Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1389
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Lavado Alfonso A Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, - - 2014
The corpus callosum connects cerebral hemispheres and is the largest axon tract in the mammalian brain. Callosal malformations are among the most common congenital brain anomalies and are associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. Crossing of the midline by callosal axons relies on a proper midline environment that ...
Chai Qingqing Q State-Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, 430070 Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA - - 2014
It has been shown that enhancement of Blood-brain Barrier (BBB) permeability is modulated by expression of chemokines/cytokines and reduction of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the brains of mice infected with rabies virus (RABV). Since CXCL10 was found to be the most highly expressed chemokine, its temporal and spatial expression ...
Terada Tadashi T Department of Pathology, Shizuoka City Shimizu Hospital, Miyakami 1231, Shimizu-Ku, Shizuoka, 424-8636, Japan, - - 2014
The aim of the study was to investigate nerve fibers (NF) in human fetal livers. An immunohistochemical study was performed. NF were classified into portal tract innervation (PoI) and parenchymal innervation (PaI). The hilum area showed many Pol NF at 7 GW, and NF increased with gestational week (GW). Direct innervations ...
Wang Xiaolan X Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, - - 2014
Prenatal ethanol exposure can cause extensive apoptotic neurodegeneration throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS), which results in cognitive deficits and memory decline. However, the underlying mechanisms need further study. Single-minded 2 (Sim2), a transcriptional repressor, is reportedly involved in diseases that impair learning and memory, such as Down syndrome ...
Huang Weidong W Neurosurgery, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, No. 256 Youyi Western Road, Xi'an, 710068, China, - - 2014
microRNA-134 (miR-134) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and is differently expressed in brain tissues subjected to ischemic injury. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury remains poorly understood. The current study was designed to delineate the molecular basis of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ...
Török Rita R Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Semmelweis u. 6, Szeged, 6725, - - 2014
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, respiration, and adaptive thermogenesis. The full-length PGC-1α (FL-PGC-1α) comprises multiple functional domains interacting with several transcriptional regulatory factors such as nuclear respiratory factors, estrogen-related receptors, and PPARs; however, a number of PGC-1α splice variants have ...
Xu Shijie S aClinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital bInstitute of Human Behavioral Medicine cDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of - - 2014
Early growth response (Egr) is a member of the zinc finger family of transcription factors that reflects neuronal activity induced by various stimuli. Acute cocaine administration elicits rapid and transient induction of several immediate early genes in brain neurons. However, the mechanism regulating the degradation of the Egr-1 protein is ...
Trifonov Stefan - - 2014
GABA has important functions in brain plasticity related processes like memory, learning, locomotion and during the development of the nervous system. It is synthesized by the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). There are two isoforms of GAD, GAD1 and GAD2, which are encoded by different genes. During embryonic development the transcription ...
Barucker Christian C Institut fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, - - 2014
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides leading to deposition of senile plaques and a progressive decline of cognitive functions, which currently remains the main criterion for its diagnosis. Robust biomarkers for AD do not yet exist, although changes in the cerebrospinal ...
Liang Yan-Qiu YQ State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, People's Republic of - - 2014
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of norgestrel (NGT) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of NGT (0, 5, 50 and 100 ng L(-1) ) for 144 h post fertilization (hpf), and the transcriptional ...
Tian R - - 2014
Claudin-5, one of the dominant tight junctions (TJs) proteins, plays an important role in maintaining the barrier function in the blood brain and retinal barrier. This study aimed to investigate the effect of claudin-5 overexpression on the interactions of claudin-1 and -2 and barrier functions in primary cultured human retinal ...
Xie Juhua J Laboratory of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Department of Histology and Embryology, Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Basic Medical Sciences College, China Medical University, 92 North 2nd Road, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of - - 2014
In our previous studies, we have found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, the activation of ER stress sensors in PTSD remains unclear. ATF6 alpha (ATF6α) is an ER-membrane-bound transcription factor and functions as a critical sensor and regulator of ER stress in ...
Joy Tasha T Institute of Molecular Biology, Institute of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, - - 2014
Drosophila larval neuroblasts are a model system for studying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here we report a novel role for the Drosophila gene Bj1 in promoting larval neuroblast self-renewal. Bj1 is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Ran GTPase, which regulates nuclear import/export. Bj1 transcripts are highly enriched in larval ...
