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Edwards Alexander D - - 2009
We previously demonstrated that a dry, room temperature stable formulation of a live bacterial vaccine was highly susceptible to bile, and suggested that this will lead to significant loss of viability of any live bacterial formulation released into the intestine using an enteric coating or capsule. We found that bile ...
Burke Katie T - - 2009
Intraluminal concentrations of bile acids are low in newborn infants and increase rapidly after birth, at least partly owing to increased bile acid synthesis rates. The expansion of the bile acid pool is critical since bile acids are required to stimulate bile flow and absorb lipids, a major component of ...
Wertheim Betsy C - - 2009
Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. Although likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well-studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has ...
Nagana Gowda G A - - 2009
Bile acids constitute a group of structurally closely related molecules and represent the most abundant constituents of human bile. Investigations of bile acids have garnered increased interest owing to their recently discovered additional biological functions including their role as signaling molecules that govern glucose, fat and energy metabolism. Recent NMR ...
Miao Ji J Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, - - 2009
Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) inhibits activities of numerous transcription factors involved in diverse biological pathways. As an important metabolic regulator, SHP plays a key role in maintaining cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis by inhibiting cholesterol conversion to bile acids. While SHP gene induction by increased bile acids is well established, ...
Patti Mary-Elizabeth ME Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2009
The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect ...
Ishihara Kenji - - 2009
This (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics study was aimed to determine urinary biomarkers of cholestasis resulting from inhibition of biliary secretion of bile or obstruction of bile flow. To inhibit biliary secretion of bile, cyclosporine A was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Obstruction of bile flow was induced by administration ...
Ferdinandusse Sacha - - 2009
It is well established that peroxisomes play a crucial role in de novo bile acid synthesis. Studies in patients with a peroxisomal disorder have been indispensable for the elucidation of the precise role of peroxisomes. Several peroxisomal disorders are associated with distinct bile acid abnormalities and each disorder has a ...
Atanacković Milica - - 2009
Bile acids are a special group of biological surfactants which can express different physiological and pharmacological effects. Micellar solutions of bile acids can solubilizate poorly soluble organic substances and improve their resorbtion. Above their critical micellar concentration (CMC) values, bile acids can cause interruption of membrane's integrity. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is ...
Hylemon Phillip B - - 2009
In the past, bile acids were considered to be just detergent molecules derived from cholesterol in the liver. They were known to be important for the solubilization of cholesterol in the gallbladder and for stimulating the absorption of cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins, and lipids from the intestines. However, during the last ...
Chiang John Y L - - 2009
Bile acids are physiological detergents that generate bile flow and facilitate intestinal absorption and transport of lipids, nutrients, and vitamins. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and inflammatory agents that rapidly activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways that regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. The enterohepatic circulation of bile ...
Wu Yu-Chung - - 2009
AIMS: The aims of this study were to measure the levels of bile acids in patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and provide a possible pathway for neutrophilic inflammation to explain its proinflammatory effect on the airway. METHODS: Bile acid levels were measured by spectrophotometric enzymatic assay, and liquid chromatography ...
Abdul Kadir Siti H Sheikh SH National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, - - 2009
Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CM) have many of the phenotypic properties of authentic cardiomyocytes, and great interest has been shown in their possibilities for modelling human disease. Obstetric cholestasis affects 1 in 200 pregnant women in the United Kingdom. It is characterized by raised serum bile acids and complicated by ...
Kimoto-Nira Hiromi - - 2009
Bile resistance is one of the basic characteristics of probiotic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of bile resistance in lactococci by studying the relationship between bile resistance and cellular fatty acid composition in lactococcci grown on different media. We determined the bile resistance of ...
Bartling Brandon - - 2009
An electrochemical sensor, based on thick-film screen-printed Ir/C working and counter electrodes, was developed for the detection of total bile acid concentration in a physiological fluid for potential patient management in patients with liver disease. Current electrochemical methods of detecting total bile acid levels involve the use of potentials greater ...
Morisawa Yoshihiko Y Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2009
The biliary excretion of pravastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is mediated by the multidrug resistance protein 2, but a recent report suggests that pravastatin is also a substrate of the bile salt export pump, which transports bile acids. We examined the effects of bile acids on biliary pravastatin excretion in ...
Fukiya Satoru - - 2009
Secondary bile acid-producing bacteria were isolated from human feces to improve our appreciation of the functional diversity and redundancy of the intestinal microbiota. In total, 619 bacterial colonies were isolated using a nutrient-poor agar medium and the level of secondary bile acid formation was examined in each by a liquid ...
Monte Maria J MJ Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting, CIBERehd, University of Salamanca, Salamanca 37007, Spain. - - 2009
The family of bile acids includes a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with very peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. They are synthesized by the liver from cholesterol through several complementary pathways that are controlled by mechanisms involving fine-tuning by the levels of certain bile acid species. Although their ...
