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Xiang Xiaoqiang - - 2010
We report a sensitive and robust method to determine cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and their taurine- and glycine-conjugate concentrations in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Activated charcoal was utilized to prepare bile acid-free plasma, which served as ...
Yamaguchi Kana - - 2010
A novel fluorescent bile acid derivative, 4-N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole- conjugated bile acid was synthesized as a probe to develop a rapid screening method for function analysis of bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB 11). The transport properties of the synthetic fluorescent bile acid derivative in membrane vesicles obtained from hBSEP-expressing Sf9 cells ...
Yamaguchi Kana - - 2010
A method has been developed for the measurement of transport activities in membrane vesicles obtained from human multidrug resistance-associated protein 3-expressing Sf9 cells for 1beta-hydroxy-, 6alpha-hydroxy- and unsaturated bile acids by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves for the bile acids were linear over the range of 10 ...
McRae MaryPeace M University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7360, - - 2010
To evaluate whether patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were receiving protease inhibitor therapy had altered bile acid concentrations compared with noninfected control subjects, and whether bile acid concentrations could predict the onset of hepatotoxicity caused by protease inhibitors. Retrospective sample analysis from a prospectively conducted clinical trial. ...
Soroka Carol J CJ Yale Liver Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8019, USA. - - 2010
Organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ostalpha-Ostbeta) is a heteromeric bile acid and sterol transporter that facilitates the enterohepatic and renal-hepatic circulation of bile acids. Hepatic expression of this basolateral membrane protein is increased in cholestasis, presumably to facilitate removal of toxic bile acids from the liver. In this study, we show ...
Jia Li L Industrial Laboratory of Meatco Corp. of Namibia Ltd., Windhoek, - - 2010
The survival of bifidobacteria in simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was studied based on the D- and z-value concept. Some Bifidobacterium spp. are probiotics that improve microbial balance in the human GI tract. Because they are sensitive to low pH and bile salt concentrations, their viability in the ...
Iguchi Yusuke - - 2010
TGR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by bile acids, resulting in an increase in cAMP levels and the subsequent modulation of energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue and muscle. Therefore, the development of a TGR5-specific agonist could lead to the prevention and treatment of various metabolic disorders ...
Maeda Yorio - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various bile acids on hepatic type I 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD1) activity in vitro. The rat liver microsome fraction was prepared and 11beta-HSD1 activity was assayed using cortisol and corticosterone as substrates for the enzyme reaction. The substrate and various ...
Allen Katryn K Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 4063 KLSIC, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, - - 2010
Cholestasis results when excretion of bile acids from the liver is interrupted. Liver injury occurs during cholestasis, and recent studies showed that inflammation is required for injury. Our previous studies demonstrated that early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) is required for development of inflammation in liver during cholestasis, and that bile ...
Ansede John H - - 2010
Drug-induced cholestasis can result from the inhibition of biliary efflux of bile acids in the liver. Drugs may inhibit the hepatic uptake and/or the biliary efflux of bile acids resulting in an increase in serum concentrations. However, it is the intracellular concentration of bile acids that results in hepatotoxicity, and ...
Iguchi Yusuke - - 2010
FXR (farnesoid X receptor) is a bile acid-activated nuclear receptor that regulates not only the biosynthesis and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, but also triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose metabolism. FXR-mediated signaling pathways have become promising novel drug targets for the treatment of common metabolic and hepatic diseases. With the aim ...
Cho Joo-Youn - - 2010
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in synthesis, metabolism, and transport of bile acids and thus plays a major role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. In this study, metabolomic responses were investigated in urine of wild-type and Fxr-null mice fed cholic acid, an FXR ...
Ahrens Lutz - - 2010
The spatial distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) was investigated in dab (Limanda limanda) bile fluids collected from Iceland and the North Sea. Concentrations of various PFCs, including perfluorinated sulfonates (C(4)-C(6), C(8) PFSAs), perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C(9)-C(14) PFCAs) and n-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (MeFOSE), were quantified. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant ...
Miao Ji J Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2009
Bile acid homeostasis is critical in maintaining health and is primarily regulated by the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer partner (SHP). Bile acid-activated FXR indirectly inhibits expression of cholesterol 7alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), a key enzyme in conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, by induction of SHP. ...
Maier-Salamon Alexandra - - 2009
The study was designed to investigate the hepatic metabolism and transport system of valerenic acid, a main active constituent of valerian, in isolated perfused livers from Wistar and Mrp2-deficient TR(-) rats. After administration of 20 microM valerenic acid, the formation of seven valerenic acid glucuronides (M1-M7), namely two glucuronides of ...
Fodje Adele M L - - 2009
Fibers from flaxseed and co-products from ethanol production could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human diet. In vitro fermentation and bile acid binding models were used to investigate the metabolic effects of lignaMax (Bioriginal Food and Science Corp., Saskatoon, SK, Canada) flax meal, spent flax meal, soluble flax ...
