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Rosell M M Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2004
This study evaluates the association between abdominal obesity and the intake of dairy fat and calcium using information from dietary data and the relative content of the fatty acids 14:0, 15:0, and 17 : 0 in serum phospholipids (PL) and adipose tissue (AT), which are suggested biological markers for dairy ...
Reh W A - - 2004
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase enzyme converts specific medium- and long-chain saturated fatty acids to their monounsaturated form. Transgenic goats expressing a bovine beta-lactoglobulin promoter-rat stearoyl-CoA desaturase cDNA construct in mammary gland epithelial cells were produced by pronuclear microinjection. The fatty acid composition of milk from 4 female transgenic founders was analyzed on ...
Kuligina Elena V - - 2004
The milk feeding is the most essential process laying the foundation of human health at the postnatal development. However little is known about nucleic acids secreted into mother's milk during lactation. In order to investigate the composition and abundance of human milk NA we adapted the conventional isolation method to ...
Houser Dorian S - - 2004
Long-term fasting is a component of northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) life history requiring physiological adaptations to nitrogen conservation. Plasma free amino acids (FAAs) were determined for five elephant seal pups during the second and eighth weeks of the postweaning fast, six lactating female seals at 4-6 and 25 d ...
Thorsdottir Inga - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids may prevent type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated these fatty acids in Nordic cow's milk and whether their supply from milk associates with type 2 diabetes prevalence and CHD mortality in the Nordic countries. METHODS: Samples (N = 84) of consumers' milk ...
Govindasamy-Lucey S - - 2004
The effects of using cold ultrafiltered (UF) retentates (both whole and skim milk) on the coagulation, yield, composition, and ripening of Parmesan cheese were investigated. Milks for cheese making were made by blending cold UF retentates with partially skimmed milk to obtain blends with 14.2% solids and a casein:fat ratio ...
Chilliard Yves - - 2004
This review summarises the known effects of dietary factors on bovine and caprine milk fatty acid composition, as well as the regulation of cow and goat mammary lipid secretion. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a role for human health, such as saturated fatty acids, oleic ...
Thorsdottir I - - 2004
We investigated the content of cis-9, trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and its seasonal variation in bovine milk fat from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Milk samples were collected during winter and summer and analyzed using gas chromatography. The CLA content in milk samples from the Nordic ...
Hu Fangyu - - 2004
In this study were successfully observed the one- (1H, 13C) and two-dimensional (1H-13C, 1H-15N, 1H-31P) NMR spectra of milk directly without any pretreatment. The signals of each NMR spectrum were assigned, and their existing states were also analyzed. Lactose existed in a free state in milk. The signals due to ...
Dunstan J A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Breast milk contains many immunomodulatory factors (soluble CD14 (sCD14), IgA and cytokines) with the potential to influence infant immune development. OBJECTIVE: To determine if changes in breast milk omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) composition as a result of maternal dietary fish oil supplementation during pregnancy can modify levels ...
Westphal Sabine - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia is markedly modulated when carbohydrates are added to a fatty meal. The effect of added protein is less known, however, and the data are controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of casein added to various fat-rich meals in the absence and presence of oligosaccharides. DESIGN: Four different ...
Ulery April L - - 2004
Thousands of gallons of water are used in dairies to wash cows before milking and for cleaning equipment. The wastewater generated contains elevated levels of organic matter and pollutants, including nitrogen that once converted, may contaminate groundwater with nitrate. This study was conducted to determine the amount of sulfuric acid ...
Singh Poonam - - 2004
Free amino acids levels in the milk of 11 healthy Indian mothers were determined using automatic precolumn derivatization procedure. The aim of the study was to find out the relative concentration of glutamic acid and glutamine in the milk. Glutamic acid is the dominant free amino acid found in the ...
Ji T - - 2004
Quantification of water-soluble volatile free fatty acids (FFA) and free amino acids (FAA) was performed as a ripening index and an indirect measure of flavor development in Swiss-type cheeses. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of warm room treatment (WRT) and usage ratio of starter cultures, ...
Hu W - - 2004
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine potential empirical relationships between dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) (Na + K - Cl) and the response of lactating dairy cows. The database was developed from 12 studies published between 1984 and 1997 that included a total of 17 trials, 69 dietary treatments, and 230 ...
Chen She - - 2004
Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor ...
Lo Pei-Ren - - 2004
Antimutagenic activities of six bifidobacteria, after acidic and bile treatment mimicking gastrointestinal conditions, against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) were determined by a modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. Results showed that when bifidobacteria were treated at pH 2.0 for 3 h or 1% bile for 6 h, their antimutagenic activities ...
