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Johnston Robert J RJ Jr Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003, - - 2014
Sensory systems use stochastic mechanisms to diversify neuronal subtypes. In the Drosophila eye, stochastic expression of the PAS-bHLH transcription factor Spineless (Ss) determines a random binary subtype choice in R7 photoreceptors. Here, we show that a stochastic, cell-autonomous decision to express ss is made intrinsically by each ss locus. Stochastic ...
Watsuji Tomo-O TO Subsurface Geobiology Advanced Research (SUGAR) Project, Extremobiosphere Research Program (XBR), Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka, Kanagawa, - - 2014
Shinkaia crosnieri is a galatheid crab that predominantly dwells in deep-sea hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. In this study, the phylogenetic diversity of active methanotrophs in the epibiotic microbial community on the setae of S. crosnieri was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a functional gene ...
Nishida Naohiro - - 2013
Recent studies suggest that microRNA (miRNA) processing is a key regulatory step in the miRNA biogenesis as well as its transcriptional control. In a paper recently published in Nature, Shen et al. revealed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) directly interacts with argonaute 2 (AGO2), a critical component of RNA-induced ...
Bao Zhao-Shi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has divided patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) into four subtypes based on mRNA expression microarray. The mesenchymal subtype, with a larger proportion, is considered a more lethal one. Clinical outcome prediction is required to better guide more personalized treatment for these patients. AIMS: The ...
Buys Yvonne M - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As glaucoma surgeons continue to search for an improvement over trabeculectomy, the ExPRESS miniature glaucoma shunt has gained interest as a possible contender. Peer-reviewed literature on ExPRESS is beginning to accumulate allowing an evidence-based review to assess the potential benefits and limitations compared to trabeculectomy. RECENT FINDINGS: ...
Persson Jessica - - 2013
The whiH gene is required for the orderly sporulation septation that divides aerial hyphae into spores in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we use a whiHp-mCherry transcriptional reporter construct to show that whiHp is active specifically in aerial hyphae, fluorescence being dependent on sporulation sigma factor WhiG. The results show that the ...
Cao Jinyan J Department of Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, - - 2013
The rodent amygdaloid complex is composed of numerous subnuclei important for the sex-specific regulation of sociosexual behavior. Although estrogen receptors (ERs) are critical for organizing functional and cytoarchitectural sex differences in these subnuclei, a detailed developmental profile of ER expression in the amygdaloid complex is not available. Moreover, the kisspeptin ...
Chen Dong - - 2013
The original version of the paper reports that "OGX-011 is a second generation 21-mer oligonucleotide with a 20-O-(2-methoxy)-ethyl modification, generously provided by OncoGenex Technologies (OncoGenex, Vancouver, Canada)" [1] (p. 10602). OGX-011 was not provided by OncoGenex Technologies directly. Therefore, we would like to correct the wording to: "OGX-011 was obtained ...
Graveley Brenton R - - 2013
Many investigators who do high-throughput sequencing of mRNA (mRNA-Seq) use kits for library preparation purchased from Illumina. Recognizing that these kits are continually being updated and improved, we provide here some background information, tips, and troubleshooting advice for the kits available at the time of this writing.
Blower Michael D - - 2013
mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq) is a commonly used technique to survey gene expression from organisms with fully sequenced genomes. Successful mRNA-seq requires purification of mRNA away from the much more abundant ribosomal RNA, which is typically accomplished by oligo-dT selection. However, mRNAs with short poly-A tails are captured poorly by oligo-dT ...
Martin Ryan C - - 2012
Abstract Despite evidence that anger is routinely expressed over the Internet via weblogs, social networking Web sites, and other venues, no published research has explored the way in which anger is experienced and expressed online. Consequently, we know very little about how anger is experienced in such settings. Two studies ...
Yao S T ST Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2012
The magnocellular neurones (MCN) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) undergo reversible changes during dehydration. We hypothesise that alterations in steady-state transcript levels might be partially responsible for this plasticity. In turn, regulation of transcript abundance might be mediated by transcription factors. We have previously used microarrays to identify changes in ...
