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Results 201 - 250 of 1446
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Tao N - - 2008
Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only ...
Bouton Yvette - - 2009
The effect of four associations of adjunct cultures composed of mesophilic lactobacilli and enterococci, either solely or combined, on the microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of Swiss-type cheese made using microfiltered cows' milk and supplemented with propionibacteria was studied. The global pattern of growth was similar to that generally observed ...
Milligan Lauren A - - 2008
Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the ...
Ghazal Heba S - - 2009
Drugs in the gastrointestinal tract are exposed to a medium of partially digested food, comprising mixtures of fat, protein and carbohydrate. The dissolution behaviour of itraconazole was evaluated in bio-relevant media which were developed to take this into account. Media containing milk with different fat contents, protein (albumin, casein, gluten ...
Shehab-El-Deen M A - - 2009
In this study, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were added during in vitro maturation at concentrations measured previously in follicular fluid (FF) of high-producing dairy cows in a negative energy status to evaluate their subsequent effect on the embryos cryotolerance. Oocytes were matured for 24 h in serum-free media with or ...
Hession Aideen O - - 2008
N-Acetylglutamate (NAG) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) are amino acid derivatives with reported activities in a number of biological processes. However, there is no published information on the presence of either substance in foodstuffs. We developed a method for extracting and quantifying NAG and NAA from soybean seeds and maize grain using ...
Soyeurt H - - 2008
Fatty acid composition influences the nutritional quality of milk and the technological properties of butter. Using a prediction of fatty acid (FA) contents by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, a large amount of data concerning the FA profile in bovine milk was collected. The large number of records permitted consideration of more ...
Lock A L - - 2008
The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing trans-10, cis-12 for reducing milk fat synthesis has been well described in dairy cows and sheep. Studies on lactating goats, however, remain inconclusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement (LE-CLA) on milk production ...
Gupta Vandana - - 2008
The mechanisms by which androgens regulate fat mass are poorly understood. Although testosterone has been reported to increase lipolysis and inhibit lipid uptake, androgen effects on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and preadipocytes have not been studied. Here, we investigated whether dihydrotestosterone (DHT) regulates proliferation, differentiation, ...
Niehoff Inka-Donata - - 2009
Due to the incorporation of niacin into the coenzymes NAD and NADP, niacin is of great importance for the metabolism of man and animals. Apart from niacin in feed and endogenous formation, microbial niacin synthesis in the rumen is an important source for dairy cows. But the amount synthesised seems ...
Fragkou Ilectra A - - 2008
The objective was to describe the physicochemical changes during the early phase of subclinical mastitis and to associate them with pathological findings. A Mannheimia haemolytica strain was deposited into one teat duct of 25 ewes and the clinical, bacteriological, cytological, physicochemical (pH, milk composition), gross-pathological and histological findings were subsequently ...
Pikul Jan - - 2008
The effect of the stage of lactation, the number of foals and age of the mare on changes in the fat content and fatty acid composition of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses was investigated. Colostrum and milk samples from 12 lactating mares were collected at the beginning of ...
Pereira R N - - 2008
The disruption of the milk fat globule membrane can lead to an excessive accumulation of free fatty acids in milk, which is frequently associated with the appearance of rancid flavors. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography techniques have been shown to be useful tools in the quantification of individual free fatty ...
Patel Osman V - - 2008
Perturbed prolactin (PRL) secretion and concomitant downregulation of PRL receptor (PRLR) in periparturient dams exposed to altered gravity are linked to aberrant lipogenesis and reduced neonatal survival. PRL and glucocorticoids (GC) are known to modulate PRLR expression. We hypothesized that improving levels of PRLR would mitigate the increased gravity [hypergravity ...
Bonetta Silvia - - 2008
Robiola di Roccaverano is a traditional Italian goat's milk cheese carrying a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The present work studied both cheese microflora and cheese physicochemical characteristics to obtain a more accurate description of this PDO product. Multivariate statistical analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the influence of cheesemaking ...
Cornish Jillian - - 2008
Clinical studies have shown that total body fat mass is related to both bone density and fracture risk and that fat ingestion reduces bone turnover. These effects are at least partially mediated by endocrine mechanisms, but it is possible that lipids might act directly on bone. We assessed the effects ...
Clément M - - 2008
Milk lipids contain several bioactive factors exhibiting antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In the present study, we demonstrate that free fatty acids (FFA) derived from the saponification of bovine whey cream lipids are active in vitro at inhibiting the germination of Candida albicans, a morphological transition associated with ...