Carrero Juan J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Results from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have indicated that consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, oleic acid, and folic acid have beneficial effects on health, including decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the combined effects of these nutrients through the consumption of milk enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty ...
Co┼čkun Hayri - - 2004
This study was aimed to determine the accumulation of free fatty acid by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1471, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 1000 and Lactobacillus casei 111) in cold-stored milk. According to the results, all cold-stored milks had higher acid degree values than those of fresh ...
Díaz J R - - 2004
This experiment studied the effect of milking pipeline height (mid- vs. low-level milking system) on milking efficiency and milk composition. The experiment was of 8 wk duration: 2 wk preexperimental period and 6 wk experimental, in crossover design (2 x 2). Ewes were milked in a 2 x 12 milking ...
Goff J P - - 2004
High cation diets can cause milk fever in dairy cows as they induce a metabolic alkalosis reducing the ability of the cow to maintain calcium homeostasis at the onset of lactation. Adding anions to the diet can offset the effect of the high cation forages by inducing a mild metabolic ...
Houlbrèque Fanny - - 2004
We investigated the effect of zooplankton feeding on tissue and skeletal growth of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Microcolonies were divided into two groups: starved corals (SC), which were not fed during the experiment, and fed corals (FC), which were abundantly fed with Artemia salina nauplii and freshly collected zooplankton. ...
Murondoti A - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of key hepatic enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in cows that had excessive body fat at parturition. Dairy cows were allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. All cows were offered a total mixed ration ...
Holland John W - - 2004
The proteome of bovine milk is dominated by just six gene products that constitute approximately 95% of milk protein. Nonetheless, over 150 protein spots can be readily detected following two-dimensional electrophoresis of whole milk. Many of these represent isoforms of the major gene products produced through extensive post-translational modification. Peptide ...
Matsuura-Endo Chie - - 2004
The storage of potato tubers at low temperatures leads to the accumulation of sugars in a process called "low-temperature sweetening." To understand this phenomenon, we measured the sugar contents and the activity of acid invertase over several months in tubers of six Japanese cultivars stored at 4 degrees C or ...
Weinrichter Brigitte - - 2004
A large number of microorganisms, both starter microorganisms and non-starter lactic acid bacteria originating from the base milk, or from various contamination sources during cheese manufacture, is associated with cheese ripening and the formation of flavour, texture and aroma. Under controlled conditions, Emmental and Bergkäse, a Gruyère-type cheese variety, were ...
Ailhaud G - - 2004
The importance of dietary fat in human obesity remains a controversial issue as the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased despite no dramatic change in the amount of ingested fats over the past few decades. However, qualitative changes (i.e. the fatty acid composition of fats) have been largely disregarded. ...
Roth-Maier D A - - 2004
In order to determine the valine (Val) requirement, suckling sows with 10-12 piglets were supplied with feed mixtures, which contained various levels of Val derived by adding crystalline L-Val to the native diet (0.45% = native, 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.05 and 1.45%) during a total of 72 lactations. Milk and ...
Anema Skelte G - - 2004
Reconstituted skim milk was adjusted to pH values between 6.5 and 7.1 and heated (90 degrees C) for up to 30 min. The skim milk samples were then readjusted to pH 6.7. Acid gels prepared from heated milk had markedly higher G ' values, a reduced gelation time, and an ...
Berstan Robert - - 2004
The chemical analyses of "bog butters" recovered from peat bogs of Scotland were performed with the aim of determining their origins. Detailed compositional information was obtained from "bog butter" lipids using high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate the degree to which "bog butters" have ...
Indyk Harvey E - - 2004
A simultaneous determination of orotic acid, uric acid, and creatinine in milk is described. Following deproteinization, the sample was analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, using a highly aqueous cationic ion-pair eluent and photodiode array UV detection. In view of their potential dietary significance, the validated method was applied to survey ...
Clavel T T UMR A408 INRA/Université d'Avignon 'Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale', INRA Domaine St Paul, Avignon Cedex, - - 2004
To determine the fate of Bacillus cereus spores or vegetative cells in simulated gastric medium. The effects of acidity on the survival of B. cereus in a medium simulating human stomach content was followed on spores at pH 1.0-5.2, and on vegetative cells at pH 2.5-5.7. Gastric media (GM) were ...
