain l-type amino acid transporter 2; both are Na(+)-independent amino acid transporters. Therefore, compounds that selectively inhibit L-type amino acid transporter 1 offer researchers with a novel cancer molecular target. Synthetic chemistry efforts and in vitro ...
Evans Amy M - - 2009
After anautogenous mosquitoes ingest the required blood meal, proteins in it are rapidly cleaved, yielding a large pool of amino acids. Transport of these amino acids into gut epithelial cells and their subsequent translocation into other tissues is critical for oogenesis and other physiological processes. We have identified a proton ...
Anderson Catriona M H - - 2010
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a prodrug used in photodynamic therapy, fluorescent diagnosis, and fluorescent-guided resection because it leads to accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumor tissues. ALA has good oral bioavailability, but high oral doses are required to obtain selective PpIX accumulation in colonic tumors because accumulation ...
Jones H N - - 2009
Changes in placental nutrient transport are closely associated with abnormal fetal growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of placental amino acid transporters are unknown. We demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha stimulate the activity of amino acid transporter system ...
Daigle Nikolas D - - 2009
Cation-Cl- cotransporters (CCCs) belong to a large family of proteins that includes 9 isoforms, two of which have still not been ascribed a transport function (CCC8 and CCC9) while the others are all known to promote Cl(-)-coupled Na+ and/or K+ movement at the cell surface. The CCCs are also included ...
Dixon J Brandon - - 2009
Lacteals are the entry point of all dietary lipids into the circulation, yet little is known about the active regulation of lipid uptake by these lymphatic vessels, and there lacks in vitro models to study the lacteal-enterocyte interface. We describe an in vitro model of the human intestinal microenvironment containing ...
Bonen Arend - - 2009
We examined fatty acid transporters, transport, and metabolism in hearts and red and white muscles of lean and insulin-resistant (week 6) and type 2 diabetic (week 24) Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Cardiac fatty acid transport was similar in lean and ZDF hearts at week 6 but was reduced at ...
Uhm Sunghyun - - 2009
A basic understanding of electrode structure and the characteristics of its components can be powerfully utilized in fuel cell applications such as direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) system integration and HCOOH concentration controlled systems. There have been, thus, tremendous efforts made to elucidate theoretical aspects of electrochemical processes involving ...
Kaneko Fuminari - - 2009
The addition of plasticizers into Li(+)-conductive solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) is a commonly known technique to enhance the ionic conductivity. Among the used plasticizers, alkoxides of group-13 elements [such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-borate ester] are promising candidates due to the Lewis acidity of the elements of this group (i.e. B, ...
Sangaletti Rachele - - 2009
Complementary RNA, derived from the intestine of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and putatively coding for a pH-dependent oligopeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15 family), was injected in Xenopus oocytes that were subsequently tested with electrophysiological techniques. Transport-associated currents were observed when various di- or tripeptides were applied at concentrations ranging between ...
Shaffer Paul L - - 2009
Amino acid, polyamine, and organocation (APC) transporters are secondary transporters that play essential roles in nutrient uptake, neurotransmitter recycling, ionic homeostasis, and regulation of cell volume. Here, we present the crystal structure of apo-ApcT, a proton-coupled broad-specificity amino acid transporter, at 2.35 angstrom resolution. The structure contains 12 transmembrane helices, ...
Pelland Amélie M D - - 2009
Amino acids are transported into cells by a number of different transport systems, each with their own specific range of substrates. The amino acid transport systems active in preimplantation embryos and the amino acids required by embryos for optimal development have been extensively investigated. Much less is known about amino ...
Prell J - - 2009
One of the largest contributions to biologically available nitrogen comes from the reduction of N(2) to ammonia by rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes. Plants supply dicarboxylic acids as a carbon source to bacteroids, and in return they receive ammonia. However, metabolic exchange must be more complex, because effective N(2) fixation ...
Youn Jung-Won - - 2009
Transporters of the dicarboxylate amino acid-cation symporter family often mediate uptake of C(4)-dicarboxylates, such as succinate or l-malate, in bacteria. A member of this family, dicarboxylate transporter A (DctA) from Corynebacterium glutamicum, was characterized to catalyze uptake of the C(4)-dicarboxylates succinate, fumarate, and l-malate, which was inhibited by oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, ...
Lasry Inbal - - 2009
The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) mediates intestinal folate uptake at acidic pH. Some loss of folic acid (FA) transport mutations in PCFT from hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) patients cluster in R113, thereby suggesting a functional role for this residue. Herein, unlike non-conservative substitutions, an R113H mutant displayed 80-fold increase in ...
Lakshmi Baddireddi Subhadra - - 2009
Cinnamomum cassia (Family: Lauraceae) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant used traditionally for the treatment of a number of diseases, including diabetes. The hypoglycemic effect of this plant has been established in vivo. However, the effects of cinnamic acid, isolated from C. cassia, on the insulin signaling cascade in an in ...
Mitchell Ryan W - - 2009
The blood-brain barrier formed by the brain capillary endothelial cells provides a protective barrier between the systemic blood and the extracellular environment of the CNS. As most fatty acids in the brain enter from the blood, we examined the mechanism of oleate (C18:1) transport across primary human brain microvessel endothelial ...
Singer Dustin - - 2009
The orphan transporter Slc6a18 (XT2) is highly expressed at the luminal membrane of kidney proximal tubules and displays approximately 50% identity with Slc6a19 (B(0)AT1), which is the main neutral amino acid transporter in both kidney and small intestine. As yet, the amino acid transport function of XT2 has only been ...
Gao Xiang - - 2009
Virulent enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 rely on acid-resistance (AR) systems to survive the acidic environment in the stomach. A major component of AR is an arginine-dependent arginine:agmatine antiporter that expels intracellular protons. Here, we report the crystal structure of AdiC, the arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli ...
Herraez Elisa - - 2009
Hepatocyte uptake of phalloidin is carried out mainly by OATP1B1. We have used this compound as a prototypic substrate and assayed the ability to inhibit OATP-mediated phalloidin transport of four bile acid derivatives (BALU-1, BALU-2, BALU-3 and BALU-4) that showed positive results in preliminary screening. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes for ...
Habjan Suzanne - - 2009
Three fenamates--niflumic, flufenamic and mefenamic acids--were tested for effects on substrate-induced currents of glutamate and glycine transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2, GLYT1b and GLYT2a) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. All fenamates inhibited EAAT1 currents; 100 microM flufenamic acid produced the most inhibition, decreasing the I (max) by 53 +/- 4% (P < ...
Mohebbi Nilufar - - 2009
Calcineurin inhibitors like FK506 (tacrolimus) are routinely used for immunosuppression following transplantation. Its use is limited by many side effects, including renal tubular acidosis (RTA), mainly of the distal type. In this study, rats were treated with FK506 and at baseline (after 9 days) systemic acid-base status was similar to ...
Darlyuk Ilona - - 2009
Arginine is an essential amino acid for the human pathogen Leishmania but not to its host. Thus, the mechanism by which this protozoan parasite regulates cellular homeostasis of arginine is critical for its survival and virulence. In a previous study, we cloned and functionally characterized a high affinity arginine-specific transporter, ...
Riego Joseph A - - 2009
In this study the mechanism by which S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO) activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) has been investigated. CysNO is the S-nitrosated derivative of the amino acid cysteine and has previously been shown to be transported into various cell types by amino acid transport system L. Here we show, using both ...
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