Craninx M - - 2008
The pattern of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) in milk fat reflects rumen microbial activity and proportions of different rumen microbial groups. Therefore, these milk fatty acids (FA) are used to predict rumen proportions of volatile fatty acids, duodenal flow of microbial protein, and occurrence of rumen acidosis. However, ...
Moutsioulis Athena A - - 2008
Human breast milk is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Some compounds, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), come partly from the mother's diet and are produced by the mother's body and secreted into the milk. Although several studies have examined the effect of chronic CLA supplementation on ...
Glasser F - - 2008
This study is a meta-analysis of the response of milk long-chain fatty acid (FA) yield and composition to lipid supply, based on published experiments reporting duodenal FA flows or duodenal lipid infusions and milk FA composition (i.e., 39 experiments reporting 139 experimental treatments). Analysis of these data underlined the interdependence ...
Karatas F - - 2008
Hormone ghrelin and orotic acid accelerate wound healing as well as controlling inflammation and immunity. We have, therefore, investigated the serum and milk levels of ghrelin and orotic acid in dairy cows with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) subclinical mastitis. Acylated and des-acylated ghrelin as well as ...
Fordyce James A - - 2008
Larvae of the pipevine swallowtail (Battus philenor) sequester toxic alkaloids called aristolochic acids from their Aristolochia host plants, rendering both larvae and adults chemically defended against most predators. Using a chemically controlled artificial diet, we observed substantial among-family variation in sequestration ability and larval developmental rate in a population occurring ...
Zelinková Z - - 2008
A series of twelve breast milk samples were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in selected ion monitoring mode for 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). Whilst none of the samples contained 3-MCPD above the limit of detection of 3 microg kg(-1) milk, all contained high amounts of 3-MCPD esterified with higher fatty ...
Enjalbert F - - 2008
Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty ...
D'Urso S - - 2008
The effect of pasture on the fatty acid profile of milk was evaluated using 30 pluriparous goats, which were divided into two homogeneous groups (H and P) of 15 goats each after kidding. Group H (control) goats were housed in a stall and received alfalfa hay, while group P was ...
Viscione K A - - 2008
The effects of a prelay 6/85-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (6/85 MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with subsequent F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations during lay on the internal egg characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens were investigated. In the first 2 treatment groups, birds were sham inoculated or were inoculated with 6/85 ...
Bionaz Massimo - - 2008
The lactating bovine mammary gland is a formidable triacylglycerol-synthesizing machine and, as such, represents an ideal model for studying putative functions of distinct isoforms of solute carrier family 27 transporters [(SLC27A) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6], long chain acyl-CoA synthetases [(ACSL) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6], fatty acid binding proteins ...
Spangenberg Jorge E - - 2008
The molecular and isotopic chemistry of organic residues from archaeological potsherds was used to obtain further insight into the dietary trends and economies at the Constance lake-shore Neolithic settlements. The archaeological organic residues from the Early Late Neolithic (3922-3902 BC) site Hornstaad-Hornle IA/Germany are, at present, the oldest archaeological samples ...
Iwamori Masao - - 2008
To elucidate the potential of mammalian milk as to protection of infants from infections, we determined the ganglioside compositions of human, cow and goat milk in relation with cholera toxin and botulinum type A neurotoxin-receptors. Gangliosides accounted for 1 to 2 micromol of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) in 100 ml ...
Baldassarre Hernan - - 2008
The use of the mammary gland of transgenic goats as a bioreactor is a well established platform for the efficient production of recombinant proteins, especially for molecules that cannot be adequately produced in traditional systems using genetically engineered microorganisms and cells. However, the extraordinary demand placed on the secretory epithelium ...
Kim Soo Rin - - 2008
In the present study, we identified several process variables that significantly affect the efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide inactivation of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Treatment with SC-CO(2) completely disabled the colony-forming activity of the cells (8-log reduction) within specific treatment time (10-50 min), pressure (80-150 bar), and temperature ranges ...
Kamireddy N - - 2008
Minimizing microbial growth and maintaining overall quality are priorities for intervention strategies that extend the shelf life of fresh, aquatic foods. Four treatments included a control (fresh fillets), water, 50 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and 1,000 ppm of ASC. Fillets were stored at 1 to 2 degrees C ...
Muller Lukás - - 2008
The development of a rapid, simple and accurate analytical method aimed at the detection and quantification of bovine milk in either ovine or caprine milk samples by means of CE-MS analyses of whey proteins with high-ionic strength and presence of acidic running buffer is described. The high-ionic strength buffer was ...
De Angelis Maria - - 2008
Lactobacillus plantarum 18A, Lactobacillus helveticus 2B, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 20F, Streptococcus thermophilus 22C, Enterococcus faecalis 32C and Enterococcus durans 16E were the most acidifying strains within 146 isolates for natural whey starters. The effect of media and temperature on 2 autochthonous multiple strain cultures (AMSI: 18A, 2B, 20F and ...