Yazdani Malektaj - - 2004
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is one of the most commonly consumed drugs in our daily life, and its use is increasing. However, very little attention has been paid to its potential effects on early growth and development. Because of the steady increase in breast feeding of infants and because caffeine diffuses readily ...
Hauswirth Christa B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) may protect from cardiovascular disease. Because fresh alpine grass contains high amounts of ALA, we hypothesized that the levels of omega-3 fatty acids would concentrate to nutritional relevance in the cheese of milk from cows with alpine grass feeding compared with cheese from silage and concentrate ...
Thiombiano-Coulibaly N - - 2003
AIM: To determine the Burkinabè breast milk lipid content and fatty acid composition and to compare these values with the recommended adequate intakes. METHODS: The study comprised four cross-sectional surveys conducted in urban and rural Burkina Faso at two different times of the year: during a period of food shortage ...
Fievez V - - 2003
The aim of this paper was the application of principal component analysis (PCA) 1) to elucidate mutual metabolic relationships between milk fatty acids (FA) and 2) to illustrate the origin of milk FA, in particular C17:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Data were combined from 3 experiments with lactating Holstein-Friesian ...
Cabrita A R J - - 2003
The effects of N supplementation strategies on milk fatty acid profiles of dairy cows and their use as a noninvasive technique to diagnose rumen function, and to guide protein feeding decisions on-farm were evaluated in three experiments. Each experiment was designed according to three 3 x 3 Latin squares with ...
Mutsvangwa T - - 2003
The effects of a monensin premix on milk fatty acid content during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in Holstein cows receiving a total mixed ration was investigated. Six multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were used in a two-treatment, two-period crossover design with 6-wk periods. Experimental treatments were either a monensin premix ...
Decsi T T Department of Paediatrics, University of Pécs, Hungary. - - 2003
Trans isomeric fatty acids amount to about 2% of the fatty acid composition of human milk in Europe, whereas lower values were seen in Africa, and higher values were reported for North-America. At least five human studies indicate that trans fatty acids may interfere with the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated ...
Agostoni C C Department of Paediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Italy. - - 2003
The evidence emerging from developing countries indicates a wide variability in the fat composition of human milk. The linoleic:alpha linolenic acid ratios, suggested to be included within the range of 5:1 and 15[20]:1, tend to fluctuate, and could indicate the capability of humans to self-adapt according to different dietary and ...
Mitoulas Leon R - - 2003
Despite the importance of human milk fatty acids for infant growth and development, there are few reports describing infant intakes of individual fatty acids. We have measured volume, fat content and fatty acid composition of milk from each breast at each feed over a 24 h period to determine the ...
Auldist Martin J - - 2003
Effects of atropine on blood plasma amino acid profile and on the yields and concentration of milk components were investigated in 12 Friesian cows in early lactation. Cows were housed indoors and fed with cut pasture ad libitum. Each cow received four treatments over 12 d during a replicated 4 ...
AbuGhazaleh A A - - 2003
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in saturation of 18 carbon fatty acids (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) on rumen, plasma, and milk fatty acid profiles. Four primiparous Holstein cows ...
Kabagambe E K - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on the effect of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on cardiovascular disease, especially in developing countries with different dietary patterns, are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (MI) associated with consumption of individual SFAs and their food sources in Costa Rica. DESIGN: ...
Ouellet D R - - 2003
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of crop processing and amino acid supplementation on dairy cow performance. Corn silage processed (PCS) or unprocessed (UCS) was used as the main forage (45% of dry matter, DM) in a total mixed ration (TMR). Each TMR was either supplemented (AA) or ...
Bobe G - - 2003
Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows ...
Jaeggi J J - - 2003
As ovine milk production increases in the United States, somatic cell count (SCC) is increasingly used in routine ovine milk testing procedures as an indicator of flock health. Ovine milk was collected from 72 East Friesian-crossbred ewes that were machine milked twice daily. The milk was segregated and categorized into ...
Bernal-Santos G - - 2003
Holstein cows (n = 30) entering second or greater lactation were fed fat supplements (90 g/d of fatty acids) consisting of Ca salts of either palm fatty acid distillate (control) or a mixture of palm fatty acid distillate and mixed isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 30.4 g/ d) from ...
Formigoni A - - 2003
In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related ...
Wijesundera Chakra - - 2003
Two experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of cereal grain and fibre (hay or straw) supplements on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of grazing dairy cows in early lactation. In both experiments, grain supplements significantly increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of the endogenously synthesized 10:0-16:0 fatty ...
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