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Watanabe Hitoshi - - 2010
Serotonin is synthesized by two distinct tryptophan hydroxylases, one in the brain and one in the periphery. The latter is known to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. These two serotonin systems have apparently independent functions, although the functions of peripheral serotonin have yet to be fully elucidated. In ...
Rao Archana S AS Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research, Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, - - 2010
Sodium chenodeoxycholate (CDC) accelerates colonic transit in health. Our aim was to examine pharmacodynamics (colonic transit, bowel function) and pharmacogenetics of CDC in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 36 female patients with IBS-C were randomized to treatment with delayed-release oral formulations of placebo, 500 mg ...
Goldberg Alexander A - - 2010
We recently found that lithocholic acid (LCA), a bile acid, extends yeast longevity. Unlike mammals, yeast do not synthesize bile acids. We therefore propose that bile acids released into the environment by mammals may act as interspecies chemical signals providing longevity benefits to yeast and, perhaps, other species within an ...
Sorg Joseph A JA Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2010
To cause disease, Clostridium difficile spores must germinate in the host gastrointestinal tract. Germination is initiated upon exposure to glycine and certain bile acids, e.g., taurocholate. Chenodeoxycholate, another bile acid, inhibits taurocholate-mediated germination. By applying Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis to C. difficile spore germination, we found that chenodeoxycholate is a competitive ...
Sharma Ruchika - - 2010
The molecular mechanisms and interactions underlying bile acid cytotoxicity are important to understand for intestinal and hepatic disease treatment and prevention and the design of bile acid-based therapeutics. Bile acid lipophilicity is believed to be an important cytotoxicity determinant but the relationship is not well characterized. In this study we ...
Keely S J - - 2010
In addition to their classical functions in aiding the digestion and absorption of lipids, bile acids are increasingly gaining appreciation for their roles in regulating intestinal physiology. Bile acids are now widely considered as hormones that exert a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects both within and outside the ...
Glicksman C - - 2010
Bile acids can act as signalling molecules via various receptors including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5. The signalling has been implicated in the release of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which improves glycaemic control ...
Keitel Verena - - 2010
Cholangiocyte cilia are sensory organelles that extend from the apical membrane into the bile duct lumen and detect changes in bile flow and osmolarity. Whether or not cholangiocyte cilia are responsive to bile acids is unknown. TGR5 (Gpbar-1) is a membrane-bound bile acid receptor which is expressed in biliary epithelial ...
Hagey Lee R - - 2010
The biliary bile salts of the medaka, the Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) were isolated and identified. Only bile acids were present, and all were N-acylamidated with taurine. Three bile acids, constituting 98% of total bile acids, were isolated by chromatography and their structure inferred from their properties compared to ...
Zheng Xiaowan - - 2010
The objective was to synthesize prodrugs of niacin and ketoprofen that target the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) and potentially allow for prolonged drug release. Each drug was conjugated to the naturally occurring bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) using lysine as a linker. Their inhibitory binding and transport ...
Beuling Eva E GI/Cell Biology, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2010
The transcription factor GATA4 is expressed throughout most of the small intestine except distal ileum, and restricts expression of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), the rate-limiting intestinal bile acid transporter, to distal ileum. The hypothesis was tested that reduction of GATA4 activity in mouse small intestine results in ...
Kohli Rohit R Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio, USA. - - 2010
Surgical interposition of distal ileum into the proximal jejunum is a bariatric procedure that improves the metabolic syndrome. Changes in intestinal and hepatic physiology after ileal interposition (transposition) surgery (IIS) are not well understood. Our aim was to elucidate the adaptation of the interposed ileum, which we hypothesized, would lead ...
Bortolini Olga - - 2010
The anion proton affinity of the most important human bile acids and those of the corresponding keto bile acids have been examined in order to establish a true (intrinsic) relative acidity scale. The measurements have been carried out in the gas-phase using the Cooks' kinetic method. The remarkably high acidity ...
Darkoh Charles C University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX, - - 2010
Diarrhea is one of the most common infirmities affecting international travelers, occurring in 20 to 50% of persons from industrialized countries visiting developing regions. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common causative agent and is isolated from approximately half of the cases of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin, a largely water-insoluble, ...
Ijare Omkar B - - 2010
Bile acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol are the major lipid components in human bile. The composition of bile is altered in various cholestatic diseases, and determining such alterations will be of great clinical importance in understanding the pathophysiology of these diseases. A robust method for the simultaneous quantification of major biliary ...
Stroeve Johanna H M - - 2010
Hepatic bile acid synthesis is subject to complex modes of transcriptional control, in which the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in liver and intestine-derived, FXR-controlled fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15) are involved. The Fgf15 pathway is assumed to contribute significantly to control of hepatic bile acid synthesis. ...
Bajor Antal - - 2010
Bile acids have secretory, motility and antimicrobial effects in the intestine. In patients with bile acid malabsorption the amount of primary bile acids in the colon is increased compared to healthy controls. Deoxycholic acid is affecting the intestinal smooth muscle activity. Chenodeoxycholic acid has the highest potency to affect intestinal ...
