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Results 351 - 400 of 3759
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Yui Satoko - - 2007
Hydrophobic bile acids but not hydrophilic bile acids induce apoptosis in HCT116 cells. We expressed sodium-dependent bile acid transporters in HCT116 cells, and the intracellular concentration of hydrophilic bile acids increased to that of the hydrophobic bile acids. But no sign of apoptosis was observed, which suggests a hydrophobic-bile acid-specific ...
Keitel Verena - - 2007
Sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) constitute a permeable barrier between hepatocytes and blood. SEC are exposed to high concentrations of bile salts from the enterohepatic circulation. Whether SEC are responsive to bile salts is unknown. TGR5, a G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor, which triggers cAMP formation, has been discovered recently in macrophages. ...
Kneuer Carsten - - 2007
Cholestatic liver disease and increased serum bile acid concentrations are known to trigger various adaptive responses including the induction of hepatic, intestinal and renal bile acid transport proteins, but renal P-glycoprotein (Pgp, multidrug resistance protein 1, MDR1) remained uninvestigated in this context. We show that treatment of Madin Darby canine ...
Garduño-Siciliano Leticia - - 2007
Administration of ethinyl estradiol (EE), a widely used component of oral contraceptives, has been associated with impairment of bile flow and the capacity to excrete organic anions in man and experimental animals. alpha-Asarone (2,4,5-trimethoxypropenylbenzene) and 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phenoxyacetic acid (MPPA) have shown hypolipidemic effects. In addition to these effects, we decided ...
Westergaard Henrik - - 2007
Patients with bile acid malabsorption typically present with chronic, watery diarrhea. Bile acids recirculate between the liver and small intestine in the enterohepatic circulation. They are reabsorbed in the distal small intestine, and normally only a small fraction of the bile acid pool is lost to the colon during each ...
Pellicoro Antonella A Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The - - 2007
Bile acid-coenzyme A:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) is the sole enzyme responsible for conjugation of primary and secondary bile acids to taurine and glycine. Previous studies indicate a peroxisomal location of BAAT in peroxisomes with variable amounts up to 95% detected in cytosolic fractions. The absence or presence of a cytosolic ...
Chatterjee Arpita - - 2007
Bile induces pleiotropic responses that affect production of virulence factors, motility, and other phenotypes in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Since bile is a heterogeneous mixture, crude bile was fractionated, and the components that mediate virulence gene repression and enhancement of motility were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography ...
Deraz Sahar F - - 2007
Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079 is the producer of a novel bacteriocin termed acidocin D20079. In this paper, mode of action using three various concentrations of acidocin D20079 (2,048, 128 and 11.3 AU/ml) was determined against an indicator strain L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 20076. These concentrations all led to marked ...
Ellegård L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study whether oat bran with native beta-glucans increases bile acid excretion and bile acid synthesis as measured by serum concentrations of 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7alpha-HC). DESIGN: Short-term interventional crossover study evaluating cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, and serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences ...
Vicens Marta - - 2007
To obtain novel drugs able to inhibit transporters involved in bile acid uptake, three compounds were synthesized by conjugating N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine (PA) with one (BAPA-3), two (BAPA-6), or three (BAPA-8) moieties of glycocholic acid (GC) through their carboxylic group. The expected net charge in aqueous solutions was 2+ (BAPA-3), 1+ (BAPA-6), ...
Künnecke Basil - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was (i) to establish a modality for non-invasively probing bile composition in cynomolgus monkeys and (ii) to ascertain the variability in biliary metabolism by repeatedly assessing gallbladder bile in situ. Localised in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provided high-resolution spectra of gallbladder bile ...
Wang Guqi - - 2007
Liver fatty acid binding protein has recently been shown to possess antioxidant properties but its role in liver disease, such as cholestasis, is not known. Since oxidative stress has been recognized as an important contributing factor in liver disease, we investigated the expression and antioxidative function of this protein using ...
