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Results 251 - 300 of 3759
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Sato Hiroyuki - - 2008
TGR5, a metabotropic receptor that is G-protein-coupled to the induction of adenylate cyclase, has been recognized as the molecular link connecting bile acids to the control of energy and glucose homeostasis. With the aim of disclosing novel selective modulators of this receptor and at the same time clarifying the molecular ...
Venglovecz V - - 2008
Acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Bile reflux into the pancreas is a common cause of acute pancreatitis and, although the bile can reach both acinar and ductal cells, most research to date has focused on the acinar cells. The aim of the present study was to ...
Aromataris Edoardo C - - 2008
Cholestasis is a significant contributor to liver pathology and can lead to primary sclerosis and liver failure. Cholestatic bile acids induce apoptosis and necrosis in hepatocytes but these effects can be partially alleviated by the pharmacological application of choleretic bile acids. These actions of bile acids on hepatocytes require changes ...
Nonappa - - 2008
The Maitra group has explored a variety of chemistry with bile acids during the past 15 years and these experiments have covered a wide variety of chemistry-asymmetric synthesis, molecular recognition, ion receptors/sensors, dendrimers, low molecular mass organo and hydrogelators, gel-nanoparticle composites, etc. Some of what excites us in this field ...
Rao Anuradha A Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Gastroenterology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, - - 2008
The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) is responsible for transport across the intestinal brush border membrane; however, the carrier(s) responsible for basolateral bile acid export into the portal circulation remains to be determined. Although the heteromeric organic solute transporter Ostalpha-Ostbeta exhibits many properties predicted for a candidate intestinal basolateral ...
Wooton-Kee Clavia Ruth CR Graduate Ctr. for Toxicology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, - - 2008
Maximal bile acid secretory rates and expression of bile acid transporters in liver and ileum are increased in lactation, possibly to facilitate increased enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We determined changes in the size and composition of the bile acid pool and key enzymes of the bile acid synthetic pathway ...
Song Xiulong - - 2008
The metabolic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in liver is initiated by the rate-limiting cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), whereas the bile salt export pump (BSEP) is responsible for the canalicular secretion of bile acids. Liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) is a key transcriptional factor required for the hepatic expression ...
Bulmer Andrew C - - 2008
Bile pigments, including bilirubin and biliverdin are tetrapyrrolic, dicarboxylic acids capable of forming conjugates at their propionic acid groups via ester or amide bonds. They possess substantial antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities and therefore their intestinal absorption might influence the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The aim of this study ...
Guariento Mara - - 2008
It has been proposed that intracellular carrier proteins mediate active transport of the bile acids within hepatocytes and ileocytes, during the enterohepatic circulation. In mammalian species only ileal bile acid binding proteins have been so far identified, while liver cytosolic carriers have never been found. On the contrary, in non-mammalian ...
Raimondi Francesco - - 2008
Intestinal and systemic illnesses have been linked to increased gut permeability. Bile acids, whose luminal profile can be altered in human disease, modulate intestinal paracellular permeability. We investigated the mechanism by which selected bile acids increase gut permeability using a validated in vitro model. Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were grown ...
Cui Liang - - 2008
Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies on rat were conducted for lithospermic acid B, one of the components from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (danshen) that shows many bioactivities. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was applied for the determination of lithospermic acid B and its metabolites in samples from in vitro and in ...
Meier Yvonne - - 2008
AIM: To study the association of three common ABCB11 and ABCC2 polymorphisms (ABCB11: 1331T>C --> V444A; ABCC2: 3563T>A --> V1188E and 4544G>A --> C1515Y) with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and contraceptive-induced cholestasis (CIC). METHODS: ABCB11 and ABCC2 genotyping data were available from four CIC patients and from 42 and ...
Trauner Michael - - 2008
Alterations in bile secretion at the hepatocellular and cholangiocellular levels may cause cholestasis. Formation of 'toxic bile' may be the consequence of abnormal bile composition and can result in hepatocellular and/or bile duct injury. The canalicular phospholipid flippase (Mdr2/MDR3) normally mediates biliary excretion of phospholipids, which normally form mixed micelles ...
Nakai Akihiro - - 2008
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Mucin glycoprotein from the intrahepatic bile ducts, and from the intramural and extramural glandular epithelia, is thought to contribute to the formation of the matrix, or nucleus, in hepatolithiasis and to contribute to biomineralization systems. Osteopontin (OPN), a noncollagenous acidic bone matrix glycoprotein that possesses calcium-binding properties. To investigate ...
Dołowy Małgorzata - - 2008
The aim of this work was to apply some topological indices to predict chromatographic separations of selected bile acids such as: cholic (C), glycocholic (GC), glycodeoxycholic (GDC), chenodeoxycholic (CDC), deoxycholic (DC), lithocholic (LC) and glycolithocholic (GLC). The bile acids were separated on various glass and aluminum TLC plates precoated with ...
Oshio Hiroshi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that bile acids are involved in colon cancer development, but their molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. Bile acid has been reported to be associated with induction of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene. Because the human liver-specific organic anion transporter-2 (LST-2/OATP8/OATP1B3) is expressed in gastrointestinal cancers and might transport ...
