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Lefebvre Tania - - 2004
PURPOSE: Valerian root ( Valeriana officinalis L.) has been used since antiquity as a medicinal herb. Recent studies have found that certain herbal products used concomitantly with conventional therapeutic products can markedly affect drug disposition. METHODS: The in vitro effect of aliquots from 14 commercially available single-entity and blended products ...
Anand Banmeet S - - 2004
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of improvement of ocular bioavailability of the antiviral agent acyclovir by designing amino acid prodrugs targeted to the amino acid transporters on the rabbit cornea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transcorneal flux of two water-soluble amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir ...
Duttaroy Asim K - - 2004
In the feto-placental unit, preferential transport of maternal plasma arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:5n-3) across the placenta is of critical importance for fetal growth and development. More than 90 per cent of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. All of ...
Schröder Heinz-C - - 2004
Silicon is, besides oxygen, the most abundant element on earth. Only two taxa use this element as a major constituent of their skeleton, namely sponges (phylum Porifera) and unicellular diatoms. Results from combined cytobiological and molecularbiological techniques suggest that, in the demosponge Suberites domuncula, silicic acid is taken up by ...
Larsen Mads Breum - - 2004
The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of sodium chloride-dependent transporters responsible for uptake of amino acids and biogenic amines from extracellular spaces. SERT represents the main pharmacological target in the treatment of several clinical conditions, including depression and anxiety. Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants are the most ...
Baranenko Valentyna - - 2004
The results of the study of the fatty acid content and the functional state of chloroplasts isolated from leaves of pea plants grown during 7 and 14 days in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation (2 rpm) are presented. An increase in the unsaturated fatty acid content occurred after 7-day ...
Zegarra-Moran Olga - - 2004
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is an enzyme that catabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. We investigated the consequences of IDO induction by IFN-gamma in polarized human bronchial epithelium. IDO mRNA expression was undetectable in resting conditions, but strongly induced by IFN-gamma. We determined the concentration of tryptophan and kynurenine in the extracellular medium, and ...
Pina Carlos - - 2004
The basis of fructophily in the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii has been shown to reside in the performance of transport systems for hexoses. In this study, a gene encoding a fructose-specific transporter was characterized. The strategy involved the functional complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that does not take up hexoses ...
Tatè Rosarita - - 2004
We undertook the study of the use of glutamine (Gln) as the source of carbon and energy by Rhizobium etli. Tn5-induced mutagenesis allowed us to identify several genes required for Gln utilization, including those coding for two broad-range amino acid transporters and a glutamate dehydrogenase. The isolated mutants were characterized ...
Kampf J Patrick - - 2004
Transport of free fatty acids (FFA) across the adipocyte plasma membrane is critical for maintaining homeostasis. To determine the membrane's role in regulating transport we describe here the first measurements of the intracellular (unbound) FFA concentration ([FFA(i)]) and their use in monitoring transport of FFA across 3T3F442A adipocytes. [FFA(i)] was ...
Dominy John J - - 2004
Perfusion with high millimolar levels of taurine evoked a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-TAU) of synaptic transmission in the Schaffer-collateral CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Although LLP-TAU showed some correlations to increases in the total taurine content of hippocampal slices, it could not be blocked by the taurine transport inhibitor guanidinoethanesulfonic ...
Bragadin Marcantonio - - 2004
The transport mechanism of aluminum in lysosomes extracted from rat liver has been investigated in this paper. The experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that aluminum is transported inside lysosomes in the form of an Al(OH)(3) electroneutral compound, the driving force being the internal acidic pH. This mechanism could help to ...
Kalant David - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to summarize recent developments in the area of regulation of fatty acid transport. RECENT FINDINGS: While controversy still exists regarding the contribution of passive diffusion versus protein-mediated fatty acid transport, both processes are now widely accepted. With the recent identification ...