Fang Youwen Y Department of Biochemistry, Box 980035, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA 23298-0035, - - 2007
The regulation of glycogen synthase activity by bile acids in primary hepatocytes and in the intact liver was investigated. Bile acids (deoxycholic acid, DCA; taurocholic acid, TCA) activated AKT and glycogen synthase (GS) in primary rat hepatocytes. Incubation with a phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase inhibitor or expression of dominant-negative AKT in ...
Staels Bart - - 2007
Bile acids promote bile formation and facilitate dietary lipid absorption. Animal and human studies showing disturbed bile acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus suggest a link between bile acids and glucose control. Bile acids are activating ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor with an established role in ...
Sievänen Elina - - 2007
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is one of the most efficient recycling routes in the human body. It is a complex process involving numerous transport proteins, which serve to transport bile acids from the small intestine into portal circulation, from the portal circulation into the hepatocyte, from the hepatocyte ...
Kobayashi Misato - - 2007
Bile acid-binding resins, such as cholestyramine and colestimide, have been clinically used as cholesterol-lowering agents. These agents bind bile acids in the intestine and reduce enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, leading to accelerated conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. A significant improvement in glycemic control was reported in patients with ...
Davis Anthony P - - 2007
Since early work in the 1980s, the bile acids have become well established as building blocks for supramolecular chemistry. The author's laboratory has specialised in converting cholic acid, the archetypal bile acid, into macrocyclic and acyclic receptors for anions and carbohydrates. This review highlights the synthetic aspects of this work, ...
Meyer Urs A - - 2007
Evolution has provided organisms with an elaborate defense system against foreign compounds and against the accumulation of potentially toxic endogenous molecules, e.g. bile acids. Cytochromes P450 represent an important group of enzymes in this system. This article describes experiments started in the 1970's in Dallas on the coordination of heme ...
Deng Ruitang - - 2007
Oleogum resin (known as guggul) from the guggul tree, Commiphora mukul, found in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, has been used to treat various diseases including hyper-cholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, rheumatism, and obesity over several thousands of years. Guggulsterone isolated from guggul has been identified as the bioactive constituent responsible for guggul's therapeutic ...
Dettmar Peter W - - 2007
Long-standing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) can give rise to Barrett's oesophagus (BM), a metaplastic condition and precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (AC). Oesophageal cancer was once rare but is now the 5th biggest cancer killer in the U.K. Reflux of bile acids into the oesophagus is implicated in the progression to ...
Kaneko Tatsuo - - 2007
Liquid crystalline (LC) polymers of rigid monomers based on flora and fauna were prepared by in-bulk polymerization. Para-coumaric (p-coumaric) acid [4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA)] and its derivatives were selected as phytomonomers and bile acids were selected as biomonomers. The 4HCA homopolymer showed a thermotropic LC phase only in a state of ...
Geier Andreas - - 2007
Liver mass depends on one or more unidentified humoral signals that drive regeneration when liver functional capacity is diminished. Bile acids are important liver products, and their levels are tightly regulated. Here, we identify a role for nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling in normal liver regeneration. Elevated bile acid levels ...
Kamisako Toshinori - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The liver and small intestine play an important role in maintaining cholesterol and bile acid balance within the body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bile duct ligation (BDL) on the expression of intestinal and hepatic genes that are important for cholesterol ...
Martin François-Pierre J - - 2007
Symbiotic gut microorganisms (microbiome) interact closely with the mammalian host's metabolism and are important determinants of human health. Here, we decipher the complex metabolic effects of microbial manipulation, by comparing germfree mice colonized by a human baby flora (HBF) or a normal flora to conventional mice. We perform parallel microbiological ...
Huang William M - - 2007
AIMS: To determine sensitivity and specificity of urine bile acid sulfate (UBAS) and non-sulfated urine bile acid (UBA) assays for detection of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). METHODS: Urine was collected prospectively from healthy and pruritic patients evaluated for ICP. Results were expressed as a ratio to urinary creatinine. RESULTS: ...
