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Results 451 - 500 of 3759
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Vernazza Claire L - - 2006
AIMS: To assess the suitability of bifidobacteria for inclusion in synbiotic products on the basis of carbohydrate preference, acid and bile tolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five strains of Bifidobacterium were analysed for their carbohydrate preference from 12 substrates. Maximum growth rates were used to compare substrate preferences. Galacto-oligosaccharides and isomalto-oligosaccharides ...
Bajor Antal - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Bile acid malabsorption as reflected by an abnormal Se-labelled homocholic acid-taurine (SeHCAT) test is associated with diarrhoea, but the mechanisms and cause-and-effect relations are unclear. OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to determine whether there is a reduced active bile acid uptake in the terminal ileum in patients with bile acid malabsorption. Secondarily, ...
Doggrell Sheila A - - 2006
Gallstone disease is very common among American Indians and Hispanics, and approximately 20 million patients are treated for this disease annually in the US. Bile acid receptor (nuclear farnesoid X receptor; FXR) knockout mice fed a lithogenic diet are more susceptible to gallstone disease than wild-type mice. The C57L mouse ...
Jonkers Iris J A M - - 2006
Fibrates are drugs of choice in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), but may increase the risk for gallstones by decreasing bile acid synthesis. Fish oil might be a therapeutic alternative, but its effect on bile acid metabolism in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of triglyceride-lowering therapy by fish oil ...
Qin Pu - - 2006
Bile acids are synthesized in the liver, stored in gallbladder, and secreted into the intestine to aid in the absorption of lipid-soluble nutrients. In addition, bile acids also actively participate in regulation of gene expression through their ability to act as ligands for the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor or ...
Funasaki Noriaki - - 2006
The self-association of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and a zwitterionic derivative of cholic acid (CHAPS) in deuterium oxide was investigated by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) spectroscopy. Analysis of the concentration dependence of the chemical shifts of several protons suggested that NaTDC and CHAPS form nonamers and heptamers, ...
Jean-Louis Samira - - 2006
Secondary bile acids have long been postulated to be tumor promoters in the colon; however, their mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we examined the actions of bile acids at the cell membrane and found that they can perturb membrane structure by alteration of membrane microdomains. Depletion of ...
Nishiya Takayoshi - - 2006
We demonstrated that tienilic acid, a diuretic drug withdrawn from the market because of hepatic failure, enhanced hyperbilirubinemia in Eisai hyperbilirubinuria rats (EHBR) with a defect of canalicular multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). In contrast, no remarkable changes were noted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, the parent strain for EHBR. To ...
Solá Susana - - 2006
To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active ...
Giraud Etienne - - 2006
The consequences of antibiotic use in aquatic integrated systems, which are based on trophic interactions between different cultured organisms and physical continuity through water, need to be examined. In this study, fish reared in a prototype marine integrated system were given an oxolinic acid treatment, during and after which the ...
Mita Sachiko - - 2006
Na(+)-taurocholate-cotransporting peptide (NTCP)/SLC10A1 and bile salt export pump (BSEP)/ABCB11 synergistically play an important role in the transport of bile salts by the hepatocyte. In this study, we transfected human NTCP and BSEP or rat Ntcp and Bsep into LLC-PK1 cells, a cell line devoid of bile salts transporters. Transport by ...
Insull William W - - 2006
Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) continue to command a position in the treatment of dyslipidemias 25 years after their introduction. Partial diversion of the enterohepatic circulation using BAS depletes the endogenous bile acid pool by approximately 40%, thus stimulating an increase in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol, which lowers low-density lipoprotein ...
Kurdi Peter - - 2006
The effects of the free bile acids (FBAs) cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), and chenodeoxycholic acid on the bioenergetics and growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were investigated. It was found that these FBAs reduced the internal pH levels of these bacteria with rapid and stepwise kinetics and, at certain ...
