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Results 351 - 400 of 1446
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Lopez Christelle - - 2006
The chemical composition and crystallisation properties of milk fat and its primary fractions, obtained by dry fractionation at 21 degrees C, were investigated. The solid fraction (stearin) and the liquid fraction (olein) displayed a different triacylglycerol (TG) composition. Stearin fraction was enriched in long-chain fatty acids, whereas olein fraction was ...
Al-Tamer Y Y - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition, especially n(3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n(3) LCPUFAs) of mature breast-milk of Iraqi mothers and their relation to the socioeconomic status of the mothers. DESIGN: A collection of mature breast-milk of mothers with three different socioeconomic status (lactation period ...
Ellis K A - - 2006
During a 12-mo longitudinal study, bulk-tank milk was collected each month from organic (n = 17) and conventional (n = 19) dairy farms in the United Kingdom. All milk samples were analyzed for fatty acid (FA) content, with the farming system type, herd production level, and nutritional factors affecting the ...
Weekes T L - - 2006
Lactating cows were exposed to large amino acid imbalances and deficiencies by i.v. infusion to characterize responses in milk production and plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Six cows in early lactation were fed a basal diet of 9% CP and infused continuously for 6 d with saline (negative control), ...
Rajan Akhila - - 2006
Enzymatic modification of starch using long chain fatty acid makes it thermoplastic suitable for a myriad of industrial applications. An industrial lipase preparation produced by Burkholderia cepacia (lipase PS) was used for modification of cassava starch with two acyl donors, lauric acid and palmitic acid. Reactions performed with palmitic acid ...
Benito Pedro - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) have increased cardiovascular risk factors. Dietary modifications mainly polyunsatturated fatty acids intake, can improve them. The present study was performed to assess the effects of enriched milk with omega-3 and oleic fatty acids, folic acid and vitamin E, in these patients. METHODS: ...
Mjøs Svein A - - 2006
A recently introduced two-dimensional fatty acid retention index system (2D-FARI) was used as basis for prediction of equivalent chain lengths (ECL) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) on a BPX-70 stationary phase. Models for the relationship between 2D-FARI data and ECL values of a calibration sample with 30 common fatty ...
Garnsworthy P C - - 2006
Citrate is a normal constituent of milk that affects milk-processing characteristics. It is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and plays an indirect role in fat synthesis by providing reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH. The objective of this study was to investigate variation in citrate with stage ...
Boguhn J - - 2006
The objective was to study the variation in the amino acid profile of microbial fractions obtained after feeding 16 total mixed rations for dairy cows in a Rusitec. Each ration was incubated for 15 d in 3-fold replicate. The rations showed high variation in the inclusion level of different ingredients ...
Innis Sheila M - - 2006
All of the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids accumulated by the fetus must be derived by transfer from the maternal circulation, and ultimately must originate from the maternal diet. After birth, the breast-fed infant receives essential fatty acids via mother's milk, or human milk substitutes and later complementary foods. ...
Pettersson Jenny - - 2006
HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of apo alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, formed in casein after low pH treatment of human milk. This study examined if HAMLET-like complexes are present in casein from different species and if isolated alpha-lactalbumin from those species can form ...
Axtell Stephen P - - 2006
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in tap water (TAP) or TAP containing 50 ppm of monochloramine (MON) with respect to chloroform formation, total chlorine content, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, and fatty acid profiles. Ten broiler chicken carcasses were chilled in ...
Jenkins T C - - 2006
A number of major scientific advances have been realized in the last 25 yr in determining the opportunities and limitations of altering milk composition through nutritional manipulation. Because of the greater sensitivity of milk fat to dietary manipulation than either protein or lactose, nutritional control of milk fat content and ...
Rulquin Henri - - 2006
Four multiparous Holstein cows, each equipped with a duodenal cannula and an ultrasonic mammary blood flow probe, were assigned to a 4x4 Latin square to measure the effects of duodenal infusions of Leu (0, 40, 80 and 120 g/d) on lactational responses and mammary metabolism of nutrients. Cows were fed ...
Firkins J L - - 2006
An important objective is to identify nutrients or dietary factors that are most critical for advancing our knowledge of, and improving our ability to predict, milk protein production. The Dairy NRC (2001) model is sensitive to prediction of microbial protein synthesis, which is among the most important component of models ...
Harvatine K J - - 2006
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square ...
Straarup Ellen Marie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The stereospecific structures of the triacylglycerol molecules in human milk differ from that of cow's milk and vegetable oils, which are the fat sources used in infant formula. In human milk, palmitic acid (16:0) is predominantly esterified in the sn2 position, whereas vegetable oils or cow's milk fat contain ...