Wang L - - 2008
Differentially fluorescently labeled bovine plasminogen (PG-594) and human tissue- and urokinase-type plasminogen activators (tPA-647 and uPA-546) were added to bovine skim milk to track the effect of heat on the location and concentration of these plasmin system components following acid precipitation or ultracentrifugation. In unheated milk, the majority (71.7% to ...
Urbanová Klára - - 2008
Extracts of three different glands (mandibular, labial, and Dufour's) of virgin Bombus terrestris queens at ten different ages (1-8, 12, and 18 days) were analyzed for chemical composition. One hundred and twenty-seven compounds were identified in the extracts. The mandibular and labial glands contained previously reported electroantennogram-active compounds (3-hydroxydecanoic acid, ...
Drago Silvina R - - 2008
Iron, zinc, and calcium dialyzability and ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations were evaluated in milk and yogurt fortified with FeNaEDTA (FE) or ferrous sulfate (FS) as a control, with or without AA addition. The values obtained for FE iron dialyzability in milk were much higher than those obtained for FS. The ...
Gallois Mélanie - - 2008
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major cause of lethal diarrhea in young mammals. Although the pathogenicity mechanisms of EPEC are now well understood, the intrinsic and environmental factors that control the expression of EPEC virulence remain largely unknown. In the rabbit, suckling reduces pups' sensitivity to EPEC infection. Hence, ...
Didier A - - 2008
The present study shows that PrP(c) is expressed in the mammary gland and milk fractions of domestic ruminants in a species-specific manner. By applying immunohistochemistry, Western blot and ELISA, clear expression differences between bovine, ovine and caprine mammary gland, skimmed milk, acid whey and cream could be demonstrated, the highest ...
Prosser Colin G - - 2008
The non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and of infant and follow-on formulae made from goat milk was characterized and compared with cow milk powder and formulae. Goat milk infant formula contained 10% non-protein nitrogen, expressed as a proportion of total nitrogen, compared with 7.1% for cow milk ...
Moate P J - - 2008
Previously observed relationships between dietary composition and production of a small number of individual milk fatty acids were the motivation to examine whether equations could be developed to predict production of all the major individual milk fatty acids. Such equations could be incorporated into ration formulation programs and used to ...
Bobe G - - 2008
Interest in changing the milk fatty acid profile is growing. However, little is known about the genetic variability of milk fatty acids in the US Holstein population. Therefore, genetic parameters for milk fatty acids were estimated using a single-trait, mixed, linear animal model on 592 individual milk samples from 233 ...
Gancarcíková Sorna - - 2008
The objective of this study was to obtain knowledge about the postnatal development of microflora and the production of short-chain fatty acids in 24 piglets suckled by sows and 26 piglets fed on milk replacement. On day 14 piglets which had received no colostrum had higher counts of Enterobacteriaceae (p ...
Meneses Flávia - - 2008
The aims of the present study were to evaluate essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in lactating adolescents and its association with breast milk composition. Healthy nursing adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n 30; 14-19 years; 30-120 d postpartum), exclusively or predominantly breast-feeding, participated in this ...
Sun Huawei - - 2008
There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their manure as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). We report measurements of alcohols, volatile ...
De Freitas I - - 2008
Yeasts are commonly detected in cheese. Two yeast species, Kluyveromyces lactis and Pichia fermentans, were isolated at high populations from raw-milk Cantalet cheese, a French Protected Denomination of Origin hard cheese. To investigate the interest of these 2 species as adjunct cultures to promote flavor development of Cantalet cheese, they ...
Avondo Marcella - - 2008
We evaluated the effect of grazing time of day on goat milk chemical composition, renneting properties and milk fatty acid profile in a Mediterranean grazing system. Sixteen lactating Girgentana goats were divided into two experimental groups and housed in individual pens, where they received 500 g/d of barley grain. For ...
Watchararuji Ketmanee - - 2008
New value-added product was derived from agricultural by-products: rice bran and soybean meal by means of subcritical water (SW) hydrolysis. The effect of temperature (200-220 degrees C), reaction time (10-30 min), raw material-to-water weight ratio (1:5 and 2:5), was determined on the yields of protein, total amino acids, and reducing ...
Purdie N G - - 2008
Rates of secretion of components into milk are a function of precursor concentrations and parameters that describe expression of the milk synthetic enzymes and their sensitivity to precursor concentrations. To establish the enzymatic sensitivities of milk fat yield and mammary acetate utilization to circulating acetate concentration, lactating cows were infused ...
Francis Jimi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C). As ...
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