Search Results
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Brown Andrea - - 2004
The ability of polarized epithelia to perform vectorial transport depends on the asymmetrical distribution of transmembrane proteins among their plasma membrane domains. The establishment and maintenance of these polar distributions relies on molecular signals embedded in the proteins themselves and the interpretation of these signals by cellular sorting machinery. Using ...
Veljkovic Emilija - - 2004
Mammalian heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of a multi-transmembrane spanning catalytic protein covalently associated with a type II glycoprotein (e.g. 4F2hc, rBAT) through a disulfide bond. Caenorhabditis elegans has nine genes encoding close homologues of the HAT catalytic proteins. Three of these genes (designated AAT-1 to AAT-3) have ...
Konishi Yutaka - - 2003
It was previously reported that a fluorescent marker dye, fluorescein, is transported via the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT). Fluorescein transport was competitively inhibited by MCT substrates such as ferulic and salicylic acids. Tea polyphenols, in particular, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and epicatechin gallate (ECg), inhibited the transport of fluorescein. Tea polyphenols ...
Ho Richard H - - 2004
The key transporter responsible for hepatic uptake of bile acids from portal circulation is Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP, SLC10A1). This transporter is thought to be critical for the maintenance of enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids and hepatocyte function. Therefore, functionally relevant polymorphisms in this transporter would be predicted to have ...
Joyner Joanna L - - 2003
Invertebrate hosts of chemoautotrophic symbionts face the unique challenge of supplying their symbionts with hydrogen sulfide while avoiding its toxic effects. The sulfur-containing free amino acids taurine and thiotaurine may function in sulfide detoxification by serving as sulfur storage compounds or as transport compounds between symbiont and host. After sulfide ...
Palatý Zdenek - - 2003
Nitric and sulfuric acids belong among strong incompletely dissociated acids, so that in the description of their transport through an ion-exchange membrane, ionic equilibria have to be taken into account. The paper presents the determination of ionic mobilities and diffusivity of nondissociated form of these acids. For that purpose, data ...
Wiebe Christine A - - 2003
The Na+/H+ exchanger is an integral membrane protein found in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In eukaryotes it functions to exchange one proton for a sodium ion. In mammals it removes intracellular protons while in plants and fungal cells the plasma membrane form removes intracellular sodium in ...
Pries R - - 2004
The yeast transcription factor Gcn4p contains two stretches of amino acid residues, NLS1 and NLS2, which are independently able to relocate the cytoplasmic protein chorismate mutase into the nucleus. Only NLS2 is conserved among fungi. A truncated version of CPCA (the counterpart of Gcn4p in Aspergillus nidulans), which lacks the ...
Zhang Jianbing - - 2003
A dendritic approach to the construction of a homologous series of pore-forming amphiphiles has been developed, based on the use of spermidine, spermine, lysine, and cholic acid. A kinetic analysis of Na+ transport across bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine by three dendritic amphiphiles has provided the strongest evidence to date for a ...
Hatanaka Takahiro - - 2004
We evaluated the potential of the Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled amino acid transporter ATB(0,+) as a delivery system for amino acid-based prodrugs. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that ATB(0,+) is expressed abundantly on the luminal surface of cells lining the lumen of the large intestine and the airways of the lung and in ...
Rubio-Aliaga Isabel - - 2004
The new member of the mammalian amino acid/auxin permease family, PAT2, has been cloned recently and represents an electrogenic proton/amino acid symporter. PAT2 and its paralog, PAT1/LYAAT-1, are transporters for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and proline. Our immunodetection studies revealed that the PAT2 protein is expressed in ...
Dye J F - - 2004
We investigated the expression and activity of arginine transporters and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human placental microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC). Using RT-PCR amplification products for eNOS, CAT1, CAT2A, CAT2B, CAT4, 4F2hc (CD98), rBAT and the light chains y+LAT1, y+LAT2, and b0+T1 were detected in HPMEC, but not B0+. ...
