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Dixon Dan A - - 2013
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin formation in pathogenic states and a large amount of evidence has demonstrated constitutive COX-2 expression to be a contributing factor promoting colorectal cancer (CRC). Various genetic, epigenetic, and inflammatory pathways have been identified to be involved in the etiology and ...
Pezeshki A - - 2012
The role of distal gut signals in control of feed intake and metabolism in cattle has received scant attention. Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1, which are secreted from enteroendocrine cells of the distal gut in monogastrics have several functions, including regulation of energy balance. However, little is known of ...
Fukui Akifumi - - 2012
Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most frequently prescribed medications for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. It has recently been reported to cause small intestinal mucosal injury at a considerably higher rate than previously believed. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism ...
Walsh Mary F - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Understanding gut development may illuminate the adaptive response to massive small-bowel resection and facilitate enteral nutrition. We reported that Schlafen-3 (Slfn3) mediates differentiation in vitro in rat intestinal epithelial. We hypothesized that Slfn3 is involved in intestinal development in vivo. METHODS: We removed fetal intestines, liver, and lungs on ...
Giral Hector - - 2012
P(i) uptake in the small intestine occurs predominantly through the NaPi-2b (SLC34a2) co-transporter. NaPi-2b is regulated by changes in dietary P(i) but the mechanisms underlying this regulation are largely undetermined. Sequence analyses show NaPi-2b has a PDZ binding motif at its C terminus. Immunofluorescence imaging shows NaPi-2b and two PDZ ...
Aomatsu Tomoki - - 2012
In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus (FK506) on intestinal inflammation, we examined whether FK506 effects cytokine/chemokine secretion in human colonic myofibroblasts. Human colonic myofibroblasts were isolated from normal human colonic tissue. The mRNA and protein expression for human CCL2 and CXCL10 were analyzed ...
Ciccia Francesco - - 2012
Objective. To study the mRNA expression and protein tissue distribution of IL-32 in ileal biopsy specimens from patients with AS.Methods. Quantitative gene expression analysis, by real-time PCR, of IL-32, IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ was performed on ileal biopsies of 15 AS and 15 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 10 ...
Hayashi Ryohei - - 2012
The present study investigates whether the expression levels of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in colon cancer cells are associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity in a xenograft model, as well as the mechanism responsible for regulating 5-FU sensitivity. HCT116 cells which have a high expression of HSP27 were stably transfected with ...
Konsavage Wesley M WM Jr Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, - - 2012
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway controls cellular proliferation in the intestines. In response to Wnt, β-catenin transits into the nucleus and associates with members of the T-cell factor (TCF) family of transcription factors. β-Catenin/TCF complexes bind Wnt responsive DNA elements (WREs) to activate target gene expression. The c-MYC proto-oncogene (MYC) is ...
Shubair M - - 2012
Inflammation-induced colonic motility dysfunction is associated with a disturbance in Ca(2+) ion transporting mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to identify the types of Na-Ca-exchanger-1 (NCX-1) variants expressed in the rat colon, and how this was affected by colitis. In addition, the effect of colitis on the possible ...
Al-Sadi Rana R Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, - - 2012
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been shown to play an essential role in mediating intestinal inflammation of Crohn's disease and other inflammatory conditions of the gut. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that IL-1β causes an increase in intestinal tight-junction permeability in Caco-2 monolayers in vitro. However, the IL-1β effect on ...
Zhang Y-Q - - 2012
Colon cancer predisposition is associated with mutations in BRCA1. BRCA1 protein stability depends on binding to BARD1. In different cancers, expression of differentially spliced BARD1 isoforms is correlated with poor prognosis and decreased patient survival. We therefore suspected a role of BARD1 isoforms in colon cancer. We performed immunohistochemistry in ...
Kitazawa Takio - - 2012
Ghrelin has been identified in rainbow trout and goldfish, and it has been shown to regulate growth hormone release and food intake in these species as seen in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of ghrelin in regulation of gastrointestinal contractility in both fishes. ...
Mangia Anita - - 2012
NHERF1 (Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1) is expressed in the luminal membrane of many epithelia, and associated with proteins involved in tumor progression. Alterations of NHERF1 expression in different sites of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) suggest a dynamic role of this protein in colon carcinogenesis. We focused on the observation of ...
Sena Paola - - 2012
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been well characterized for their ability to degrade extracellular matrix proteins and, thus, they have been studied to elucidate their involvement in both tumor development and progression. In the present study, attention was focused on MMP-15 and MMP-19, two less known members of the MMP family. ...
Liu Duan-Yong - - 2012
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Si Shen Wan is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula for the treatment of diseases with diarrhea, such as ulcerative colitis, allergic colitis and chronic colitis. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective and healing effects of Si Shen Wan in the experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene ...
Degagné Emilie - - 2012
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by relapses and remission periods during which numerous factors, including stress factors such as nucleotides, are mobilized to reestablish intestinal mucosal homeostasis. We have previously found that P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor (P2Y(2) ) expression is increased in colonic tissue isolated from IBD patients as well ...
