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Results 201 - 250 of 3759
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Natalini Benedetto - - 2009
Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) is more and more adopted as a fruitful tool for the estimation of several physico-chemical properties of diverse classes of organic compounds. In this frame, derived chromatographic indices have been proposed as effective parameters to measure the lipophilicity (log P or log D) of compounds. ...
Lee Sang - - 2008
PURPOSE: Bile duct obstruction and subsequent cholestasis produces hepatocellular injury and an inflammatory response. Fatty acid constitution of cell membranes plays a major role in the inflammatory cascade. Omega-3 fatty acids are antiinflammatory. We proposed that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation would reduce hepatocellular damage and cell death in a model ...
Hofmann Alan F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: An elevated concentration in the colon of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) is known to induce water secretion, causing diarrhea. We hypothesized that of the many fecal bile acids, only CDCA and DCA function as endogenous laxatives; therefore, a ...
Knotkova Z - - 2008
The fasting and postprandial serum concentrations of bile acids and other blood constituents were measured in a group of 10 clinically healthy, female, six-year-old captive red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). The terrapins were housed in a temperate room and maintained in four aquaria in which the water temperature ranged from ...
Tomaselli Simona - - 2008
Bile acid-conjugated gadolinium chelates were shown to display promising features for the development of hepatospecific constrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study of the pharmacokinetics of these compounds should address their possible interaction with the bile acid protein transporters. We have previously shown that a 5beta-cholanoic acid-based contrast ...
Avissar Nelly E - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Bile acids and acid are implicated in the development of Barrett's esophagus. Evidence suggests that Barrett's esophagus intestinal metaplasia may occur via induction of caudal homeobox gene 2 (CDX2). We hypothesized that induction of CDX2 by bile acids may be due to ligand-dependent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor ...
De Luca Daniele - - 2009
Bile acids have been implicated in some forms of acute lung injury, including meconium aspiration and bile acid pneumonia in neonates, or aspiration related ARDS in adults. Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is now known as a key enzyme in the lung injury pathways and is supposed to be responsible for ...
van Hasselt P M - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of polymeric micelles to enable gastrointestinal absorption of the extremely hydrophobic compound vitamin K, by comparison of its absorption in bile duct ligated and sham operated rats. Hereto, vitamin K was encapsulated in micelles composed of mPEG(5000)-b-p(HPMAm-lac(2)), a thermosensitive block ...
Keitel Verena - - 2008
Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions. Bile acids regulate bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis. Furthermore, bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation ...
Marin Jose J G - - 2008
During the last decades the concept of bile secretion as merely a way to add detergent components to the intestinal mixture to facilitate fat digestion/absorption and to eliminate side products of heme metabolism has evolved considerably. In the series of mini-reviews that the World Journal of Gastroenterology is to publish ...
Paluszkiewicz Piotr - - 2009
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in gastrointestinal tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the content of KYNA in gastric juice, bile and pancreatic juice and intestinal content. KYNA was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography. ...
Dung Tran Huu - - 2008
A series of pluronic F127 conjugated PAMAM dendrimer generation 5 were prepared to evaluate the potential use of dendrimer-pluronic conjugates as a delivery agent of antisense oligonucleotides. The structural features of the conjugates were identified by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectra. The prepared dendrimer generation 5-pluronic F127 conjugates showed particle size ...
Moschetta Antonio - - 2008
Homeostatic regulation of bile acid metabolism and biliary lipid secretion is critical to prevent enterohepatic diseases. Kaestner and coworkers (Bochkis et al., 2008) show that loss of forkhead box transcription factor Foxa2 in the liver leads to hepatic injury due to downregulation in the expression levels of bile acid transporters ...
Eloranta Jyrki J - - 2008
As ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR, bile acids regulate their own synthesis, transport, and conjugation, thus protecting against bile acid toxicity. Recently, the role of genetic variants in FXR itself, FXR target genes, and regulators of FXR in the pathophysiology of the liver and intestine has become increasingly evident.
Yamaoka-Tojo Minako - - 2008
Prospective epidemiologic studies have shown that dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Undesirable metabolic conditions are observed to coexist in patients with metabolic syndrome, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To prevent cardiovascular disease, a pleiotropic agent is needed to improve the ...
Jones Brian V - - 2008
Bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) catalyze the "gateway" reaction in a wider pathway of bile acid modification by the gut microbiota. Because bile acids function as signaling molecules regulating their own biosynthesis, lipid absorption, cholesterol homeostasis, and local mucosal defenses in the intestine, microbial BSH activity has the potential to greatly ...
Macchiarulo Antonio - - 2008
Bile acids regulate nongenomic actions through the activation of TGR5, a membrane receptor that is G protein-coupled to the induction of adenylate cyclase. In this work, a training set of 43 bile acid derivatives is used to develop a molecular interaction field analysis (MFA) and a 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship study ...