Cravotto Giancarlo - - 2006
Dehydrocholic acid (DHCA), an unnatural bile acid, is manufactured by oxidation of cholic acid. Its biotransformation by two basidiomycetes (Trametes hirsuta and Collybia velutipes) is reported. These mycelia showed different affinities for the substrate and selectivities of attack: T. hirsuta in particular regio- and stereoselectively reduced the 3-keto group to ...
Kim Kang Mo - - 2006
In cholestatic liver diseases, bile acids induce hepatocyte apoptosis and thus cause liver injury, but hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) survive in the presence of bile acids. We attempted to analyze anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in HSCs against bile acid-induced apoptosis. In immortalized human HSCs and primarily cultured rat HSCs, bile acid ...
Clerici Carlo - - 2006
3alpha-6alpha-Dihydroxy-7alpha-fluoro-5beta-cholanoate (UPF-680), the 7alpha-fluorine analog of hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), was synthesized to improve bioavailability and stability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Acute rat biliary fistula and chronic cholestasis induced by 17alpha-ethynyl-estradiol (17EE) models were used to study and compare the effects of UPF-680 (dose range 0.6-6.0 micromol/kg min) with UDCA on ...
Akashi Masahiro - - 2006
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is known to cause cholestasis. CsA is reported to competitively inhibit the transport of the substrates of the bile salt export pump (Bsep), multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the canalicular membrane vesicles. However, the inhibitory effect of CsA on various substrates of the ...
Inagaki Takeshi - - 2006
Obstruction of bile flow results in bacterial proliferation and mucosal injury in the small intestine that can lead to the translocation of bacteria across the epithelial barrier and systemic infection. These adverse effects of biliary obstruction can be inhibited by administration of bile acids. Here we show that the farnesoid ...
Tanaka Shun-ichi - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Differences in biliary lipid output were compared in rats after 70% or 90% hepatectomy (Hx) to evaluate a possible index of the early stage of acute liver failure. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 300 to 350 g were randomly divided into two groups for 70% Hx or 90% ...
Kakiyama Genta - - 2006
Complete 1H and 13C resonance assignments were made for a new type of 3 beta,7 beta-dihydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid doubly conjugated with sulfuric acid at C-3 and N-acetylglucosamine at C-7 and its glycine- and taurine-amidated triple-conjugates by the combined use of several homonuclear and heteronuclear shift-correlated 2D NMR techniques. The effects of ...
Minamida Kimiko - - 2006
Changes in the intestinal microbiota of 10 human subjects with long-term ingestion of 3 g/d difructose anhydride III (DFA III; 4 persons, 2 months; 3 persons, 6 months; and 3 persons, 12 months) were examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). According to the answers to questionnaires, the subjects were ...
Tadano Tomoaki - - 2006
Both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods are utilized in the clinical laboratory to measure bile acids in human body fluids. For a more detailed analysis, we attempted simultaneous analysis of serum and feces bile acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also investigated the dynamics of bile ...
Wondisford Fredric E - - 2006
The classic role of bile acids is as a key component of cholesterol homeostasis. New evidence recently published in Nature (Watanabe et al., 2006), however, describes a bile acid signaling pathway that controls energy expenditure through induction of thyroid hormone signaling pathways. This work may point to new approaches to ...
Dombrowski Frank - - 2006
Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts anticholestatic effects in chronic cholestatic liver disease in humans as well as in experimental animal models of cholestasis. Its taurine conjugate, TUDCA, was recently shown to stimulate insertion of the apical conjugate export pump, Mrp2 (ABCC2), into canalicular membranes of rat hepatocytes made cholestatic by exposure to ...
Fickert Peter - - 2006
We determined the mechanisms of hepatobiliary injury in the lithocholic acid (LCA)-fed mouse, an increasingly used model of cholestatic liver injury. Swiss albino mice received control diet or 1% (w/w) LCA diet (for 1, 2, and 4 days), followed by assessment of liver morphology and ultrastructure, tight junctions, markers of ...