Peterlik Meinrad - - 2008
Cholic, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid promote tumor formation in the large intestine by a direct proliferative effect on rather undifferentiated mucosal epithelial cells. In addition, bile acids may play a role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis because they reduce the chemopreventive efficiency of calcium and vitamin D by interfering with calcium ...
Abrahamsson Hasse - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids are derived from cholesterol and are potent physiological laxatives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bile acid synthesis is altered in constipation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Female patients with constipation (23 IBS-C, 4 functional constipation (FC)) were studied and compared with non-constipated subjects (16 IBS-D, ...
Uegaki Satoko - - 2008
Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bouts of cholestasis that resolve spontaneously without leaving considerable liver damage. Most of BRIC patients have mutations in ATP8B1 gene coding FIC1 protein. It has been suggested that an imbalance between the gut absorption of bile acids and ...
Hughes Roisin - - 2008
One common effect of tumor promoters is increased tight junction (TJ) permeability. TJs are responsible for paracellular permeability and integrity of the barrier function. Occludin is one of the main proteins responsible for TJ structure. This study tested the effects of physiological levels of phenol, ammonia, primary bile acids (cholic ...
Giaquinto Percilia C - - 2008
Electro-olfactogram recording was used to determine whether the olfactory epithelium of adult rainbow trout is specifically sensitive to bile acids, some of which have been hypothesized to function as pheromones. Of 38 bile acids that had been pre-screened for olfactory activity, 6 were selected. The rainbow trout-specific bile acids, taurocholic ...
Keswani R N - - 2008
Esophageal adenocarcinoma continues to rise in incidence. Despite recognition of Barrett's metaplasia as the histological precursor, prognosis remains poor. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway is activated in Barrett's-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma and this activation is, in part, due to acid and bile acid reflux. We investigated the effects of ...
Wu Jiantao - - 2008
Mucin alterations are a common feature of esophageal neoplasia, and alterations in MUC2 mucin have been associated with tumor progression in the esophagus. Bile acids have been linked to esophageal adenocarcinoma and mucin secretion, but their effects on mucin gene expression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells is unknown. Human esophageal ...
Mitro Nico N Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milan, - - 2008
Transcription regulation by bile acids is far more complicated than it appeared at first when several groups began their investigations in the early '90. It has become clear now that bile acids regulate the transcription of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, transport and other metabolic pathways via multiple mechanisms ...
Zhou Jie - - 2008
The orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important role in the detoxification of foreign and endogenous chemicals, including bile acids. PXR promotes bile acid elimination by activating bile acid-detoxifying enzymes and transporters. Certain bile acids are known to promote colonic carcinogenesis by inducing colon cancer cell apoptosis. ...
Palermo Mario - - 2008
Conclusive in vivo evidence regarding the enzyme responsible for steroid hormone 5beta-reduction has not been obtained, although studies have suggested it may be the same enzyme as that utilized for cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic bile-acid synthesis. We have recorded the steroid metabolome of a patient with a defect in the ...
Mikami Masaki - - 2008
Aim: Genipin, a metabolite of geniposide, is reported to stimulate the insertion of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) in the bile canalicular membrane, and to cause choleresis by increasing the biliary excretion of glutathione, which has been considered to be a substrate of Mrp2. In the present study, the effect ...
Feagins Linda A - - 2008
We hypothesized that differences among individuals in reflux-induced oxidant production by esophageal squamous epithelial cells might contribute to the development of Barrett's esophagus. We studied the effects of acid and bile acids on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in esophageal squamous cell lines derived from gastroesophageal reflux disease ...
Saric Jasmina - - 2008
The metabolic composition of fecal extracts provides a window for elucidating the complex metabolic interplay between mammals and their intestinal ecosystems, and these metabolite profiles can yield information on a range of gut diseases. Here, the metabolites present in aqueous fecal extracts of humans, mice and rats were characterized using ...
Peyer Anne-Kathrin - - 2007
Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) is the rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis in the liver and is highly regulated to adapt to the metabolic demand of the hepatocyte. In the present study, we describe human hepatic ALAS1 as a new direct target of the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X ...
Aikawa Masayasu - - 2007
The biliary epithelium is continuously exposed to highly cytotoxic bile acids and pathogens and thus is at persistent risk for injury. The monolayer mucosal epithelium protects the body from these dangers and once injured. The bile duct repair process essentially involves reconstruction of the bile duct with migrating cells, but ...
Siviero Ivonete - - 2008
Etiopathogenesis of biliary atresia remains unknown. Among several theories, one proposes that the disorder may be caused by the toxic effect of monohydroxy bile acids on fetal and neonatal hepatobiliary system. In this paper we evaluated toxic effects produced by ingestion of cholic acid, a trihydroxy bile acid, and lithocholic ...
Goss John A - - 2008
Both Atp7b (Wilson disease gene) and Atp7a (Menkes disease gene) have been reported to be trafficked by copper. Atp7b is trafficked to the bile duct canaliculi and Atp7a to the plasma membrane. Whether or not liver ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion modulates Atp7b expression and trafficking has not been reported. In this ...