Konishi Yutaka - - 2003
The transepithelial transport of such common dietary phenolic acids as p-coumaric acid (CA) and gallic acid (GA) across Caco-2 cell monolayers was examined. CA transport was dependent on pH, and in a vectorial manner in the apical-basolateral direction. The permeation was concentration-dependent and saturable, the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity ...
Geuns Jan M C - - 2003
Stevioside orally administered to pigs was completely converted into steviol by the bacteria of the colon. However, no stevioside or steviol could be detected in the blood of the animals, even not after converting steviol into the (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)methyl ester of steviol, a very sensitive fluorescent derivative with a detection limit ...
Matveyeva N P - - 2003
The role of Cl- transport across the plasma membrane was studied in an early step of pollen grain germination in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. The Cl- channel blockers, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and niflumic acid, completely suppress the germination with IC(50) approximately 8 micro M. At this concentration NPPB reduces the ...
Miyagawa Tadashi - - 2003
Assessments of herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk)/ganciclovir (GCV) treatment response, early in the course of therapy, are important in the evaluation and clinical management of patients. This study addresses whether imaging amino acid transport, glucose utilization, and passive vascular permeability provides an early indication of treatment response and ...
Nakauchi Tadashi - - 2003
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of amino acids on ornithine cytotoxicity in ornithine-delta-aminotransferase (OAT)-deficient human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as an in vitro model of gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina. METHODS: RPE cells were treated with 0.5 mM 5-fluoromethylornithine (5-FMOrn), a specific and irreversible OAT inhibitor. ...
Arancibia-Garavilla Yerko - - 2003
L-arginine transport is mediated by the cationic/neutral amino acid transport system y+L and cationic amino acid transporters y+/CATs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). System y+/CATs activity may be rate-limiting for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, but no reports have demonstrated system y+L involvement in NO synthesis in endothelium. We ...
Angelow Susanne - - 2003
Crossing the blood-CSF barrier is an important pathway for certain nutrients to enter the CNS. Cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells are a potent model system to study active transport properties of this tissue in vitro. In the present study this in vitro model was used to analyse ascorbic acid transport ...
Kanai Yoshikatsu - - 2004
The solute carrier family 1 (SLC1) includes five high-affinity glutamate transporters, EAAC1, GLT-1, GLAST, EAAT4 and EAAT5 (SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A6, and SLC1A7, respectively) as well as the two neutral amino acid transporters, ASCT1 and ASCT2 (SLC1A4 and ALC1A5, respectively). Although each of these transporters have similar predicted structures, they ...
Covassin Laurence - - 2003
Dimeric norspermidine and spermidine derivatives are strong competitive inhibitors of polyamine transport. A xylyl tether was used for the dimerization of various triamines and spermine via a secondary amino group, and of putrescine via an ether or an amino group. Dimerization of putrescine moieties potentiates their ability to compete against ...
Falck Bengt - - 2003
We have characterized a stereospecific transport mechanism for L-dopa into human epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). It is different from any other amino acid transport system. It is highly concentrative, largely pH-independent, and independent of exogenous Na+, glucose and oxygen, and fuelled by a renewable intracellular energy source inhibited by iodoacetate ...
Gaber Richard F - - 2003
Sensing of extracellular amino acids results in transcriptional induction of amino acid permease genes in yeast. Ssy1, a membrane protein resembling amino acid permeases, is required for signaling but is apparently unable to transport amino acids and is thus believed to be a sensor. By using a novel genetic screen ...
Miyamoto Kensuke - - 2003
In STS-95 space experiments we have demonstrated that microgravity conditions resulted in automorphosis in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings (Ueda et al. 1999). Automorphosis-like growth and development in etiolated pea seedlings were also induced under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional (3-D) clinostat, epicotyls being the most ...