Fickert Peter - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Current therapy for primary sclerosing cholangitis is of limited efficacy. Multidrug resistance gene 2 knockout mice (Mdr2(-/-)) represent a well-characterized model for sclerosing cholangitis. Experiments were performed to test in such mice the therapeutic effects of 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid, a C(23) homologue of ursodeoxycholic acid with 1 fewer ...
Halpern Melissa D - - 2006
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency of premature infants. While the effect of bile acids (BAs) on intestinal mucosal injury is known, we investigated the contribution of BAs during the development of NEC in neonatal rats. Premature rats were fed with cow's milk-based formula and subjected to ...
Vijayalakshmi N - - 2006
[reaction: see text] The high reactivity of the chloroacetyl group has been exploited for the synthesis of bile acid based first and second generation dendrons with multiple hydroxyl groups. The synthesis involves only a few steps and avoids the use of protecting groups for the terminal hydroxyl groups. These dendritic ...
Fuda Franklin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Plasma acylcarnitine measurement is an important diagnostic tool for inherited disorders of fatty acid and organic acid metabolism. Biliary excretion has been shown to be the primary route of excretion for acylcarnitines and analysis of bile acylcarnitine profiles may provide greater sensitivity for detecting metabolic disorders. Disorders of fatty ...
Kostrubsky Seva E - - 2006
Treatment with the antidepressant nefazodone has been associated with clinical idiosyncratic hepatotoxicty. Using membranes expressing human bile salt export pump (BSEP), human sandwich hepatocytes, and intact rats, we compared nefazodone and its marketed analogs, buspirone and trazodone. We found that nefazodone caused a strong inhibition of BSEP (IC(50) = 9 ...
Ray Abhijit - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to design bile acid-containing methanethiosulfonate (MTS) agents with appropriate physical attributes to effectively modify the cysteine residues present in the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. Four physical properties including surface area, molecular volume, ClogP, and dipole moment were calculated for each semiempirically optimized ...
Sasamoto Takahiro - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are several reports on the biliary excretion of bile acids and organic anions in zone 1- and zone 3-injured rat liver, but the results are controversial. In order to dissolve the discrepancy between previous works about the role of hepatic zonation on the hepatic handling of ...
Murata Yoshifumi - - 2006
A chitosan (CS) powder treated with cinnamic acid and an analogue compound (CN) was prepared as CS-CN. Using it, bile acid adsorption by CS-CN and the release of CN were investigated in vitro. When CS-CN was soaked in a taurocholate solution, it released CN and simultaneously adsorbed the bile acid. ...
Boni L - - 2006
Several studies have demonstrated the role of free radicals in causing esophagus-gastro-duodenal mucosal injury. The present study has been designed to investigate: whether acid, bile salts and a combination of bile + acid could determine the production of O2-derived free radicals by oesophageal, gastric and duodenal mucosa; which agent is ...
Hung Deborah T - - 2006
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the acute diarrhoeal disease cholera. After the bacterium is ingested, it passes through the digestive tract, encountering various environmental stresses including the acidic milieu of the stomach and the toxic effects of bile in the duodenum. While these stresses serve as part ...
Abitbol M - - 2006
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of heme biosynthesis caused by partial ferrochelatase deficiency, resulting in protoporphyrin overproduction which is responsible for painful skin photosensitivity. Chronic liver disease is the most severe complication of EPP, requiring liver transplantation in some patients. Data from a mouse model suggest that cytotoxic ...
Sital Rudy R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO), a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), is thought to be a consequence of chronic duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux. Of the refluxates, bile acids, either alone or in combination with acid, are probably the most important. METHODS: Analysis of the literature on the role ...
Kramer Werner - - 2006
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is a major regulator of serum cholesterol homeostasis. After biosynthesis from cholesterol in the liver, bile acids are secreted with bile into the lumen of the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. The bile acids are ...