Fan X - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Chronic watery diarrhoea is one of the most common symptoms prompting GI evaluation. Recently, new diagnostic considerations have emerged as possible factors in chronic diarrhoea. AIM: To review available data regarding diagnosis and treatment of chronic diarrhoea with an emphasis on bacterial overgrowth and bile acid malabsorption. METHODS: A ...
Beilke Lisa D - - 2009
Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were ...
Klokkenburg Joost J C - - 2009
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Several studies have shown the presence of pepsin in the middle ear effusions of children with otitis media with effusion (OME). When gastric reflux is the cause, other noxious reflux products might be present. We therefore investigated the presence of bile acids in the middle ear effusions of children ...
Bala Lakshmi - - 2009
Patients with extrahepatic biliary obstruction present with impairment of the normal bile flow, with jaundice and cholangitis as common complications. (1)H and (31)P NMR quantitative analysis of bile specimens from patients with extrahepatic biliary obstruction (n = 80) (with/without jaundice and cholangitis separately and together) was carried out for the ...
Ramm Grant A - - 2009
Cholestatic liver diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) liver disease and biliary atresia, predominate as causes of childhood cirrhosis. Despite diverse etiologies, the stereotypic final pathway involves fibrogenesis where hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are recruited, producing excess collagen which initiates biliary fibrosis. A possible molecular determinant of this recruitment, monocyte ...
Nomoto Masahiro - - 2009
The major function of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is to maintain bile acid and lipid homeostasis. Fxr-null mice, in which the levels of hepatic bile acid and lipid have been elevated, develop spontaneous liver tumors. We evaluated differences in hepatic bile acid and triglyceride concentrations, and in generation of oxidative ...
Blondeau Kathleen K Centre for Gastroenterological Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, - - 2009
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics ...
Tazuke Yuko Y Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, - - 2009
Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a major problem with prolonged total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration. Our laboratory previously demonstrated significant changes in the expression of multidrug resistance genes (MDRs) 1 and 2, hepatocyte transporters, in a TPN mouse model. The present study hypothesized that these changes would lead to ...
Dvorak Katerina K Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA. - - 2009
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic lesion characterized by replacement of the normal squamous epithelium by columnar intestinal epithelium containing goblet cells. It is speculated that this process is an adaptation to protect cells from components of refluxate, such as gastric acid and bile acids. In contrast to the normal ...
Yandza Thierry - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in individual bile acids in serum in a pig model of allogenic small bowel transplantation. METHODS: Seventeen pigs were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=10), controls; group 2 (n=7), allotransplantation, nonimmunosuppressed recipients. Both groups received a segmental intestine. Intestinal specimens for histologic studies were obtained ...
Zhang Chunbo - - 2009
Bile acids have been implicated as chemical signals in spawning behaviour of lake char (Salvelinus namaycush). In this study, we investigated olfactory responses of lake char to bile acids by using the electro-olfactogram recording. Lake char detected 9 out of 38 bile acids tested at thresholds 0.02-0.5 nM. The most ...
Pattni Sanjeev - - 2009
Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a syndrome of chronic watery diarrhoea with excess faecal bile acids. Disruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids following surgical resection is a common cause of BAM. The condition is easily diagnosed by the selenium homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test and responds to bile ...
Baker Julie A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Golden-mantled ground squirrels (S. lateralis) are anorexic during the winter and survive by exploiting hibernation to reduce energetic demands. The liver normally plays a critical role in fueling and regulating metabolism and one might expect significant changes in hepatobiliary function with hibernation. We analyzed bile collected from animals in ...
Li Tiangang - - 2009
Bile acids are amphipathic molecules synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. Bile acid synthesis is a major pathway for hepatic cholesterol catabolism. Bile acid synthesis generates bile flow which is important for biliary secretion of free cholesterol, endogenous metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids are biological detergents that facilitate intestinal absorption ...
Fuentes-Broto Lorena - - 2009
Cholestasis occurs in a variety of hepatic diseases and causes damage due to accumulation of bile acids in the liver. The aim was to investigate the effect of several bile acids, i.e. chenodeoxycholic, taurochenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic, lithocholic and taurolithocholic (TLC), in inducing oxidative damage. Hepatic tissue of male Sprague-Dawley ...
Yui Satoko - - 2009
A secondary bile acid, namely, deoxycholic acid (DCA), has been known to promote colon tumors; on the other hand, it also induces apoptosis in several human colon cancer cell lines. A hydrophobic primary bile acid, namely, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), exhibits a similar property of apoptosis induction; DCA and CDCA also ...
Yu Bao-Zhu - - 2009
Guggulsterone (7) and cembranoids (8-12) from Commiphora mukul stem bark resin guggul were shown to be specific modulators of two independent sites that are also modulated by bile salts (1-6) to control cholesterol absorption and catabolism. Guggulsterone (7) antagonized the chenodeoxycholic acid (3)-activated nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which regulates ...