Zavecz James H - - 2010
Marked hemodynamic changes occur in humans and experimental animals with cirrhotic liver disease. In the heart, basal contractility, responsiveness to beta-adrenoceptor activation, and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) are negatively affected in models of cirrhosis and portal hypertension with portosystemic shunting (PVS), and comprise what has been called cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. These effects ...
Yamada Takanori - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Guggulsterone, a plant polyphenol guggulipid, has several antitumour effects and acts as an antagonist for the farnesoid X receptor. Although bile acids induce caudal-related homeobox 2 (CdX2), a transcription factor essential for intestinal development and gut tumourigenesis, the effects of guggulsterone on regulation of CdX2 in the gut are ...
Paumgartner Gustav - - 2010
New insights into the molecular mechanisms of bile formation and cholestasis have provided new concepts for pharmacotherapy of cholestatic liver diseases. The major aim in all forms of cholestasis is the reduction of hepatocellular retention of bile acids and other potentially toxic constituents of bile. Reduction of hepatocellular retention may ...
Björkhem Ingemar - - 2010
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis [CTX] is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and cholestanol in brain and tendons caused by a mutation in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene [CYP27A1] involved in bile acid synthesis. Disruption of this gene in mice does not give rise to xanthomas. The gene defect leads ...
Bortolini Olga - - 2010
An overview on the use of bile acid-based compounds able to catalyze transformations, control the stereochemical course of a given reaction, recognize and bind other molecules, is presented. The recent developments in inclusion discrimination of chiral and achiral guests and enantioselective recognition achieved by bile acid are described with suitable ...
Yamaguchi Kana - - 2010
Monovalent bile acids, such as taurine- and glycine-conjugated bile acids, are excreted into bile by bile salt export pumps (BSEP, ABCB11). Human BSEP (hBSEP) is physiologically important because it was identified as the gene responsible for the genetic disease: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC-2). The evaluation of the ...
Knop Filip K - - 2010
During the last decades it has become clear that bile acids not only act as simple fat solubilizers, but additionally represent complex hormonal metabolic integrators. Bile acids activate both nuclear receptors (controlling transcription of genes involved in for example bile acid, cholesterol, and glucose metabolism) and the cell surface G ...
Johnson Brandy J Harvey - - 2010
ABCG5 and ABCG8 are half-size ABC transporters that function as heterodimers (ABCG5/G8) to reduce sterol absorption in the intestines and increase sterol excretion from the liver. Previous studies demonstrated that bile acids increased ABCG5/G8 specific cholesterol efflux in cell models. In this study we tested the effects of bile acids ...
Soroka Carol J - - 2010
Organic solute transporter alpha-beta (OSTalpha-OSTbeta) is a unique heteromeric transporter localized to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells involved in sterol transport. It is believed to be the primary bile acid efflux transporter in the intestine of mammals and is therefore essential to bile acid homeostasis and the enterohepatic circulation. ...
Wagner Martin M Laboratory of Experimental and Molecular Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, - - 2010
Although hereditary or acquired defects in hepatobiliary transporter systems cause or predispose to cholestasis, adaptive bile acid transporter changes can counteract cholestasis by reducing hepatocellular and systemic concentrations of retained cholephiles. An important level in the regulation of adaptive bile acid transporters and overflow pathways is mediated at the transcriptional ...
Gadaleta Raffaella M - - 2010
The nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) critically regulates nascent bile formation and bile acid enterohepatic circulation. Bile acids and FXR play a pivotal role in regulating hepatic inflammation and regeneration as well as in regulating extent of inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal ...
Cronin James - - 2010
Bile acids have been demonstrated, through the use of animal models and clinical association studies, to play a role in neoplastic development in Barrett's metaplasia. How specific bile acids promote neoplasia is as yet unknown, as are the exact identities of the important bile acid subtypes. The combination of bile ...
Kong Weijun - - 2010
The effects of two bile acid derivatives, cholic acid (CA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) growth were investigated and compared by microcalorimetry coupled with multiple analytical methods. The heat power (HP)-time curves of S. aureus growth affected by CA and DCA were studied by similarity analysis ...
Jansen Peter L M - - 2010
TGR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in brown adipose tissue and muscle, where its activation by bile acids triggers an increase in energy expenditure and attenuates diet-induced obesity. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic gain- and loss-of-function studies invivo, we show here that TGR5 signaling induces intestinal glucagon-like ...
McNeilly Alison D - - 2010
Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs in cirrhosis and cholestasis and is associated with increased concentrations of bile acids. We investigated whether this was mediated through bile acids acting to impair steroid clearance by inhibiting glucocorticoid metabolism by 5beta-reductase. The effect of bile acids on glucocorticoid metabolism was studied in ...
Zhou Yong - - 2010
The injurious effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the small intestine was not appreciated until the widespread use of capsule endoscopy. Animal studies found that NSAID-induced small intestinal injury depends on the ability of these drugs to be secreted into the bile. Because the individual toxicity of amphiphilic bile ...