Précourt Louis-Philippe - - 2012
Paraoxonase (PON) family members seem central to a wide variety of human illnesses, but appreciation of their antioxidative function in the gastrointestinal tract is in its infancy. The major objective of the present work is to highlight the role of the ubiquitously expressed PON2 in the small intestine. With use ...
Zhi Yang - - 2012
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced STAT3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis, including colon cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that expression of ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7), a deubiquitylating enzyme, is decreased in STAT3-positive tumors. IL-6 administration or transfection of a consititutively ...
Li Yi - - 2012
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The mechanisms by which chronic inflammatory responses in the colon may promote CRC remain only partially understood, but may involve reduced negative regulation of IL-6 signaling towards STAT3 activation through the loss of SOCS3 expression, unleashing ...
Rau Tilman T - - 2012
The caudal homeobox factor 1 (CDX1) is an essential transcription factor for intestinal differentiation. Its aberrant expression in intestinal metaplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a hallmark within the gastritis-metaplasia-carcinoma sequence. CDX1 expression is influenced by certain pathways, such as Wnt, Ras, or NF-κB signaling; however, these pathways alone ...
Hetzenecker A M - - 2012
Background: In normal mucosa, intestinal lamina propria macrophages (IMACs) maintain tolerance against food antigens and the commensal bacterial flora. Several mechanisms have been identified that mediate tolerance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a large multiprotein complex that degrades cellular proteins. As the UPS may modulate immune functions of IMACs, we ...
Scarpa Marco - - 2012
BACKGROUND: CD80 has been thought to play an active role in immunosurveillance as it has been found to be up-regulated in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with dysplasia. The aim of the present study was to analyse early events in UC-related and non-inflammatory carcinogenesis with reference to CD80 expression to clarify ...
Shikuma Nicholas J NJ Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, - - 2013
Vibrio cholerae inhabits aquatic environments and colonizes the human digestive tract to cause the disease cholera. In these environments, V. cholerae copes with fluctuations in salinity and osmolarity by producing and transporting small, organic, highly soluble molecules called compatible solutes, which counteract extracellular osmotic pressure. Currently, it is unclear how ...
Sharma A A Lymphocyte Development Unit, Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, - - 2013
Wnt-β-catenin-T-cell factor signaling is causally linked to c-myc-dependent tumorigenesis in mouse and human colon epithelial cells. By contrast, β-catenin is not similarly associated with oncogenic transformation of other tissues, including T cells. The molecular basis for tissue specificity of β-catenin-dependent oncogenesis is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that adenomatous polyposis coli ...
Wang Hong-Bo - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Barrier function is essential for the maintenance of normal intestinal function. Dysregulation of the intestinal barrier underlies a wide range of disorders. AIM: Previously, we found that sodium butyrate (NaB) decreased the molecular permeability of intestinal barrier in vivo model, but the mechanism by which NaB facilitated the tightness ...
Ostvik Ann E - - 2012
BACKGROUND: We explored the gene expression in colonic biopsies of active and inactive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in an extensive material of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 were among the upregulated genes. This study examined the expression of CXCL10 and the ...
Pourvali Katayoun - - 2012
Hypoxia, via stabilization of HIF2α, regulates the expression of the intestinal iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin. Here we investigated whether the intestinal copper importer Ctr1 was also regulated by hypoxia. Copper uptake and Ctr1 mRNA expression were significantly increased in Caco-2 cells exposed to hypoxia. To determine whether HIF2α was ...
Tomita Mikio - - 2012
We examined the effect of acylcarnitines on the in situ bioavailability of lucifer yellow (LY) from the loops of small and large intestines of rats. The area under the blood concentration of LY versus time curve (AUC) from the jejunum was significantly increased by the treatments of the loop with ...
Sakamoto Naoya - - 2012
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) molecule is very important in GC progression. To examine the correlation between EGFR and GC-related genes, we analyzed gene expression profiles of HT-29 cells treated with EGFR ligands and identified 6 genes up-regulated ...
Raghoebir Lalini - - 2012
Various factors play an essential role in patterning the digestive tract. During development, Sox2 and Cdx2 are exclusively expressed in the anterior and posterior part of the primitive gut, respectively. However, it is unclear if these transcription factors influence each other in determining specification of the naïve gut endoderm. We ...
Kipp Anna P - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) is expressed at crypt bases of the intestinal epithelium and in tumor tissue. The GPx2 promoter is activated by the Wnt pathway, which might be the reason for the specific expression pattern of GPx2. Together with additional selenoproteins, thioredoxin reductases TrxR2 and TrxR3, which ...
Notarnicola Cécile - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal development requires regulated differentiation of visceral smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and their contractile activities; alterations in these processes might lead to gastrointestinal neuromuscular disorders. Gastrointestinal SMC development and remodeling involves post-transcriptional modification of mRNA. We investigated the function of the RNA-binding protein for multiple splicing 2 ...
Zhu Yingting - - 2012
COX-2 and iNOS are two major inflammatory mediators implicated in colorectal inflammation and cancer. Previously, the role of colorectal fibroblasts involved in regulation of COX-2 and iNOS expression was largely ignored. In addition, the combined interaction of COX-2 and iNOS signalings and their significance in the progression of colorectal inflammation ...