Ma Ke - - 2009
Bile acids are potentially toxic compounds and their levels of hepatic production, uptake and export are tightly regulated by many inputs, including circadian rhythm. We tested the impact of disrupting the peripheral circadian clock on integral steps of bile acid homeostasis. Both restricted feeding, which phase shifts peripheral clocks, and ...
Ballatori Nazzareno N Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. - - 2009
The organic solute and steroid transporter, Ost alpha-Ost beta, is an unusual heteromeric carrier that appears to play a central role in the transport of bile acids, conjugated steroids, and structurally-related molecules across the basolateral membrane of many epithelial cells. The transporter's substrate specificity, transport mechanism, tissue distribution, subcellular localization, ...
Zhou Yong Y Department of Pediatrics-Gastroenterology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, - - 2009
In cholestatic liver diseases, the ability of hydrophobic bile acids to damage membranes of hepatocytes/ductal cells contributes to their cytotoxicity. However, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDC), a hydrophilic bile acid, is used to treat cholestasis because it protects membranes. It has been well established that bile acids associate with and solubilize free ...
Hengst Christin - - 2009
The beneficial effects of prebiotics on bowel health were thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to show prebiotic effects of polydextrose (PDX). A placebo-controlled, randomized intervention study with PDX supplementation (8 g/day) was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The effects of PDX on stool weight, orofaecal transit time, ...
Son Seiichi - - 2009
The polarization of hepatocytes involves formation of functionally distinct sinusoidal (basolateral) and bile canalicular (apical) plasma membrane domains that are separated by tight junctions. Although various molecular mechanisms and signaling cascades including polarity complex proteins may contribute to bile canalicular formation in hepatocytes, the role of tight junction proteins in ...
Duarte Iola F - - 2009
The first application of high field NMR spectroscopy (800 MHz for (1)H observation) to human hepatic bile (as opposed to gall bladder bile) is reported. The bile sample used for detailed investigation was from a donor liver with mild fat infiltration, collected during organ retrieval prior to transplantation. In addition, ...
Zhao Xinjie - - 2009
The oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) is a common tool to provoke a metabolic challenge for scientific purposes, as well as for diagnostic reasons, to monitor the kinetics of glucose and insulin. Here, we aimed to follow the variety of physiological changes of the whole metabolic pattern in plasma during ...
Katona Bryson W - - 2009
Bile acids are steroid detergents that are toxic to mammalian cells at high concentrations; increased exposure to these steroids is pertinent in the pathogenesis of cholestatic disease and colon cancer. Understanding the mechanisms of bile acid toxicity and apoptosis, which could include nonspecific detergent effects and/or specific receptor activation, has ...
Drew David - - 2008
Gastrointestinal bacteria, like Escherichia coli, must remove bile acid to survive in the gut. Bile acid removal in E. coli is thought to be mediated primarily by the multidrug efflux pump, AcrB. Here, we present the structure of E. coli AcrB in complex with deoxycholate at 3.85 A resolution. All ...
Cariou B - - 2008
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is mainly expressed in liver, intestine, kidney and adipose tissue. On activation by bile acids, FXR regulates a wide variety of target genes that are critically involved in the control of bile acid, lipid and glucose ...
Pierre Germaine - - 2008
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) OMIM#213700 is a rare disorder of bile acid synthesis caused by deficiency of the enzyme sterol 27-hydroxylase. It results in deficiency of bile acids and accumulation of abnormal bile alcohols and accelerated cholesterol synthesis. CTX usually presents in the second or third decade with slowly progressive neurological ...
Huang William M - - 2009
We sought to determine if the bile acid ratio of cholic acid to chenodeoxycholic acid (CA:CDCA) is an important component for diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We assessed the addition of bile acid CA:CDCA ratio information in diagnosing ICP in a database of patients evaluated for ICP by ...
Rust Christian - - 2009
Apoptosis induced by hydrophobic bile acids is thought to contribute to liver injury during cholestasis. Caspase-6 is an executioner caspase that also appears to have regulatory functions in hematopoetic cell lines. We aimed to elucidate the role of caspase-6 in bile acid-induced apoptosis. The major human hydrophobic bile acid, glycochenodeoxycholic ...
Hagey Lee R - - 2009
The chemical structures of the three major bile acids present in the gallbladder bile of the Red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens), an early evolving, ground-living bird related to ratites, were determined. Bile acids were isolated by preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Two of the compounds were identified as the taurine N-acylamidates of 25R-3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic ...
Miyata Masaaki - - 2009
Cholic acid (CA) feeding of farnesoid X receptor (Fxr)-null mice results in markedly elevated hepatic bile acid levels and liver injury. In contrast, Fxr-null mice fed cholesterol plus CA (CA+Chol) do not exhibit liver injury, and hepatic bile acid levels and bile acid pool size are reduced 51 and 40%, ...
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