Martínez-Antonio Agustino - - 2012
In the present work we study the transcription-factor regulatory network that controls the synthesis of flagella in E. coli. Our objective is to address how the transcription-factor dynamics (in terms of their promoter activities and associated rates) correlate with their positions in the hierarchical organization of this regulatory network. Our ...
Sundin Tabetha - - 2012
Isoprenoids are recognized for their ability to suppress carcinogenic processes in vivo and in vitro. We previously established that the isoprenoid, perillyl alcohol, acted mechanistically on translation of specific proteins through modulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Telomerase-the enzyme responsible for immortalizing cells through the addition of telomeric repeats-is de-repressed ...
Darland Tristan T Biology Department, University of North Dakota, United States; Turtle Mountain Community College, United States. - - 2012
Finding genetic polymorphisms and mutations linked to addictive behavior can provide important targets for pharmaceutical and therapeutic interventions. Forward genetic approaches in model organisms such as zebrafish provide a potentially powerful avenue for finding new target genes. In order to validate this use of zebrafish, the molecular nature of its ...
Barrón-Vivanco B S BS Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Av, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Col San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico City, - - 2013
Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) metabolize a wide range of substrates, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generating metabolites (o-quinones) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are capable of initiating and promoting carcinogenesis. Exposure to PAHs, their metabolites, and ROS further increase AKRs isoform expression that may amplify oxidative damage. Human AKR enzymes ...
Yang Mei - - 2012
Water homeostasis of the nervous system is important during neural signal transduction. Astrocytes are crucial in water transport in the central nervous system under both physiological and pathological conditions. To date, five aquaporins (AQP) have been found in rat brain astrocytes. Most studies have focused on AQP4 and AQP9, however ...
Kurita Mitsumasa - - 2012
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) compact chromatin structure and repress gene transcription. In schizophrenia, clinical studies demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors are efficacious when given in combination with atypical antipsychotics. However, the molecular mechanism that integrates a better response to antipsychotics with changes in chromatin structure remains unknown. Here we found that chronic ...
Mecchia Martin A - - 2012
The miroRNA (miRNA) miR396 regulates Growth-Regulating Factors (GRFs), a plant specific family of transcription factors. Overexpression of miR396 causes a decrease in the GRFs that has been shown to affect cell proliferation in the meristem and developing leaves. To bring further insights into the function of the miR396 regulatory network ...
Johansson Emily M - - 2012
There are eleven families of phosphodiesterases that regulate cellular levels of cyclic nucleotides by degradation of cAMP or cGMP. Knowledge of the expression sites of different PDE genes in brain is of special importance for studies on development of specific inhibitors considering that, for example, PDE4 inhibitor treatments exhibit profound ...
Zwack Paul J - - 2012
Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are important transcription factors that form a side-branch of the cytokinin signaling pathway and have been linked to cytokinin regulated processes during development. CRF proteins are defined as belonging to a specific transcription factor family by the presence of an AP2/ERF DNA-binding domain and can be ...
Khalil Ahmad S - - 2012
Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) perform complex and combinatorial functions within transcriptional networks. Here, we present a synthetic framework for systematically constructing eukaryotic transcription functions using artificial zinc fingers, modular DNA-binding domains found within many eukaryotic TFs. Utilizing this platform, we construct a library of orthogonal synthetic transcription factors (sTFs) and ...
Chang Yung-Fu - - 2012
In the mammalian central nervous system transcripts of certain synaptic components are localized near the synapse, allowing for rapid regulation of protein levels. Here we test whether an mRNA localization mechanism also exists in the postsynaptic specialization induced by agrin in C2C12 myotubes. RT-PCR showed that Chrna1 was co-purified with ...