Tian Mingyue - - 2010
Human c-myc gene is a central regulator of cellular proliferation and cell growth, and G-quadruplexes have been proven to be the transcriptional controller of this gene. In this study, the interaction of bile acid-amino acid conjugate (BAA) with G-quadruplexes in c-myc was investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Huang J - - 2010
Human sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) is a member of the hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (SULT2) family that mediates sulfo-conjugation of a variety of endogenous molecules including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and bile acids. In this study, we have constructed a stable cell line expressing SULT2A1 by transfection into HEK293 cells. The expression system was used ...
Howarth Deanna L - - 2010
The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXRalpha, NR1H4) is activated by bile acids in multiple species including mouse, rat, and human and in this study we have identified two isoforms of Fxralpha in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), a small freshwater teleost. Both isoforms share a high amino acid sequence ...
Posa Mihalj - - 2010
The objective of this work was to study the effect of structure of bile acids on their membranolytic potential and extent of overlapping of the information about the membranolytic potential of bile acids and their physico-chemical parameters, namely: retention index R(M0) (as a measure of bile acid hydrophobicity, reversed-phase thin-layer ...
Erichsen Thomas J - - 2010
Cholestasis is a serious complication of many liver diseases leading to increased serum bile acids (BA) and their conjugates. Chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) acid is a substrate of the human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A3. UGT1A3 may, therefore, be a BA-inducible gene relevant to BA regulation. BA and human bile were used to ...
Matsumoto Kenji - - 2010
The hypolipidemic effects and bile acid-binding properties of young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit were examined. In an animal experiment, male C57BL/6.Cr mice (n = 5) were fed an AIN-76-modified high fat diet supplemented with 2% or 5% (w/w) dried young persimmon fruit (YP) for 10 weeks. The intake of YP ...
Dong Xiushan - - 2010
The present study attempted to examine the effects of bile acid pool size on liver regeneration after hepatectomy. The rats were fed on 0.2% cholic acid (CA) or 2% cholestyramine for 7 days to induce a change in the bile acid size, and then a partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed. ...
Higashi Tatsuya - - 2010
Measurement of steroid levels in saliva has been proposed as a new laboratory tool for characterizing steroid metabolism, but it is not known whether the salivary levels of bile acids can be measured with accuracy and if so, whether such measurements provide information that is of clinical value. We developed ...
Perides George - - 2010
Mechanistic studies of acute pancreatitis require animal models because clinical material is generally not available during the early phases of the disease. Here we describe a protocol to induce biliary pancreatitis by retrogradely infusing bile acids into the pancreatic duct of anesthetized mice. The resulting model replicates events believed to ...
Staels Bart - - 2010
Bile acids are generated in the liver and are traditionally recognized for their regulatory role in multiple metabolic processes including bile acid homeostasis, nutrient absorption, and cholesterol homeostasis. Recently, bile acids emerged as signaling molecules that, as ligands for the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5, activate ...
Janzen N - - 2010
The aim of the study was to develop a method for fast and reliable diagnosis of peroxisomal diseases and to facilitate differential diagnosis of cholestatic hepatopathy. For the quantification of bile acids and their conjugates as well as C(27) precursors di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid (DHCA, THCA), in small pediatric blood ...
Huertas M - - 2010
Teleosts have high olfactory sensitivity to bile salts. To assess whether this phenomenon is involved in intra-specific chemical communication alone, or is part of a more ;broad range' sensitivity to bile salts produced by heterospecifics, we investigated possible differences in the odour of bile between the sexes and among different ...
Ikonen Satu - - 2010
Aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodopyrimidine or 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine nucleosides with bile acid-derived terminal acetylenes linked via an ester or amide tether gave the corresponding bile acid-nucleoside conjugates. Analogous reactions of halogenated nucleoside triphosphates gave directly bile acid-modified dNTPs. Enzymatic incorporation of these modified nucleotides to DNA was successfully performed using ...
Mencarelli Andrea - - 2010
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of illness and death. Therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cholesterol plasma levels have shown efficacy in either reducing progression of atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerosis-related mortality. The farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) is a member of metabolic nuclear receptors (NRs) superfamily activated by bile acids. In entero-hepatic tissues, FXR ...
Kumar Anjul - - 2010
A novel method for the synthesis of bile-acid-based polymers has been developed using click chemistry. These 1,2,3-triazole-containing polymers have been found to stabilize silver nanoparticles that show selective colorimetric sensing for iodide ion.
Ellis Ewa C S - - 2010
De novo synthesis of bile acids is a liver-specific function that is difficult to maintain in cultured cells. There are significant species differences in both types of bile acids formed and more importantly in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis. This highlights the need for a good human in vitro ...
Owen Bryn M - - 2010
The intestinal-derived secondary bile acid (BA) lithocholic acid (LCA) is hepatotoxic and is implicated in the pathogenesis of cholestatic diseases. LCA is an endogenous ligand of the xenobiotic nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR), but there is currently no consensus on the respective roles of hepatic and intestinal PXR in ...
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