Mosley Erin E - - 2006
The utilization of (13)C-labeled vaccenic acid (VA) by lactating dairy cows to synthesize cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated. Primiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n = 3) were abomasally infused with 1.5 g of VA-1-(13)C. Blood and milk samples were taken frequently before and after VA infusion. Milk ...
Park Y W - - 2006
The effects of 6 mo of freezing and refrigeration on organic acid profiles of 2 types of goat milk cheese [plain soft (PS) and Monterey Jack (MJ)] were studied in comparison with those of a nonfrozen control (NFC). Three lots of commercial PS cheeses were purchased, and 3 lots of ...
Torres Alexandre G - - 2006
Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid ...
Roy Alexandre - - 2006
Trans fatty acids are suspected to be detrimental to health, particularly to cardiovascular function. Trans fatty acids include a wide range of fatty acids, with isomers of C18:1, conjugated and non-conjugated C18:2 as major components. A vaccenic acid (trans11-C18:1) + rumenic acid (cis9,trans11-CLA)-rich butter has been shown previously to exhibit ...
Odriozola-Serrano I - - 2006
The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HI-PEF) processing (35.5 kV/cm for 1,000 or 300 micros with bipolar 7-micros pulses at 111 Hz; the temperature outside the chamber was always < 40 degrees C) on microbial shelf life and quality-related parameters of whole milk were investigated and compared with traditional ...
Jayamanne V S - - 2006
AIMS: To determine the level of bifidobacteria in bio-yoghurts in the UK, identify the species, and compare the resistance of common Bifidobacterium spp. to acidity and oxidative stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: A storage trial of bio-yoghurts was carried out to determine the level and survival of bifidobacteria. The 16S rRNA ...
Brain Jarod - - 2006
Amperometric sensors may be used in milk analysis but electrochemical interference from compounds other than the analyte is an on-going problem. A survey was made of the level of electrochemical activity (potential interference) in milk from a herd of dairy cows grazing on summer pasture. It was a ubiquitous feature ...
Carroll S M - - 2006
A novel whey protein emulsion gel (WPEG) complex was developed to protect dietary unsaturated fatty acids from rumen biohydrogenation with the goal of modifying the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Three experiments were conducted with WPEG complexes made from either whey protein concentrate containing 80% crude protein, whey protein ...
Wijga Alet H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the association between early life lipid intakes and the development of allergic diseases is needed. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively studied breast milk content of n-6, n-3, and trans fatty acids in relation to allergic symptoms at the ages of 1 and 4 years. METHODS: Fatty acid content ...
Oddy Wendy H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The incidence of atopic diseases such as eczema is increasing in westernized societies. The suggestion that there is a "protective" association between the unique fatty acid composition of breast milk, particularly the omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) essential polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the development of atopic disease in ...
German J Bruce - - 2006
Milkfat is a remarkable source of energy, fat-soluble nutrients and bioactive lipids for mammals. The composition and content of lipids in milkfat vary widely among mammalian species. Milkfat is not only a source of bioactive lipid components, it also serves as an important delivery medium for nutrients, including the fat-soluble ...
Patin Rose V - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect the ingestion of sardines, rich in omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, has on the composition of breastmilk. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 31 nursing mothers under observation at the Hospital Guilherme Alvaro. Each was given 2 kg ...
Olafsdottir A S - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet and breast milk of lactating women with traditional fish and cod liver oil consumption was investigated under free-living conditions. METHODS: Dietary intake of 77 lactating women was investigated by 24-hour recalls and breast milk samples were taken at the ...
Shehadeh Naim - - 2006
Maternal milk feeding for more than 1 year is encouraged by many health care authorities. We demonstrate that human milk beyond 1 year of lactation had a small but significantly lower concentration of protein, calcium, and long-chain saturated fatty acids compared with human milk at 3 months after delivery.
Sala-Vila A - - 2006
Here we studied whether the chemical structure of dietary arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in full-term infant diets affects their incorporation into erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. From birth to 3 months, infants were fed breast milk (n = 9) or formula milk containing arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid provided by egg phospholipids ...
Lefevre Michael - - 2005
Trans-fatty acids have been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In addition, a polymorphism at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene has been suggested to modify an interaction between dietary fat and insulin sensitivity. We examined the postprandial metabolic profiles after ...
Derzelle Sylviane - - 2005
We investigated the adaptation to milk of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 using a proteomic approach. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of cytosolic proteins were performed after growth in M17 medium or in milk. A major modification of the proteome concerned proteins involved in the supply of amino acids, like the peptidase PepX, and several ...