Shanker Gouri - - 2003
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant. Any source of environmental mercury represents a potential risk for human MeHg poisoning, because the methylation of inorganic mercury to MeHg in waterways results ultimately in its accumulation in the sea food chain, which represents the most prevalent source for human consumption. A small ...
Durlu N Tugba - - 2003
The effect of L-arginine on nitrergic transmission and its alteration with reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. L-arginine potentiated the relaxation response induced by electrical field stimulation in rat anococygeus muscle. This effect was inhibited by L-lysine, a cationic amino acid using y+ L and y+ transport systems in a ...
Schuller-Levis Georgia B - - 2003
Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is not incorporated into proteins. In mammalian tissues, taurine is ubiquitous and is the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. In fact, taurine reaches up to 50 mM concentration in leukocytes. Taurine has been shown ...
Raj Dominic S C - - 2004
Protein and amino acid metabolism is abnormal in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Protein turnover is influenced by transmembrane amino acid transport. The effect of ESRD and hemodialysis (HD) on intracellular amino acid transport kinetics is unknown. We studied intracellular amino acid transport kinetics and protein turnover by use of stable ...
Takarada Takeshi - - 2003
Accumulation of [3H]L-serine in crude synaptosomal fractions freshly prepared from rat brain has been found to be temperature-sensitive and to consist of both Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent components. The accumulation of [3H]L-serine measured at submicromolar concentrations had a distinct substrate selectivity, different from the uptake of [3H]L-proline, [3H]L-glutamate and [3H]GABA. It ...
Pinilla-Tenas J - - 2003
ASCT1 is a member of the glutamate transporter superfamily cloned from human brain and characterized as a Na(+)-dependent neutral amino-acid exchanger, which displays substrate-induced chloride-channel activity and mediates concentrative transport of alanine. Initial studies in ASCT1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that proline did not elicit measurable currents, in contrast to ...
Yi Jian - - 2003
Different glucose transport systems are examined for their impact on phosphoenolpyruvate availability as reflected by the yields of 3-dehydroshikimic acid and byproducts 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonic acid, 3-dehydroquinic acid, and gallic acid synthesized by Escherichia coli from glucose. 3-Dehydroshikimic acid is an advanced shikimate pathway intermediate in the syntheses of a spectrum of ...
Konishi Yutaka - - 2003
The structural specificity of the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) for the transport of phenolic acids was investigated by measuring the inhibitory effect on the fluorescein transport in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Although most of the monohydroxylated derivatives had an inhibitory effect, the di- and tri-hydroxylated ones did not. The methoxylated derivatives ...
Black Paul N - - 2003
The processes that govern the regulated transport of long-chain fatty acids across the plasma membrane are quite distinct compared to counterparts involved in the transport of hydrophilic solutes such as sugars and amino acids. These differences stem from the unique physical and chemical properties of long-chain fatty acids. To date, ...
Sun-Wada Ge-Hong - - 2003
The vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are multimeric proton pumps involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. We have identified two alternative splicing variants of C2 subunit isoforms: C2-a, a lung-specific isoform containing a 46-amino acid insertion, and C2-b, a kidney-specific isoform without the insert. Immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies revealed that ...
Babu Ellappan - - 2003
A cDNA that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter was isolated from FLC4 human hepatocarcinoma cells by expression cloning. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the encoded protein designated LAT3 (L-type amino acid transporter 3) transported neutral amino acids such as l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-phenylalanine. The LAT3-mediated transport ...
Jin Xiangyang - - 2003
We isolated two cDNAs from the mosquito Aedes aegypti, an L-amino acid transporter (AeaLAT) and a CD98 heavy chain (AeaCD98hc). Expression of AeaCD98hc or AeaLAT alone in Xenopus oocyte did not induce amino acid transport activity. However, co-expression of AeaCD98hc and AeaLAT, which are postulated to form a heterodimer protein ...
Mitomo Hideyuki - - 2003
Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 reportedly causes multidrug resistance, whereas altered drug-resistance profiles and substrate specificity are implicated for certain variant forms of ABCG2. At least three variant forms of ABCG2 have been hitherto documented on the basis of their amino acid moieties (i.e., arginine, glycine and threonine) ...