Bhattacharya Indranil - - 2004
gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (sodium oxybate, GHB) is an approved therapeutic agent for cataplexy with narcolepsy. GHB is widely abused as an anabolic agent, euphoriant, and date rape drug. Recreational abuse or overdose of GHB (or its precursors gamma-butyrolactone or 1,4-butanediol) results in dose-dependent central nervous system (CNS) effects (respiratory depression, unconsciousness, coma, ...
Fernie Alisdair R - - 2004
The respiratory pathways of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the mitochondrial electron transport chain are ubiquitous throughout nature. They are essential for both energy provision in heterotrophic cells and a wide range of other physiological functions. Although the series of enzymes and proteins that participate in these pathways ...
Dave Mital H - - 2004
Members of the new heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are composed of two subunits, a catalytic multitransmembrane spanning protein (light chain) and a type II glycoprotein (heavy chain). These transporters function as exchangers and thereby extend the transmembrane amino acid transport selectivity to specific amino acids. The heavy chain rBAT ...
Kasahara Toshiko - - 2004
Chimeras of Hxt2 and Hxt1, high affinity and low affinity glucose transporters, respectively, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were previously constructed by random replacement of each of the 12 transmembrane segments (TMs) of Hxt2 with the corresponding region of Hxt1. Characterization of these chimeras revealed that at least TMs 1, 5, 7, ...
Konishi Yutaka - - 2004
Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids exhibited nonsaturable transport in Caco-2 cells, whereas caffeic acid also showed proton-coupled polarized absorption. Thus, the absorption efficiency of caffeic acid was greater than that of chlorogenic acid. Polarized transport of caffeic acid was inhibited by substrates of MCT such as benzoic and acetic acids. ...
Shikano Naoto - - 2004
The substance 4-[(125)I]iodo-L-meta-tyrosin (4-[(125)I]mTyr) is a radioiodinated amino acid that exhibits high in vivo stability and rapid renal elimination in vivo. We investigated transport of 4-[(125)I]mTyr in LLC-PK(1) (porcine kidney epithelial cell line) monolayers grown on collagen-coated, micro-porous membrane filters. We found that 4-[(125)I]mTyr transport in LLC-PK(1) cells was carrier-mediated ...
Sun Haiguo - - 2004
Land plants orient their growth relative to light and gravity through complex mechanisms that require auxin redistribution. Embryos of brown algae use similar environmental stimuli to orient their developmental polarity. These studies of the brown algae Fucus distichus examined whether auxin and auxin transport are also required during polarization in ...
Buer Charles S - - 2004
We examined whether flavonoids act as endogenous auxin transport regulators during gravity vector and light intensity changes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Flavonoid deficient transparent testa4 [tt4(2YY6)] seedlings had elevated root basipetal auxin transport compared with the wild type, consistent with the absence of a negative auxin transport regulator. The tt4(2YY6) ...
Subramanian Veedamali S - - 2004
The human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (hSVCT1) mediates sodium-dependent cellular uptake of the essential micronutrient l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). However, the molecular determinants that control the cell surface expression, subcellular distribution, and dynamics of hSVCT1 remain undefined. To identify molecular determinants involved in hSVCT1 targeting in polarized epithelia, we used ...
Mendes Ribeiro Antônio Cláudio - - 2004
The importance of membrane transport in normal physiological cell function is unquestionable. However, to what extent alterations in the transport of amino acids are the cause and/or consequence of pathological changes observed in disease states is a question not yet completely clarified. Kinetic experiments with blood cells provide a simple ...
Bröer Angelika - - 2004
Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member ...
Yoon Jung Hoon - - 2004
We have examined the expression and function of system l amino acid transporter in KB human oral epidermoid carcinoma cells. The KB cells express l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in plasma membrane, but not l-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2). The [14C]l-leucine uptake by KB cells is inhibited by ...