Keating Niamh - - 2009
In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. ...
Rohacova Jana - - 2009
Four new fluorescent derivatives of cholic acid have been synthesized; they incorporate a dansyl moiety at 3alpha-, 3beta-, 7alpha- or 7beta- positions. These cholic acid analogs are UV photoactive and also exhibit green fluorescence. In addition, they have been demonstrated to be suitable for studying the kinetics of bile acid ...
Nehra Dhiren - - 2010
Acid and bile acids form important constituents of the refluxed substances in patients who suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Whilst 24h ambulatory pH monitoring using antimony or glass pH electrodes measures acid levels 5 cm above the gastroesophageal junction, there are no reliable methods of measuring other constituents of duodenal ...
Griffiths William J - - 2009
Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids carrying a carboxyl group in the side chain. Bile alcohols have similar structures and are formed as intermediates or side products in bile acid biosynthesis or as end products in lower vertebrates. Metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids/bile alcohols is of major ...
Izzat N N - - 2009
We examined bile acid transport and expression of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) in ileal preparations to determine if alterations in bile acid excretion contributed to a hypercholesterolemia-resistant phenotype in rabbits (CRT/mlo). Taurocholate transport was not different between normal (NR) and CRT/mlo rabbits fed regular diet. However, feeding ...
Hayashi Hiromitsu - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical association between serum bile acid level changes and liver hypertrophy in portal vein embolization (PVE). METHODS: In 31 patients, the serum total bile acid level was prospectively measured before and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after ...
Boatright Jeffrey H - - 2009
Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations ...
Thomas Charles - - 2009
TGR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in brown adipose tissue and muscle, where its activation by bile acids triggers an increase in energy expenditure and attenuates diet-induced obesity. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic gain- and loss-of-function studies in vivo, we show here that TGR5 signaling induces intestinal ...
Wolf Kristina K KK Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2010
Hepatocellular accumulation of bile acids due to inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) is one proposed mechanism of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Some hepatotoxic compounds also are potent inhibitors of bile acid uptake by Na(+)-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1). This study used a cassette dosing approach in ...
Gong Li - - 2009
While bile acids are a risk factor for tumorigenesis induced by reflux disease, the mechanisms by which they contribute to neoplasia remain undefined. Here, we reveal that in gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cells bile acids activate a tissue-specific developmental program defining the intestinal epithelial cell phenotype characterizing GEJ metaplasia. Deoxycholic acid ...
Nittono Hiroshi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Some patients with cholestasis of unknown cause may have inborn errors of bile acid metabolism (IEBAM) thus causing abnormalities of bile acid biosynthesis. Although seven types of bile acid synthetic defects have thus far been reported for this disorder, no detailed information on its incidence and so on in ...
Fimognari Carmela - - 2009
Depending on the nature of chemical structures, different bile acids exhibit distinct biological effects. Their therapeutic efficacy has been widely demonstrated in various liver diseases, suggesting that they might protect hepatocytes against common mechanisms of liver damage. Although it has been shown to prevent apoptotic cell death in certain cell ...
Hofmann Alan F - - 2010
Biliary bile salt composition of 677 vertebrate species (103 fish, 130 reptiles, 271 birds, 173 mammals) was determined. Bile salts were of three types: C(27) bile alcohols, C(27) bile acids, or C(24) bile acids, with default hydroxylation at C-3 and C-7. C(27) bile alcohols dominated in early evolving fish and ...
Gonzales Emmanuel - - 2009
Oral bile acid replacement has been shown to be an effective therapy in primary bile acid synthesis defects, but to date there have been no reports of the long-term effects of this therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of cholic acid (CA) ...
Watanabe Shiro - - 2009
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bear bile (BB) originally used as a traditional Chinese medicine has also been adopted in Japan as a traditional home remedy mainly for gastrointestinal problems due to impaired digestion. However, recently, efforts have been made to find alternatives to BB for ecological and ethical reasons. AIMS OF THE ...
Posa Mihalj - - 2009
Critical micellear concentrations (CMC) were determined for two novel promoters of membrane permeability-7-monoketocholic acid (7-MKC) and 12-monoketocholic acid (12-MKC), using two non-invasive ((1)H NMR relaxation experiment and conductometry) and two invasive (spectral shift and partition coefficient of the probe molecule) methods. Studies by the former methods suggest the different aggregation ...
Keating Niamh - - 2009
In patients with bile acid malabsorption, high concentrations of bile acids enter the colon and stimulate Cl(-) and fluid secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA), the predominant colonic bile acid, is normally present at lower concentrations where its role in regulating transport is unclear. Thus, the current study ...