Urashima Tadasu - - 2005
Carbohydrates were extracted from a sample of milk from a mink, Mustela vison (Family Mustelidae). Free neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the carbohydrate fraction and their chemical structures were compared with those of white-nosed coati (Nasua narica, Procyonidae) and harbour seal (Phoca vitulina, Phocidae) that we had studied ...
Marín M C - - 2005
Milk fat is the major source of energy for breastfed infants; it also supplies polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) essential for the development of brain, retina, and other organs. Maternal nutritional status is critical for the newborn, and little information exists regarding the PUFA status of vulnerable populations living in Southern ...
Elliott Anthony J - - 2005
The properties of commercial directly and indirectly heated UHT milks, both after heating and during storage at room temperature for 24 weeks, were studied. Thermally induced changes were examined by changes in lactulose, furosine and acid-soluble whey proteins. The results confirmed previous reports that directly heated UHT milks suffer less ...
Kay J K - - 2005
Control (CL) and select line (SL) dairy cows (n = 22) managed identically but differing in milk yield (>4100 kg/305 d) were used to determine differences in milk fatty acid profile as lactation progressed. Milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were collected during wk 1, 4, 8, 12, ...
Agarwal S - - 2005
Gas-flushed packaging is commonly used for cheese shreds and cubes to prevent aggregation and loss of individual identity. Appearance of a white haze on cubed cheese is unappealing to consumers, who may refrain from buying, resulting in lost revenue to manufacturers. The objective of this study was to determine whether ...
Buffa Martín - - 2005
The extent of primary and secondary proteolysis of cheeses made from raw (RA), pasteurized (PA, 72 degrees C, 15 s) or pressure-treated (PR, 500 MPa, 15 min, 20 degrees C) goats' milk was assessed. Modifications in cheese-making technology were introduced to obtain cheeses with the same moisture content, and thus ...
Heyndrickx Marc - - 2005
Four novel ellipsoidal spore-forming Bacillus isolates with swollen sporangia, isolated from raw milk and feed concentrate, showed a high level of similarity in SDS-PAGE, fatty acid methyl esters and routine phenotypic tests. However, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that this taxon was different from other related Bacillus species, and ...
Schneider Stéphane M - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Impaired bowel function is frequent in tube-fed patients, and diarrhoea is associated with decreased faecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a multi-fibre-enriched formula (15 g/l) and a fibre-free isoenergetic and isonitrogenous formula on faecal SCFAs and ...
Nair M K M - - 2005
Bovine mastitis is the most significant economic drain on the worldwide dairy industry. Concerns regarding poor cure rates, emergence of bacterial resistance, and residues in milk necessitate development of alternative therapeutic approaches to antibiotics for treatment of mastitis. A variety of free fatty acids and their monoglycerides have been reported ...
Chen Hsiao-Ling - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The prebiotic role of intact konjac glucomannan (KGM) is contradictory. Short-chain glucomannan may cause a greater or faster effect on colonic microflora compared with KGM. Therefore, time-course and dose-dependent studies were conducted to examine and compare effects of unhydrolyzed KGM with those of acid-hydrolyzed glucomannan (KH) on cecal and ...
Kovács Andrea - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It has been much debated whether fatty acid composition of human milk differs after preterm as compared to full-term delivery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Human milk samples were obtained from mothers of preterm (n = 8, gestational age: 28.0 [4.2] weeks, birthweight: 1,235 [420] g, median [interquartile range]) and full-term ...
Leroy J L M R - - 2005
In this study concentration and composition of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in follicular fluid (FF) of high-yielding dairy cows were determined during the period of negative energy balance (NEB) early post partum. NEFA were then added during in vitro maturation at concentrations measured previously in FF to evaluate their effect ...
Addis M - - 2005
Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect on milk and cheese fatty acid composition of feeding different fresh forages to dairy sheep both in winter (experiment 1, growing stage of the forages, early lactating ewes) and in spring (experiment 2, reproduction stage of the forages, midlactating ewes). Four forage ...
Graulet B - - 2005
Adequate Met supply is especially important in the dairy cow for milk protein synthesis. Because of insufficient Met contents in the most frequently used feed-stuffs, Met becomes limiting in the diet of the dairy cow. To restore the amino acid balance of the diet and consequently to optimize lactation performance, ...
Luna P - - 2005
An improved rapid method for separating lipids from milk to determine the fatty acid composition using 2 centrifugations at room temperature (20 degrees C) was compared with the ISO-IDF reference procedure based on solvent extraction. The new method is useful for research and routine quality control and has a number ...
Zhang H - - 2005
Changes in chemical composition of Alxa bactrian camels reared in Inner Mongolia (China) during lactation were investigated. Colostrum and milk samples from 10 nomadic female camels in their first season of lactation were collected periodically from parturition until 90 d postpartum (PP). The average contents of gross composition were 14.23% ...
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