Robinson Dean M - - 2007
Colesevelam hydrochloride (Cholestagel, WelChol is an orally administered, non-absorbable, polymeric, bile-acid-binding agent with a higher affinity for glycocholic acid in vitro and greater capacity for binding bile acids in vivo than other bile-acid-binding agents. In randomized controlled trials in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, colesevelam monotherapy reduced mean serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ...
Hofmann Alan F - - 2007
Biliary secretion in health and disease is reviewed. The powerful techniques of molecular biology have enabled cloning of the transporters involved in biliary secretion and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. This, in turn has permitted elucidation of their function as well as their regulation by nuclear receptors. Bile acid ...
Mano Yuji - - 2007
The bile salt export pump (BSEP/Bsep/ABCB11) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/Mrp2/ABCC2) are involved in bile acid-dependent and -independent bile secretion, respectively. It has been reported that bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, inhibits Bsep, which may lead to cholestatic liver injury due to the intracellular accumulation of bile salts, while ...
Park Jeong Youp - - 2006
The etiology of biliary tract cancer is obscure, but there are evidences that bile acid plays a role in carcinogenesis. To find the association between biliary tract cancer and bile acid, this study compared the bile acid concentration and composition among patients with biliary cancer, biliary tract stones, and no ...
Myung Sun Jung - - 2007
In cholestasis, bile acids induce hepatocyte apoptosis, while activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) results in fibrosis. Since transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a critical mediator in this process, we hypothesized that bile acids may participate in TGF-beta-mediated HSC activation in cholestasis. Bile acid treatment increased TGF-beta transcription in hepatocytes, ...
Sembries Sabine - - 2006
In comparison to classical fruit juice processing, polyphenols and dietary fiber can be extracted from pomace by means of pectinases and cellulases. In the present study, rats were fed with such produced extraction juices from apples, grapes, and red beets as drinking fluids instead of water for 4 weeks to ...
Montagnani Marco M Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Gastroenterologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna, - - 2006
The etiology of most cases of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (IBAM) is unknown. In this study, a Swedish family with bile acid malabsorption in three consecutive generations was screened for mutations in the ileal apical sodium-bile acid cotransporter gene (ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) and in the genes for several of ...
Fang Sungsoon - - 2007
SHP has been implicated as a pleiotropic regulator of diverse biological functions by its ability to inhibit numerous nuclear receptors. Recently, we reported that SHP inhibits transcription of CYP7A1, a key gene in bile acid biosynthesis, by recruiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a Swi/Snf-Brm complex. To further delineate the mechanism ...
Dvorak Katerina - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus is a premalignant condition associated with an increased risk for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (ADCA). Previous studies indicated that oxidative damage contributes to the development of ADCA. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that bile acids and gastric acid, two components of refluxate, can induce oxidative stress ...
Wong Hin-Chung - - 2006
As a marine pathogenic bacterium that inhabits seawater or seafood, Vibrio vulnificus encounters low salinity and other stresses in the natural environment and during food processing. This investigation explores the cross-protective response of sublethal heat-, acid-, or bile-adapted V. vulnificus YJ03 against lethal low-salinity stress. Experimental results reveal that the ...
Yoshida N - - 2006
Background Increase in interleukin-8 in the oesophageal mucosa has been associated with the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Aim To assess the effect of bile acids on the interleukin-8 expression in normal human oesophageal epithelial cells and to determine its molecular mechanisms. Methods Human oesophageal epithelial cells were stimulated with unconjugated ...
Higaki Noriko - - 2006
Feeding HMF, an insoluble "high-molecular-weight fraction" from an industrial enzymatic digest of a soy protein isolate, increased the fecal excretion of bile acid concomitant with increased fecal nitrogen. An amino acid analysis revealed that this increased fecal nitrogen could be explained by an increase in the insoluble protein fraction. This ...