Rosignoli Patrizia - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second cause of death for tumour worldwide. Among the risk factors for this disease the dietary habits seem to have a pivotal role. An elevated intake of fats causes a high release in the gut lumen of bile acids that are positively correlated with colorectal ...
Thomas Charles - - 2008
Bile acids are increasingly being appreciated as complex metabolic integrators and signalling factors and not just as lipid solubilizers and simple regulators of bile-acid homeostasis. It is therefore not surprising that a number of bile-acid-activated signalling pathways have become attractive therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Here, we review how the ...
Hofmann A F - - 2008
Bile acids and bile alcohols in the form of their conjugates are amphipathic end products of cholesterol metabolism with multiple physiological functions. The great variety of bile acids and bile alcohols that are present in vertebrates are tabulated. Bile salts have an enterohepatic circulation resulting from efficient vectorial transport of ...
Araki Yoshio - - 2008
In the present study, we developed a novel, simple, and specific detection method using an RP-HPLC at UV 285 nm for the separation and quantification of N-nitroso-bile acids. First, we found that N-nitroso-bile acids have a specific spectrophotometric absorbance at 285 nm. Using this 285 nm detection system, we could ...
Dekaney Christopher M - - 2008
Bile acid (BA) reclamation following ileo-cecal resection (ICR) may prevent colonic mucosa from chronic injury. In this study, we hypothesized that in a murine model of ICR the remnant colon would upregulate the cellular machinery necessary for BA reclamation and would do so in an FXR- and bacteria-dependent manner. Conventional ...
Bochkis Irina M IM Department of Genetics and Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, - - 2008
Production of bile by the liver is crucial for the absorption of lipophilic nutrients. Dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis can lead to cholestatic liver disease and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We show by global location analysis ('ChIP-on-chip') and cell type-specific gene ablation that the winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 is ...
Nishiya Takayoshi - - 2008
To investigate the hepatotoxic potential of tienilic acid in vivo, we administered a single oral dose of tienilic acid to Sprague-Dawley rats and performed general clinicopathological examinations and hepatic gene expression analysis using Affymetrix microarrays. No change in the serum transaminases was noted at up to 1000 mg/kg, although slight ...
Rivera Daniel G - - 2008
Bile acids are important scaffolds in medicinal and supramolecular chemistry. However, the use of seco bile acids, i.e., bile acids with opened rings, as cores or building blocks for the assembly of complex peptide conjugates or macrocycles has remained elusive so far. A biomimetic approach to secocholanes, based on an ...
Lee KiBeom - - 2008
Lactobacillus reuteri is a resident of the human and animal intestinal tracts. The ability of L. reuteri to survive passage through the intestinal tract is a key point in its function as a probiotic. In order to examine the nature of bile salt tolerance by L. reuteri, its protein synthesis ...
Suzuki Takuo - - 2008
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) controls the expression of critical genes in bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis. To study FXR and to develop a regulator of cholesterol, some non-steroidal and steroidal ligands have been found in addition to endogenous ligands for FXR. In this study, we discovered five bile acid derivatives ...
Stahl S - - 2008
1. Hepatobiliary transport systems are essential for the uptake and excretion of a variety of organic anions including bile acids and bilirubin. Perturbation of this vital liver function can result in pathological conditions such as cholestasis, where the formation of bile at the canaliculus is impaired resulting in the intrahepatic ...
Farré R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Severe duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux (DGOR) is a risk factor for oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus. Patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) have a slight increase in DGOR. Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), who are taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), still have reflux but of weakly acidic pH and persistence of ...
Kosters A - - 2008
In recent years the discovery of a number of major transporter proteins expressed in the liver and intestine specifically involved in bile acid transport has led to improved understanding of bile acid homeostasis and the enterohepatic circulation. Sodium (Na(+))-dependent bile acid uptake from portal blood into the liver is mediated ...
Li Shunyu - - 2008
Clonorchis sinensis thrives on bile juice. The effects of bile and bile acids on newly excysted juvenile C. sinensis (CsNEJ) were studied in terms of survival. Survival of CsNEJs maintained in 1x Locke's solution, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, NCTC 109, Eagle's, RPMI 1640, and 0.1% glucose was high, but dropped ...
Nguyen Amy - - 2008
Bile acids are mainly recognized for their role in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis. However, recent progress in bile acid research suggests that bile acids are important signaling molecules that play a role in glucose homeostasis. Among the various supporting evidence, several reports have demonstrated an improvement of the ...
Sundaram Shikha S SS Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Colorado School of Medicine and The Children's Hospital, CO 80045, - - 2008
Inborn errors of bile acid synthesis are rare genetic disorders that can present as neonatal cholestasis, neurologic disease or fat-soluble-vitamin deficiencies. There are nine known defects of bile acid synthesis, including oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, Delta(4)-3-oxosteroid-5beta-reductase deficiency, 3beta-hydroxy-Delta(5)-C(27)-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (also known as sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency), alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency, ...
Kahlon Talwinder Singh - - 2008
Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has ...