Mendz George L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The amino acid L-arginine is an essential requirement for growth of Helicobacter pylori. Several physiological roles of this amino acid have been identified in the bacterium, but very little is known about the transport of L-arginine and of other amino acids into H. pylori. METHODS: Radioactive tracer techniques using ...
Agu Remigius - - 2003
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide functional and molecular evidence to support the existence of large neutral amino acid transporters in human nasal epithelium using nasal primary cell culture model. METHODS: L-Phenylalanine was used as a model substrate to characterize carrier-mediated permeation of amino acids across human ...
Sun-Wada Ge-Hong - - 2003
Cytoplasmic organelles with an acidic luminal pH include vacuoles, coated vesicles, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, and synaptic vesicles. Acidic compartments are also known outside specialized cells such as osteoclasts. The unique acidic pH is formed by V-ATPase (Vacuolar type ATPase), other ion transporters, and the buffering action of proteins inside ...
Friesema Edith C H - - 2003
Transport of thyroid hormone across the cell membrane is required for its action and metabolism. Recently, a T-type amino acid transporter was cloned which transports aromatic amino acids but not iodothyronines. This transporter belongs to the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and is most homologous with MCT8 (SLC16A2). Therefore, we cloned ...
Eggeling Lothar - - 2003
Molecular access to amino acid excretion by Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli led to the identification of structurally novel carriers and novel carrier functions. The exporters LysE, RhtB, ThrE and BrnFE each represent the protoype of new transporter families, which are in part distributed throughout all of the kingdoms of ...
Stahl Andreas - - 2004
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are not only important metabolites but contribute to many cellular functions including activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and nuclear transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAPs). To assert their diverse effects LCFAs have first to traverse the plasma membrane, a process that can ...
Breccia Perla - - 2003
A number of artificial carriers for the transport of zwitterionic aromatic amino acids across bulk model membranes (U-tube type) have been prepared and evaluated. 1,2-Dichloroethane and dichloromethane were employed in the organic phase. All compounds are based on a bicyclic chiral guanidinium scaffold that ideally complements the carboxylate function. The ...
Mackenzie Bryan - - 2004
The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNAT) of the SLC38 gene family resemble the classically-described System A and System N transport activities in terms of their functional properties and patterns of regulation. Transport of small, aliphatic amino acids by System A subtypes (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4) is rheogenic and pH ...
Hata Soichiro - - 2003
Transport of a series of 3H-radiolabeled C23, C24, and C27 bile acid derivatives was compared and contrasted in HeLa cell lines stably transfected with rat Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) or organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (oatp1) in which expression was under regulation of a zinc-inducible promoter. Similar uptake patterns were ...
Blais Anne - - 2003
Omnivores show recognition of essential (indispensable) amino acid deficiency by changing their feeding behavior within 20 min, yet the cellular mechanisms of amino acid sensation in eukaryotes are poorly understood. The anterior piriform cortex (APC) of the brain in rats or its analog in birds likely houses the in vivo ...
Hyde Russell - - 2003
Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent ...
Jain-Vakkalagadda Blisse - - 2003
PURPOSE: The objective of this research was to investigate the presence of an Na(+)-independent, large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1, on rabbit corneal epithelium and human cornea. METHODS: Freshly excised rabbit corneas were used for transport studies and SIRC (a rabbit corneal cell line) cells for uptake studies. Transport and ...
McConathy Jonathan - - 2003
Radiolabeled amino acids represent a promising class of tumor imaging agents, and the determination of the optimal characteristics of these tracers remains an area of active investigation. A new (18)F-labeled branched amino acid, 2-amino-4-[(18)F]fluoro-2-methylbutanoic acid (FAMB), has been prepared in 36% decay-corrected yield using no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoride. In vitro uptake assays ...
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