Lundåsen T - - 2006
Bile acids (BAs) traversing the enterohepatic circulation exert several important metabolic effects. Their hepatic synthesis, controlled by the enzyme cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), has a unique diurnal variation in man. Here we provide evidence that the transintestinal flux of BAs regulates serum levels of intestinal fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) that ...
Deng Ruitang R Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Fogarty Hall, 41 Lower College Road, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. - - 2007
Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver is initiated by the rate-limiting enzyme cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and excretion of bile acids from the liver is mediated by the bile salt export pump (BSEP). The expression of CYP7A1 and BSEP is coordinately regulated by a negative feedback and positive ...
Reilly Sarah-Jayne - - 2007
A wide variety of endogenous carboxylic acids and xenobiotics are conjugated with amino acids, before excretion in urine or bile. The conjugation of carboxylic acids and bile acids with taurine and glycine has been widely characterized, and de novo synthesized bile acids are conjugated to either glycine or taurine in ...
Santa Cruz Vicente - - 2007
Methylenedianiline (DAPM) is considered a cholangiodestructive toxicant in vivo. Increases in biliary inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and glucose occur prior to biliary epithelial cell (BEC) injury, which could be due to increased paracellular permeability and/or impairment of P(i) and glucose uptake by BEC. To evaluate these possibilities, we induced mild injury ...
Lock Edward A - - 2007
The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) and its major metabolites have been shown to cause formic aciduria in male rats. We have examined whether chloral hydrate (CH) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), known metabolites of TCE, produce an increase in formic acid in vitro in cultures of rat hepatocytes or human renal ...
Bajor A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption is frequent in collagenous colitis and harmful bile acids may play a pathophysiological role. Glucocorticoids increase ileal bile acid transport. Budesonide have its main effect in the terminal ileum. AIMS: To evaluate whether the symptomatic effect of budesonide is linked to increased uptake of bile acids. ...
Choi Mihwa - - 2006
The cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying controls the flow of bile into the intestine for digestion. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor-15, a hormone made by the distal small intestine in response to bile acids, is required for gallbladder filling. These studies demonstrate that gallbladder filling is actively ...
Koide S - - 2007
The determination of bile acid concentration in urine is useful for the screening and diagnosis of various hepatobiliary diseases. Currently, there is no concise method to determine bile acid concentration in urine. This study describes a bile acid biosensor fabricated by electrochemical technique for urinalysis. The micro-planar electrodes employed for ...
van den Heuvel Michael R - - 2006
The responses of shortfin eel (Anguilla australis) to discharges from two pulp and paper mills, municipal wastewater, and a geothermal power plant wastewater were examined. Eels were caged at 3 sites along the Tarawera River, North Island, New Zealand, to explore effects of a 3-wk exposure down a contamination gradient ...
Van der Schoot S C - - 2006
AP5346 is a low molecular weight polymer-conjugated platinum antineoplastic agent. The lyophilized drug product has completed a phase I clinical trial. In order to guarantee a constant quality of AP5346 pharmaceutical products, quality control and analysis of the drug substance and final product were performed. The identity of AP5346 was ...
Maruyama Takaharu - - 2006
G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (Gpbar1/M-Bar) is a novel G protein-coupled receptor for bile acid. Tissue distribution and cell-type specificity of Gpbar1 mRNA suggest a potential role for the receptor in the endocrine system; however, the precise physiological role of Gpbar1 still remains to be elucidated. To investigate the ...
Li Yan - - 2006
Accumulating clinical and experimental studies indicate that Barrett's esophagus might arise through multipotential stem cells under the stress of gastroesophageal reflux. Previously, we have presented a novel external pump perfusion rat model and demonstrated that perfusion with both acid and bile can induce severe esophagitis in 1 week with a ...
Bala Lakshmi - - 2006
Biochemicals in the upper-gut aspirate in 31 patients with malabsorption syndrome (MAS) with and without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 10 disease-free controls were analyzed using high-resolution (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, and were correlated with the degree of SIBO and severity of MAS. Compared to controls, the patients had higher quantities ...
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