Stanton Robert - - 2012
A series of insertion patterns for chemically modified nucleotides [2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe), 2'-fluoro (2'-F), methoxyethyl (MOE), locked nucleic acid (LNA), and G-Clamp] within antisense gapmers is studied in vitro and in vivo in the context of the glucocorticoid receptor. Correlation between lipid transfection and unassisted (gymnotic-using no transfection agent) in vitro ...
Wang Rui - - 2012
The TLRs are important components of the respiratory epithelium host innate defense, enabling the airway surface to recognize and respond to a variety of insults in inhaled air. On the basis of the knowledge that smokers are more susceptible to pulmonary infection and that the airway epithelium of smokers with ...
Ling Zhenmin - - 2012
In the present study, the genes encoding trypsinogen and active trypsin from Streptomyces griseus were both cloned and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the α-factor secretion signal under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter. The mature trypsin was successfully accumulated extracellularly in soluble form with a ...
Balatsos Nikolaos A A - - 2012
Deadenylation is the exoribonucleolytic shortening of eukaryotic poly(A) tails. It is often the first and rate-limiting step for mRNA decay and translational silencing. The process is catalysed by a diversity of deadenylases, which provide robust and flexible means to control mRNA levels and gene expression. Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) is a ...
Freeman Kate - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use causes widespread changes in the cellular biology of the amygdala's central nucleus (CeA), a GABAergic center that integrates autonomic physiology with the emotional aspects of motivation and learning. While alcohol-induced neurochemical changes play a role in dependence and drinking behavior, little is known about the CeA's ...
Martin Diane M - - 2012
In developing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, precursor volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) are largely stored as glycosides which may be hydrolyzed to release VOCs during fruit ripening, wine making, or aging. VOCs can be further transformed by yeast metabolism. Together, these processes contribute to complexity of wine aromas. Floral and ...
Bhaskara Govinal Badiger - - 2012
Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) have established abscisic acid (ABA) signaling roles; however, phenotypic roles of the remaining three "HAI" PP2Cs, Highly ABA-Induced1 (HAI1), AKT1-Interacting PP2C1/HAI2, and HAI3, have remained unclear. HAI PP2C mutants had enhanced proline and osmoregulatory solute accumulation at low water potential, ...
Conrad Thomas - - 2012
Through hyperacetylation of histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16), the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex in Drosophila approximately doubles transcription from the single male X chromosome in order to match X-linked expression in females and expression from diploid autosomes. By obtaining accurate measurements of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancies and short ...
Cecere Germano - - 2012
C. elegans 21U-RNAs are equivalent to the piRNAs discovered in other metazoans and have important roles in gametogenesis and transposon control. The biogenesis and molecular function of 21U-RNAs and piRNAs are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that transcription of each 21U-RNA is regulated separately through a conserved upstream DNA motif. ...
Lee Aven - - 2012
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 5 (EAAT5) is an unusual glutamate transporter that is expressed in the retina, where it is localised to two populations of glutamatergic neurons, namely the bipolar neurons and photoreceptors. EAAT5 exhibits two distinct properties, acting both as a slow glutamate transporter and as a glutamate-gated inhibitory ...
Johnson Magen M - - 2012
  Cocaine-related fatalities can pose forensic challenges, particularly when accompanied by excited delirium (ED) syndrome and interventions by law enforcement and medical personnel. A recent report concluded that elevated heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in autopsy brain samples constitutes a reliable forensic biomarker for the identification of ED as ...
Oyallon Justine J Division of Molecular Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, - - 2012
During the development of locomotion circuits it is essential that motoneurons with distinct subtype identities select the correct trajectories and target muscles. In vertebrates, the generation of motoneurons and myelinating glia depends on Olig2, one of the five Olig family bHLH transcription factors. We investigated the so far unknown function ...
Tanimura Asami - - 2012
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mediates retrograde synaptic suppression. Although the mechanisms of 2-AG production are well characterized, how 2-AG is degraded is less clearly understood. Here we found that expression of the 2-AG hydrolyzing enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) was highly heterogeneous in the cerebellum, being rich within parallel fiber (PF) ...