Kang Dae-Joong - - 2008
Secondary bile acids, formed by intestinal bacteria, are suggested to play a significant role in cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Bile acid 7alpha/beta-dehydroxylation is carried out by a few species of intestinal clostridia which harbor a multi-gene bile acid inducible (bai) operon. Several genes encoding enzymes in this ...
Kumagai Masami - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to evaluate the metabolism of bile acids in the fetus by analyzing the bile acid composition of meconium of preterm (less than 30 weeks' gestational age) and full-term infants and comparing the results with the bile acid composition of feces of preterm and full-term infants 6 ...
Ding W K - - 2007
Eight strains of probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, B. lactis type Bl-O4, and B. lactis type Bi-07, were studied for their acid, bile, and heat tolerance. Microencapsulation in alginate matrix was used to enhance survival of the bacteria in acid ...
Dawes Lillian G - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Biliary changes occur in patients on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) predisposing them to gallstones and cholestasis. We hypothesized that patients on TPN, similar to animal models, would have reduced bile acid synthesis. METHODS: Serum from 13 controls and 17 patients on TPN were collected and tested with HPLC for ...
Shonsey E M - - 2008
The hepatic enzyme bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAT) catalyzes the formation of amino acid-conjugated bile acids. In the present study, protein carbonylation of BAT, consistent with modification by reactive oxygen species and their products, was increased in hepatic homogenates of apolipoprotein E knock-out mice. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4HNE), an electrophilic lipid ...
Katona Bryson W - - 2007
Bile acids are endogenous steroid detergents with receptor-mediated physiologic actions including activation of the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and gene regulation mediated by nuclear receptors. In this study, we report the first synthesis of enantiomeric lithocholic acid (ent-LCA, ent-1) and chenodeoxycholic acid (ent-CDCA, ent-2) via ent-testosterone (3). ent-1 was synthesized ...
Katona Bryson W - - 2007
Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is an endogenous secondary bile acid implicated in numerous pathological conditions including colon cancer formation and progression and cholestatic liver disease. DCA involvement in these disease processes results partly from its ability to modulate signaling cascades within the cell, presumably through both direct receptor activation and general ...
Ahnen Dennis J - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Orlistat is a weight management agent that selectively inhibits gastrointestinal lipase activity. Because of orlistat's mode of action, increased fecal fat is presented to the colonic mucosa, and fecal bile acid and free fatty acid composition may be altered during treatment. Our aim was to assess the ...
Linares Carlos F - - 2008
Modified zeolite X, previously exchanged with K+ and Ca2+ cations were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, chemical analysis and BET techniques. Different masses of these solids were mixed with an ox bile solution at different reaction times. The supernatants obtained by centrifugations were submitted to bile acid and phospholipids quantitative determinations. ...
Chatterjee Arpita - - 2008
Cholera toxin (CT) is an archetypal bacterial toxin that binds with a high affinity to the receptor ganglioside GM1 on the intestinal epithelial surface and that causes the severe watery diarrhea characteristic of the disease cholera. Blockage of the interaction of CT with the GM1 receptor is an attractive approach ...
Nilsson Lisa-Mari - - 2007
The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is a key pathway for elimination of cholesterol from the body, thereby reducing the risk of arteriosclerosis. Moderate consumption of ethanol has been shown to have preventive effects on cardiovascular disease and decrease the risk of gallstone formation. In the present study primary ...
Perng Diahn-Warng - - 2007
RATIONALE: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common in patients with various airway diseases. Airway epithelial cells can release growth factors that promote fibroblast proliferation. Exposure of airway epithelium to bile acids may induce a fibrotic response. OBJECTIVES: To determine how bile acids interact with airway epithelium; particularly, whether transforming growth factor-beta1 ...
Fava Giammarco - - 2007
Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line the intrahepatic biliary tree, are the target of cholangiopathies, a wide array of chronic disorders that are characterized by the progressive vanishing of bile ducts, leading to ductopenia and liver failure. The loss of bile ducts is a consequence of cholangiocyte death by apoptosis ...
Münch Andreas - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids in mM concentrations are known to increase chloride secretion and alter mucosal permeability in animal colon. Increased mucosal permeability is believed to play an important role in the development of intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of microM concentrations of dihydroxy ...
Fang Changming - - 2007
Ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) is the only cytosolic protein known to bind and transport bile acids. Because IBABP is reportedly up-regulated in colorectal cancer, it has been suggested as a link between bile acids and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, in this study, we show that IBABP ...
Scotti E - - 2007
The field of bile acids has witnessed an impulse in the last two decades. This has been the result of cloning the genes encoding enzymes of bile acid synthesis and their transporters. There is no doubt that the identification of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR, NR1H4) as the bile acid receptor ...
Duane William C - - 2007
Using a luciferase reporter assay in both LMH cells and Caco2 cells we found that certain bile acids including unconjugated deoxycholic and others transactivated the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) at concentrations ranging from 20 to 300 microM. Confirming this effect, addition of deoxycholic acid to fresh human ...
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