Clarke David C - - 2004
Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a key fatty acid transporter in skeletal muscle. However, the effects on fatty acid transport by another putative fatty acid transporter, plasma membrane-associated fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm), have not been determined in mammalian tissue. We examined the functional effects of overexpressing FABPpm on the ...
Nowak Grazyna - - 2004
Low concentrations of arachidonic acid monoepoxides protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study examined whether low concentrations of the linoleic acid monoepoxide, cis-12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-EOA), protect renal cells against decreases in mitochondrial and transport functions induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. Primary cultures of rabbit renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) were pretreated with diluent ...
Jambois Anne - - 2004
The indole alkaloids brucine and yohimbine, just like hypaphorine, counteract indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) activity in seedling roots, root hairs and shoots, but do not appear to alter auxin transport in roots or in cultured cells. In roots, the interactions between IAA and these three alkaloids appear competitive and specific since ...
Bridges Christy C - - 2004
Humans and other mammals continue to be exposed to various forms of mercury in the environment. The kidneys, specifically the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubules, are the primary targets where mercuric ions accumulate and exert their toxic effects. Although the actual mechanisms involved in the transport of mercuric ions ...
Liu Xiao-ming - - 2004
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) contributes to vascular disease by stimulating the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since amino acids are required for cell growth, the present study examined the effect of PDGF on system L amino acid transport, which is the predominant cellular pathway for the uptake of ...
Miyauchi Seiji - - 2004
SLC5A8, a tumor suppressor gene down-regulated in human colon cancer, codes for a transporter in the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter gene family, but the definitive functional identity of the transporter protein is not known. Since this gene is expressed abundantly in the colon where short-chain fatty acids are generated by bacterial fermentation, ...
Bakouh Naziha - - 2004
Renal ammonium (NH3 + NH4+) transport is a key process for body acid-base balance. It is well known that several ionic transport systems allow NH4+ transmembrane translocation without high specificity NH4+, but it is still debated whether NH3, and more generally, gas, may be transported by transmembrane proteins. The human ...
Bahn Andrew - - 2004
Protein sequence alignments revealed one amino acid position, where organic cation transporters (OCTs, aspartate (D) at position 475 of rOCT2) and organic anion transporters (OATs, arginine (R) at position 466 of rOAT1) are charged oppositely. To address the impact of this amino acid for protein function we cloned rat organic ...
Bui Bang V - - 2004
PURPOSE: To test the proposal that inhibiting monocarboxylate transport in the rat retina results in altered retinal function measured using the electroretinogram (ERG) and to evaluate the efficacy of exogenous metabolic substrates to restore any functional deficit. METHODS: Full-field white-flash ERGs were measured after monocarboxylate transport inhibition with intravitreal injection ...
Rousset Sophie - - 2004
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial transporters present in the inner membrane of mitochondria. They are found in all mammals and in plants. They belong to the family of anion mitochondrial carriers including adenine nucleotide transporters. The term "uncoupling protein" was originally used for UCP1, which is uniquely present in mitochondria ...
Pineda Marta - - 2004
Apical reabsorption of dibasic amino acids and cystine in kidney is mediated by the heteromeric amino acid antiporter rBAT/b(0,+)AT (system b(0,+)). Mutations in rBAT cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in b(0,+)AT cause cystinuria type B. b(0,+)AT is the catalytic subunit, whereas it is believed that rBAT helps the routing ...
Nishimura Nobuhiro - - 2004
Sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents have interindividual variability in the gastrointestinal absorption rate. However, the absorption mechanism at the intestinal epithelium has not yet been clarified. To elucidate contribution of the specific mechanism for transepithelial transport of sulfonylureas, the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transport studies of tolbutamide were carried out using Caco-2 cell ...
Rotmann Alexander - - 2004
Cationic amino acid transporters play an important role in the intracellular supply of L-Arg and the generation of nitric oxide. Since the transport of L-Arg is voltage-dependent, we aimed at determining the intracellular L-Arg concentration and describing the transport of L-Arg in terms of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, taking into account membrane ...