Pan Debra H - - 2005
The apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mediates ileal bile acid reabsorption. The transcription factors, liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1:mouse) and fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF:human), are presumably orthologues. Bile-acid induced negative feedback regulation of mouse (m) and human (h) ASBT occurs via LRH-1 and RAR/RXR, respectively. hASBT has a potential ...
Frankenberg Tamara - - 2006
The mechanisms responsible for bile acid regulation of mouse intestinal organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ostalpha-Ostbeta) expression were investigated. Expression of Ostalpha-Ostbeta mRNA was increased in cecum and proximal colon of cholic acid-fed mice and in chenodeoxycholate-treated mouse CT26 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Sequence analysis revealed potential cis-acting elements for farnesoid X ...
Zollner Gernot G Laboratory of Experimental and Molecular Hepatology, Div. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, Graz A-8036, - - 2006
The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key regulator of hepatic defense mechanisms against bile acids. A comprehensive study addressing the role of FXR in the coordinated regulation of adaptive mechanisms including biosynthesis, metabolism, and alternative export together with their functional significance is lacking. We therefore fed ...
Nishioka Kiyonori - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We have reported G1 progression and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induction during carcinogenesis of the squamous epithelium of the esophagus. As bile acid induces COX-2 expression and promotes carcinogenesis in the digestive tract, we investigated the effect of bile acid on the proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC). ...
Marschall Hanns-Ulrich - - 2006
Farnesoid X receptor knockout (Fxr(-/-)) mice cannot upregulate the bile salt export pump in bile acid loading or cholestatic conditions. To investigate whether Fxr(-/-) mice differ in bile acid detoxification compared with wild-type mice, we performed a comprehensive analysis of bile acids extracted from liver, bile, serum, and urine of ...
Hofmann Alan F - - 2005
Experiments were performed in 2 volunteers to define the biotransformation and physiological properties of norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA), the C(23) (C(24)-nor) homolog of UDCA. To complement the in vivo studies, the biotransformation of norUDCA ex vivo using precision-cut human liver slices was also characterized. In the human studies, both a tracer ...
Pedrini Paola - - 2006
The paper reports the partial purification and characterization of the 7beta- and 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) and cholylglycine hydrolase (CGH), isolated from Xanthomonas maltophilia CBS 897.97. The activity of 7beta-HSDH and 7alpha-HSDH in the reduction of the 7-keto bile acids is determined. The affinity of 7beta-HSDH for bile acids is confirmed ...
Ridlon Jason M - - 2006
Secondary bile acids, produced solely by intestinal bacteria, can accumulate to high levels in the enterohepatic circulation of some individuals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer, gallstones, and other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Bile salt hydrolysis and hydroxy group dehydrogenation reactions are carried out by a broad spectrum ...
Dongowski Gerhard - - 2005
Microbial metabolism is essential in maintaining a healthy mucosa in the large bowel, preferentially through butyrate specific mechanisms. This system depends on starch supply. Two structurally different resistant starches type 3 (RS3) have been investigated with respect to their resistance to digestion, fermentability, and their effects on the composition and ...
Rius Maria - - 2006
The multidrug resistance protein ABCC4 (MRP4), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, mediates ATP-dependent unidirectional efflux of organic anions out of cells. Previous studies showed that human ABCC4 is localized to the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes and mediates, among other substrates, the cotransport of reduced glutathione (GSH) with bile ...
Malerød Lene - - 2005
Hepatic SR-BI mediates uptake of circulating cholesterol into liver hepatocytes where a part of the cholesterol is metabolised to bile acids. In the hepatocytes, bile acids reduce their own synthesis by a negative feedback loop to prevent toxic high levels of bile acids. Bile acid-activated FXR/RXR represses expression of CYP7A1, ...
Landrier Jean-François - - 2006
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and are excreted into bile via the hepatocyte canalicular bile salt export pump. After their passage into the intestine, bile acids are reabsorbed in the ileum by sodium-dependent uptake across the apical membrane of enterocytes. At the basolateral domain of ileal ...
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