Nishida Shigeru - - 2009
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor for the active form of vitamin D(3) and mediates regulation of calcium homeostasis. Bile acids, such as lithocholic acid, have been identified as additional endogenous VDR ligands. The in vivo role of VDR in bile acid metabolism has not been elucidated. ...
Delgado-Villa Maria Jesus - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol metabolism is altered by chronic ethanol consumption. In previous articles, we demonstrated the anti-oxidant capacity of folic acid, which may be useful in the prevention of damage provoked by ethanol. We want to determine the effects of ethanol on cholesterol and bile metabolism and whether a folic acid-supplemented ...
Singh T S - - 2009
The knowledge of the formation of bile acid micellar aggregates is of great importance because of the biological significance of these compounds and their pharmacological applications. The intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) fluorescence property of trans-ethyl-p-(dimethylamino) cinnamate is used to study the micelles formed by aggregation of three most important bile ...
Li Yan - - 2009
Let's twist again! Remarkable broad and twisted ribbons were generated from the self-assembly of oligo(p- phenylene ethylene) (OPE) bearing dimeric deoxycholic acid pendant groups (see graphic). Varying the bile acid led to nanostructures with drastically different morphologies. The distinctive aggregate shapes of these steroid-OPE conjugates are attributed to the subtle ...
Goldman A - - 2010
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Previous studies have implicated hydrophobic bile acids and gastric acid in BE and EAC pathogenesis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by bile acids and gastric ...
Dawson Paul A PA Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. - - 2009
In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal ...
Ijare Omkar B - - 2009
The utility of (1)H MR spectroscopy in detecting chronic cholestasis has been investigated. The amide proton region of the (1)H MR spectrum of human bile plays a major role in differentiating cholestatic (Ch) patterns from the normal ones. Bile obtained from normal bile ducts contains both taurine and glycine conjugates ...
Halilbasic Emina E Laboratory of Experimental and Molecular Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, - - 2009
24-norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA), a side chain-modified ursodeoxycholic acid derivative, has dramatic therapeutic effects in experimental cholestasis and may be a promising agent for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. We aimed to better understand the physiologic and therapeutic properties of norUDCA and to test if they are related to its ...
Ridlon Jason M JM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Box 980678, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0678, USA. - - 2010
Primary bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, conjugated to either glycine or taurine and secreted into bile. Bile salts undergo enterohepatic circulation several times each day. During this process, they are biotransformed into a variety of metabolites by gut bacteria. The major biotransformation is the 7alpha-dehydroxylation of ...
Nishiura Hiroshi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Bile acid metabolism in preterm infants is yet to be fully characterized. We compared the developmental pattern of urinary bile acid profiles in ten infants born at gestational ages from 25 to 33 weeks with previous data from full-term infants from birth to about 7 months of age. METHODS: ...
Walters Julian R F - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary (idiopathic) bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common, yet underrecognized, chronic diarrheal syndrome. Diagnosis is difficult without selenium homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) testing. The diarrhea results from excess colonic bile acids, but the pathogenesis is unclear. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), produced in the ileum in ...
Velez Zélia - - 2009
Olfactory sensitivity to bile salts is wide-spread in teleosts; however, which bile salts are released in sufficient quantities to be detected is unclear. The current study identified bile salts in the intestinal and bile fluids of Solea senegalensis by mass spectrometry-liquid chromatography and assessed their olfactory potency by the electro-olfactogram. ...
Herraez Elisa - - 2009
Phalloidin causes severe liver damage characterized by marked cholestasis, which is due in part to irreversible polymerization of actin filaments. Liver uptake of this toxin through the transporter OATP1B1 is inhibited by the bile acid derivative BALU-1, which does not inhibit the sodium-dependent bile acid transporter NTCP. The aim of ...
Staels Bart - - 2009
Clinical evidence has demonstrated that bile acid sequestrants reduce glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This effect has been confirmed in multiple double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies with the bile acid sequestrant colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl). Colesevelam HCl was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in ...
Wei Jue - - 2009
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by an accumulation of excess triglycerides in hepatocytes, and insulin resistance is now considered the fundamental operative mechanism throughout the prevalence and progression of the disease. Besides their role in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, evidence has accumulated that bile acids are also ...
Bi Dan - - 2009
Two new bile acids, tauroselocholic acid (1) and tauroansocholic acid (2), a new natural bile acid, cygnocholic acid (3) were respectively isolated from bear bile powder Selenaretos thibetanus CUVIER and bile of geese Anser anser domesticus, together with seven known compounds. By spectrum analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR, ...
Hofmann Alan F - - 2009
An informal review of the author's five decades of research on the chemistry and biology of bile acids in health and disease is presented. The review begins with a discussion of bile acid structure and its remarkable diversity in vertebrates. Methods for tagging bile acids with tritium for metabolic or ...
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