Jilaveanu Lucia B LB Yale Cancer Center, Yale - - 2014
Purpose: Approximately 40% of metastatic melanoma patients develop brain metastases. Our purpose was to identify genes aberrantly expressed in melanoma that might be associated with propensity for brain homing. Experimental Design: We studied gene expression profiles in a cell line model of brain metastasis (cerebrotropic A375Br cells versus parental A375P ...
Rothaug Michelle M Institute of Biochemistry - - 2014
Mutations within the lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GC) result in Gaucher disease and represent a major risk factor for developing Parkinson disease (PD). Loss of GC activity leads to accumulation of its substrate glucosylceramide and α-synuclein. Since lysosomal activity of GC is tightly linked to expression of its trafficking receptor, the ...
Mortensen Amanda H AH Dept. Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5618, - - 2014
OTX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is necessary for normal head development in mouse and man. Heterozygosity for loss of function alleles causes an incompletely penetrant, haploinsufficiency disorder. Affected individuals exhibit a spectrum of features that range from developmental defects in eye and/or pituitary development to acephaly. To investigate ...
Tan Jennifer Y JY 1] Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. [2] Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
What causes the tissue-specific pathology of diseases resulting from mutations in housekeeping genes? Specifically, in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in ATXN7 (which encodes an essential component of the mammalian transcription coactivation complex, STAGA), the factors underlying the characteristic progressive cerebellar and ...
Papadopoulou Aikaterini S AS VIB Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium; Center for Human Genetics and Leuven institute for neurodegenerative disorders (LIND), KU Leuven and Universitaire Ziekenhuizen, 3000, Leuven, - - 2014
miR-29 is expressed strongly in the brain and alterations in expression have been linked to several neurological disorders. To further explore the function of this miRNA in the brain, we generated miR-29a/b-1 knockout animals. Knockout mice develop a progressive disorder characterized by locomotor impairment and ataxia. The different members of ...
García-González Diego D Grupo de Neurobiología del Desarrollo-GNDe, Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos, Toledo, Spain, - - 2014
New subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate via the rostral migratory stream are continuously added to the olfactory bulb (OB) of the adult rodent brain. Anosmin-1 (A1) is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) to exert its biological effects. When mutated as in Kallmann syndrome ...
Li Jian-Mei JM State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, P. R. - - 2014
Hypothalamic astrogliosis and inflammation cause neural injury, playing a critical role in metabolic syndrome development. This study investigated whether and how fructose caused hypothalamic astrogliosis and inflammation in vivo and in vitro. The inhibitory effects of betaine on hypothalamic neural injury, astrogliosis and inflammation were explored to address its improvement ...
Hess-Homeier David L DL Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, - - 2014
Alterations in the expression of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) either by mutations or gene duplication leads to a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett Syndrome and MeCP2 duplication disorder. Common features of Rett Syndrome (RTT), MeCP2 duplication disorder, and neuropsychiatric disorders indicate that even moderate changes in MeCP2 protein ...
Cardona Carolina C Canceromics Lab. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Universidad de Málaga, 29071, Málaga, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Málaga, - - 2014
The expression of glutaminase in glial cells has been a controversial issue and matter of debate for many years. Actually, glutaminase is essentially considered as a neuronal marker in brain. Astrocytes are endowed with efficient and high capacity transport systems to recapture synaptic glutamate which seems to be consistent with ...
Ma Thong C TC Burke-Cornell Medical Research Institute, United - - 2014
To regenerate damaged axons, neurons must express a cassette of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) that increases intrinsic growth capacity and confers resistance to extrinsic inhibitory cues. Here we show that dibutyrl-cAMP or forskolin combined with constitutive-active CREB are superior to either agent alone in driving neurite growth on permissive and inhibitory ...
Burgos Paulina P Centro de Investigaciones Médicas CIM, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Talca, Talca, - - 2014
Two pore domain potassium (K2P) channels are mostly present in the central nervous system (CNS) where they play important roles in modulating neuronal excitability. K2P channels give rise to background K(+) currents (IKSO) a key component in setting and maintaining the resting membrane potential in excitable cells. Here, we studied ...