Wasa Masafumi - - 2004
Amino acid transport across the plasma membrane is essential for supplying enterocytes with amino acids for cellular metabolism. We studied amino acid transport during ischemic conditions using human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Cells were incubated under nutrient-deprived (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS), hypoxic, and ischemic (PBS+hypoxia) conditions. Ischemia resulted in a ...
Schuller-Levis Georgia B - - 2004
Taurine is a semiessential amino acid that is not incorporated into proteins. In mammalian tissues, taurine is ubiquitous and is the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, and leukocytes. Taurine reaches up to 50 mM concentration in leukocytes. Taurine has been shown to be tissue-protective ...
Obłak Ewa - - 2004
A set of oxalates of alpha-dimethylamino fatty acids n-alkyl esters (MEM-ns and n-MEM-8s) and n-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylalaninate (DMAL-12s) were synthesized. Their activities on the growth, transport, and ATPases from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared. The compounds differ in the number of carbon atoms in their aliphatic chain and in the position ...
Hatzoglou Maria - - 2004
The discovery of the function of the receptor for the ecotropic retrovirus as a membrane transporter for the essential amino acids lysine and arginine was a landmark finding in the field of molecular nutrition. This finding indicated that cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) act pathologically as viral receptors. The importance ...
Gertow K - - 2004
Disturbances in fatty acid metabolism are involved in the etiology of insulin resistance and the related dyslipidemia, hypertension, and procoagulant state. The fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are implicated in facilitated cellular uptake of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), thus potentially regulating NEFA concentrations and metabolism. The aim of this study ...
Ledesma Amalia - - 2004
The mitochondrial metabolite transporters form a protein superfamily that is known to switch from its specific carrier mechanism to a channel/pore mode. The altered carrier function probably has pathophysiological significance. Thus, the permeability transition appears to be due to the switch of the adenine nucleotide translocator to a channel/pore mode. ...
Drazeta Lazar - - 2004
The growth dynamics of vessel formation and the effect of auxin transport inhibition on vessel differentiation were investigated in the pedicel of developing apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Quantitative microscopic analysis showed that a majority of vessels were differentiated pre-bloom with the commencement of pedicel extension but that the full conducting ...
Daniel Hannelore - - 2004
Intestinal protein digestion generates a huge variety and quantity of short chain peptides that are absorbed into intestinal epithelial cells by the PEPT1 transporter in the apical membrane of enterocytes. PEPT1 operates as an electrogenic proton/peptide symporter with the ability to transport essentially every possible di- and tripeptide. Transport is ...
Lalonde Sylvie - - 2004
Sugars and amino acids are generated in plants by assimilation from inorganic forms. Assimilated forms cross multiple membranes on their way from production sites to storage or use locations. Specific transport systems are responsible for vacuolar uptake and release, for efflux from the cells, and for uptake into the vasculature. ...
Mari S A - - 2004
To investigate the peculiar ionic specificity of KAAT1, an Na+- and K+-coupled amino acid cotransporter from Lepidoptera, a detailed analysis of membrane topology predictions was performed, together with sequence comparison with strictly Na+-dependent mammalian cotransporters from the same family. The analysis identified aspartate 338, a residue present also in the ...
Dalpiaz Alessandro - - 2004
Continuing our studies on SVCT2 ascorbic acid (AA) transporter-mediated drug delivery of neurotropic agents, we have now investigated the in vitro intracellular uptake of Diclofenac (Diclo) and its conjugate (AA-Diclo), both characterized by high affinity for the SVCT2 transporter. We have also investigated the in vivo uptake mechanism of AA-conjugate ...
Kozak Kevin R - - 2004
The last decade has witnessed a rapid expansion in our understanding of the mammalian endogenous cannabinoid system. In just a few short years since the discovery of endogenous lipids that serve as cannabinoids in vivo, these molecules have been shown to participate in a broad array of physiological and pathological ...
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