Najdi Rani - - 2012
Wnt ligands are secreted morphogens that control multiple developmental processes during embryogenesis and adult homeostasis. A diverse set of receptors and signals have been linked to individual Wnts, but the lack of tools for comparative analysis has limited the ability to determine which of these signals are general for the ...
Costa Joana - - 2012
In fish, some ABC transporters are implicated in a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism to deal with the presence of xenobiotics, by effluxing them, or their metabolites, from inside the cells. These efflux transporters have been considered an integral part of the cellular detoxification pathways, acting in coordination with phase I ...
Wang Linyi - - 2012
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy may cause congenital heart disease (CHD). In our previous studies, we found that alcohol selectively increased acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) and enhanced the expression of heart development-related genes in cardiac progenitor cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective ...
Meric Aysenur - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Smoking plays an important role in oral cancer development; however, the molecular carcinogenesis mechanism in oral mucosa is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the levels of p65 nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and inducible nitric oxide synthase ...
Solas Maite - - 2012
The cannabinoid system seems to play an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The relationship of cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R and CB(2)R) to cognitive function and neuropathological markers in AD remains unclear. In the present study, postmortem cortical brain tissues (Brodmann area 10) from a cohort of ...
Bippus Amy M - - 2012
Based on disposition theory (Zillmann & Cantor, 1996), this study assessed reactions to vignettes in which individuals humorously respond to complaints from their partners. Vignettes varied based upon the sex and affective expression (positive/negative) of the speaker, and style of humor used (affiliative, aggressive, self-enhancing, self-defeating). Although males were rated ...
Busanello Anna - - 2012
The bHLH transcription factor MyoD, the prototypical master regulator of differentiation, directs a complex program of gene expression during skeletal myogenesis. The up-regulation of the cdk inhibitor p57kip2 plays a critical role in coordinating differentiation and growth arrest during muscle development, as well as in other tissues. p57kip2 displays a ...
Meyer Thomas - - 2012
A widespread assumption in research and clinical practice is that cognitive reappraisal is a healthy and successful emotion regulation strategy, while expressive suppression is ineffective and has non-favourable consequences (e.g., decreased positive affect, higher physiological arousal). However, little is known about the consequences of reappraisal and expressive suppression for everyday ...
Cawley Andrew - - 2012
Control of translation in eukaryotes is complex, depending on the binding of various factors to mRNAs. Available data for subsets of mRNAs that are translationally up- and down-regulated in yeast eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) deletion mutants are coupled with reported mRNA secondary structure measurements to investigate whether 5'-UTR secondary structure varies ...
Polk William W - - 2012
Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has been reported to elicit morphological and transcriptional changes that suggest epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cultured bronchial epithelial cells. The transdifferentiation potential of acute and prolonged CSC exposure alone or in combination with the β-catenin inhibitor, FH535, was investigated in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, ...
Smeekes Anouk - - 2012
Three studies, conducted in the Netherlands, examined the relationship between a tolerant representation of national history and the acceptance of Muslim expressive rights. Following self-categorization theory, it was hypothesized that historical tolerance would be associated with greater acceptance of Muslim expressive rights, especially for natives who strongly identify with their ...
Kannan Meenakshi B - - 2012
The small MAFs, MAFF, MAFG and MAFK have emerged as crucial regulators of mammalian gene expression. Previous studies have linked small MAF function, by virtue of their heterodimerization with the Cap 'n' Collar (CNC) family of transcription factors, to the stress response and detoxification pathways. Recent analyses have revealed a ...
Gaucher Danielle - - 2012
Baumeister, Tice, and Hutton proposed that individuals with low self-esteem (LSEs) adopt a more cautious, self-protective self-presentational style than individuals with high self-esteem (HSEs). The authors predicted that LSEs' self-protectiveness leads them to be less expressive-less revealing of their thoughts and feelings-with others than HSEs, and that this self-esteem difference ...
Kittl Roman - - 2012
The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering--a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the ...
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