Shcherbatyy Volodymyr V Department of Genes and Behavior, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077, Göttingen, - - 2014
The approximately 350 ion channels encoded by the mammalian genome are a main pillar of the nervous system. We have determined the expression pattern of 320 channels in the two-week-old (P14) rat brain by means of non-radioactive robotic in situ hybridization. Optimized methods were developed and implemented to generate stringently ...
El Hajj Chehadeh Sarah S Faculté de Médecine, Université de - - 2014
Early deficiency of the methyl donors folate and vitamin B12 produces hyperhomocysteinemia and cognitive and motor disorders in 21 day-old rat pups from dams fed a diet deficient in methyl donors during gestation and lactation. These disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and altered synaptic plasticity in cerebellum. We aimed ...
Selvaraj Sethu S Laboratory of Marine Biology, Department of Bioresource Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, - - 2014
In recent years, brain kisspeptin system has been shown to be involved in diverse reproductive function, including sexual differentiation in vertebrates. Our previous reports demonstrated that the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses two kisspeptin (kiss1, kiss2), two kisspeptin receptor (kissr1, kissr2) and three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) genes. ...
Gojska Nicole M NM Departments of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A8, ON, - - 2014
RF-amide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3; also often referred to as the mammalian orthologue of the avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone or GnIH) and kisspeptin have emerged as potent modulators of neuroendocrine function via direct regulation of the reproductive axis in the hypothalamus and pituitary. There are few studies focusing on the direct regulatory effects ...
Harter Patrick N PN Institute of Neurology (Edinger Institute), Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, - - 2014
The paired box gene 8 (PAX8) plays crucial roles in organ patterning and cellular differentiation during development and tumorigenesis. While its function is partly understood in vertebrate development, there is poor data concerning human CNS development and brain tumors. We investigated developing human (n=19) and mouse (n=3) brains as well ...
Bock Hugo H Laboratório de Identificação Genética-Centro de Pesquisa Experimental e Serviço de Genética Médica-Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, - - 2014
The 14-3-3 protein family takes part in a wide range of cellular processes and is expressed in all eukaryotic organisms. In mammals, seven isoforms (β, ε, η, γ, τ, ζ, and σ) have been identified. 14-3-3 proteins are suggested to modulate the insulin-signaling cascade in the brain. The aim of ...
Lepp A C AC Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. , Catharines, Ontario, - - 2014
Background: Adult urodele amphibians represent unique model organisms to study spinal cord regeneration. Trauma to the spinal cord induces an ependymal response, activating multipotent neural stem cells which contribute to the redifferentiation of both glia and neurons in the regenerate. The molecular events underlying this ependymal response are not completely ...
Nagaya Yoshiaki Y Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601, Japan; Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, - - 2014
Interest in erythropoietin (EPO) as a neuroprotective mediator has grown since it was found that systemically administered EPO is protective in several animal models of disease. However, given that the blood-brain barrier limits EPO entry into the brain, alternative approaches that induce endogenous EPO production in the brain may be ...
Camire Ryan B RB University of New - - 2014
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is compromised in many CNS disorders. Complex astrocyte and vascular endothelial cell interactions that regulate BBB integrity may be disturbed in these disorders. We have previously shown that systemic administration of 3-chloropropanediol induces a transitory glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-astrocyte loss, reversible loss of tight junction ...
Orlovsky Ma M State Key Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine. Electronic address: - - 2014
Chronic stress is a threat to homeostasis for many brain regions. While hippocampal formation is one of the most stress-sensitive areas of the cortex, molecular changes occurring as a result of increased glucocorticoid neurotoxicity in hippocampus are largely unknown. The aim of these studies was to investigate mRNA expression of ...
Walker D G DG Laboratory of Neuroinflammation, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, Arizona, 85351, U.S.A. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multiple cellular systems exist to prevent uncontrolled inflammation in brain tissues; the Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins have key roles in these processes. SOCS proteins are involved in restricting cellular signaling pathways by enhancing the degradation of activated receptors and removing the stimuli for continued activation. There are eight ...