Srimuangwong Khanitta K Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, - - 2012
To investigate the ability of hexahydrocurcumin (HHC) to enhance 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in inhibiting the growth of HT-29 cells by focusing on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. Antiproliferative effects of HHC and 5-FU, alone and in combination, on growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells were assessed using 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. ...
Vedin Lise-Lotte - - 2012
The oxysterol receptors LXRα and LXRβ are members of the nuclear receptor family and established transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism with additional anti-inflammatory functions. Recent investigations have indicated an important role of LXRs in the control of proliferation. Here we further extend this knowledge to human colon cancer cells and ...
Haller Stephanie - - 2012
Beagle dogs are widely used in preclinical pharmacokinetic, safety, and formulation studies. However, little is known about intestinal and hepatic distribution of major enzymes and transporters involved in oral absorption and presystemic drug metabolism. We characterized mRNA levels of CYP3A12, CYP3A26, CYP2D15, UGT1A6, ABCB1 (MDR1), ABCC1 (MRP1), ABCG2 (BCRP), SLC15A1 ...
Angel-Morales Gabriela - - 2012
Chronic intestinal inflammation is an established risk factor for colon cancer. Polyphenolic compounds from fruit and vegetables have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in several cell lines and tissues. However, their anti-inflammatory mechanisms, involving microRNAs in the regulation of inflammation, have not been extensively investigated. The goal of this ...
Maeda Shingo - - 2012
The interaction between fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 and its receptor CX(3)CR1 has been reported to play an important role in various human inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mediated by lymphocyte chemoattraction. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of fractalkine and CX(3)CR1 in lymphocyte migration in canine IBD. ...
Zheng Xi Emily - - 2012
Oxidative catabolism of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)] is mediated by either CYP24A1 or CYP3A4. In this paper, we tested whether induction of CYP3A4 in the LS180 intestinal cell model enhances clearance of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) and blunts its hormonal effect on expression of the apical membrane calcium transport protein, TRPV6. Treatment with the ...
Daly Kristian - - 2012
The heteromeric sweet taste receptor T1R2-T1R3 is expressed on the luminal membrane of certain populations of enteroendocrine cells. Sensing of sugars and other sweet compounds by this receptor activates a pathway in enteroendocrine cells resulting in secretion of a number of gut hormones including glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). This subsequently ...
Ariyadi B - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the mucin expression that forms a mucosal surface barrier in the oviduct between laying and molting hens. The lower segments of oviducts (isthmus, uterus, and vagina) of White Leghorn laying and molting hens were collected. Localization and gene expression ...
Hong Y H - - 2012
Changes in the expression levels of avian β-defensin (AvBD) mRNA were evaluated in necrotic enteritis (NE) disease model in 2 genetically disparate commercial broiler chicken lines: Ross and Cobb. The NE was initiated in the gut by a previously established co-infection model using oral Eimeria maxima infection followed by a ...
Kang You-Jin - - 2012
Abnormal activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and up-regulation of the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) response to transcriptional signaling play a critical role early in colorectal carcinogenesis. Therefore, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is considered an attractive target for cancer chemotherapeutics or chemopreventive agents. Small molecules derived from the natural products were used in ...
Sakuma Keiichiro - - 2012
Sialyl Lewis x (sLe(x)) and sialyl Lewis a (sLe(a)) glycans are expressed on highly metastatic colon cancer cells. They promote extravasation of cancer cells and tumor angiogenesis via interacting with E-selectin on endothelial cells. Recently, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been noted as a critical phenotypic alteration in metastatic cancer cells. ...
Rothenbacher Francesca P - - 2012
Clostridium difficile is an important, emerging nosocomial pathogen. The transition from harmless colonization to disease is typically preceded by antimicrobial therapy, which alters the balance of the intestinal flora, enabling C. difficile to proliferate in the colon. One of the most perplexing aspects of the C. difficile infectious cycle is ...
Choi Hye Jin - - 2012
The widely used food additive carrageenan (CGN) has been shown to induce intestinal inflammation, ulcerative colitis-like symptoms, or neoplasm in the gut epithelia in animal models, which are also clinical features of human inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, the effects of CGN on pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and early ...
Saini Manpreet Kaur - - 2012
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and Akt (protein kinase B), are both essential signaling molecules that are up-regulated in various cancers. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which PI3-K and Akt expression are regulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in ...
Bashi Zafer Dallal - - 2012
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum releases hydrolytic enzymes that sequentially degrade the plant cuticle, middle lamellae, and primary and secondary cell walls. The cuticle was found to be a barrier to S. sclerotiorum infection, as leaves stripped of epicuticular wax were more rapidly colonized. Consequently, the factors affecting the regulation of genes encoding ...
Li Qingjie - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) is an established inflammatory mediator. However, it remains controversial whether NO enhances the inflammatory response in the colon or suppresses it. We investigated the epigenetic regulation of Icam-1 expression by NO following induction of colonic inflammation in rats by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid and obtaining colonic muscularis ...
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