De Vecchi E - - 2008
Six commercial probiotic products produced and marketed Italy (containing Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus casei DG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bacillus clausii spores, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii) were assayed for their stability during storage, acid, base and bile tolerance and adherence to human intestinal cells. Results indicate that storage, even at conditions established ...
Zimber Amazia - - 2008
Bile acids, their physiology and metabolism, their role in carcinogenesis and other major human diseases are recently undergoing significant progress. Starting in 1999 when the orphan nuclear receptor FXR was shown to be specifically activated by bile acids, these compounds became part of the arsenal of ligands of the steroid ...
Aranha Márcia M - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pathogenesis of steatohepatitis remains largely unknown; however, bile acids may play a role as potential mediators of liver damage. The aim of this study was to characterize bile acid profiles in liver tissue of patients with steatohepatitis. METHODS: Bile acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography in liver ...
Li Yong-Sheng - - 2008
The authors have proposed an immobilized enzymatic fluorescence capillary biosensor (SBAs-IE-FCBS) for the determination of sulfated bile acids (SBAs). The reaction principle of the biosensor is that under the catalysis of the bile acid sulfate sulfatase (BSS) and beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (beta-HSD) immobilized on inner surface of a medical capillary, SBAs ...
Ballatori Nazzareno - - 2008
Mice deficient in the organic solute transporter (Ost)-alpha subunit of the heteromeric organic solute and steroid transporter, Ostalpha-Ostbeta, were generated and were found to be viable and fertile but exhibited small intestinal hypertrophy and growth retardation. Bile acid pool size and serum levels were decreased by more than 60% in ...
Brinton Eliot A - - 2008
Type 2 diabetes is a common disorder with high risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. These complications are largely driven by hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, for which aggressive treatment is thus warranted. Achieving and maintaining control of all three risk factors is especially difficult, however, and new therapeutic approaches could ...
Bobeldijk Ivana - - 2008
We report a sensitive, generic method for quantitative profiling of bile acids and other endogenous metabolites in small quantities of various biological fluids and tissues. The method is based on a straightforward sample preparation, separation by reversed-phase high performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and electrospray ionisation in the negative ionisation ...
Chen Jiarong - - 2008
During cholestasis, bile acids are mainly excreted into the urine, but adaptive renal responses to cholestasis, especially molecular mechanisms for renal secretion of bile acids, have not been well understood. Organic anion transporters (OAT1 and OAT3) are responsible for membrane transport of anionic compounds at the renal basolateral membranes. In ...
Posa Mihalj - - 2008
Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules, which, in addition to their physiological role, have also acquired increasingly more important pharmacological applications. It has been shown that these compounds have a promoting effect on the transport of many drugs through the cell membrane. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that they exerted a significant effect ...
Monte Maria J - - 2008
Bile acids (BAs) are natural ligands of nuclear receptors, in particular farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Whether, in addition to protein-mediated cytosolic-nuclear BA translocation, other mechanisms are involved in the access of BAs to nuclear FXR was investigated. When rat hepatocytes were incubated with radiolabeled taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ...
Lundell Kerstin - - 2008
The present review aims to give an overview of the cytochrome P450 8B (CYP8B) and cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) subfamilies in relation to biosynthesis of bile acids, in particular trihydroxy bile acids. Trihydroxy bile acids are basically required in most species and have an impact on cholesterol and lipid metabolism. ...
Blumin Joel H - - 2008
We conducted a literature review to identify elements of duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER)--namely pancreatic fluids, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and bile--as to the effects each has when refluxed to the extraesophageal structures. Further, we wished to acquaint clinicians with the possibilities that, in addition to hydrochloric acid, the other components of DGER ...
Gambarotti Marco - - 2008
A 65-year-old man with a colonic adenocarcinoma and a single small liver nodule underwent surgery. The nodule showed the histological features of a bile duct adenoma. Large eosinophilic, periodic acid-Schiff-positive diastase-resistant intracytoplasmic globules conferred a signet-ring appearance to the cells. Similar globules were found in the biliary epithelium in perinodular ...
Liu Yan - - 2008
Literature suggests that glucocorticoid (GC) exposure during early life may have long-term consequences into adult life. GCs are known to influence hepatic bile acid synthesis and their transport within the enterohepatic circulation. This study addresses effects of early postnatal exposure to GC on hepatic expression of key genes in bile ...
Lee Youn-Kyoung - - 2008
Liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1), an orphan nuclear receptor, is highly expressed in liver and intestine, where it is implicated in the regulation of cholesterol, bile acid, and steroid hormone homeostasis. Among the proposed LRH-1 target genes in liver are those encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1), which ...
Cray Carolyn - - 2008
The diagnosis of hepatic disease in psittacine birds by using biochemical enzyme and bile acid levels is problematic. In this study, we looked at changes in clinical enzyme concentrations, bile acid levels, and plasma protein electrophoresis results to determine whether these analytes correlate with hepatic disease. A total of 442 ...
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