Motoyoshi-Yamashiro Akiko A Laboratory of Integrative Physiology in Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka 598-8531, - - 2014
Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene antifungal drug and is reported to be one of a few reagents having therapeutic effects on prion diseases, that is, a delay in the appearance of clinical signs and prolongation of the survival time in an animal model. In prion diseases, glial cells have ...
Huang Yin-Cheng YC Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou Medical Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, - - 2014
Multiple epigenetic factors play a critical role in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, their function in embryogenesis, especially in neural development, is currently unclear. The Trithorax group (TrxG) homolog KMT2A (MLL1) is an important epigenetic regulator during development and has an especially well-defined role in hematopoiesis. Translocation and aberrant expression ...
Li Yingzhi Y Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, P.R. - - 2014
FRMD7 mutations are associated with X-linked idiopathic congenital nystagmus (ICN); however, the underlying mechanisms whereby mutations of FRMD7 lead to ICN remain unclear. In a previous study, the first FRMD7 splice variant (FRMD7-S) was cloned and identified, and FRMD7-S was hypothesized to play a significant role in neuronal differentiation and ...
Yada T T Freshwater Fisheries Research Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Nikko, Tochigi 321-1661, Japan; School of Marine Biosciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, - - 2014
To clarify the regulation of expression of corticoid receptor (CR) genes during period of parr-smolt transformation of salmonids, seasonal changes in mRNA levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-1, GR-2 and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) were examined in gill, leucocytes, spleen and brain of anadromous and non-anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus mykiss. Increases in ...
Fábián Katalin K Department of Pulmonology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, - - 2014
We investigated tissue biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to find indicators of brain metastasis and peritumoral brain edema. Fifty-two cases were studied out of which 26 had corresponding brain metastatic tissue. Clinicopathological characteristics of tumors were correlated with biomarkers of cell adhesion, cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis ...
Kong Y - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common reason for dementia in elderly population. Its neuropathological features include senile plaques, neurofibril tangles and neuronal death. Scientists have established many AD animal models, including yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, mice, rats and non-human primates. Drosophila AD models are much more efficient for ...
Zíková Martina M Institute of Molecular Genetics AS CR v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech - - 2014
DISP3 (PTCHD2), a sterol-sensing domain-containing protein, is highly expressed in neural tissue but its role in neural differentiation is unknown. In the present study we used a multipotent cerebellar progenitor cell line, C17.2, to investigate the impact of DISP3 on the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursors. We found that ...
Silverman Harold A HA Laboratory of Biomedical Science, Center for Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, USA Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine at Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, - - 2014
Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive peripheral immune responses are associated with diverse alterations in brain function, and brain-derived neural pathways regulate peripheral inflammation. Important aspects of this bidirectional peripheral immune - brain communication, including the impact of peripheral inflammation on brain region-specific cytokine responses, and brain cholinergic signaling (which plays ...
Wei Wen-Jie WJ Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China, - - 2014
RhoA, a small GTPase, is involved in a wide array of cellular functions in the central nervous system, such as cell motility, cytoskeleton rearrangement, transcriptional regulation, phagocytosis and cell growth. It is not known how spinal cord injury (SCI) affects the expression of RhoA in different nerve cells. In the ...
Yang Chunyu C Department of Neurosurgery, Liaoning Medical University, Linghe, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121001, P.R. - - 2014
Hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) plays stimulatory roles in revascularization in the ischemic area of cerebral ischemia. However, the hydroxylation of proline at 564 and asparagine at 803 in the HIF1α coding sequence facilitated the degradation of HIF1α and inhibited the transcription activity of the HIF1α promoter under normoxic conditions and confined ...
Kannike Kaja K Tallinn University of Technology, - - 2014
Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription ...
Gu Naibing N Department of Neurology, The Central Hospital of Xi'an, Xi'an, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Excessive inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is considered to be a key protein complex involved in this cascade of events. The aim of the present study was to clarify the protection mechanism of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Lewis rats ...
Boussadia Badreddine B Laboratory of Cerebrovascular Mechanisms of Brain Disorders, Department of - - 2014
P450 metabolic enzymes are expressed in the human and rodent brain. Recent data support their involvement in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. However, the determinants of metabolic enzyme expression in the epileptic brain are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that status epilepticus or exposure to phenytoin or phenobarbital affects brain expression ...
Liu Yakun Y Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, People's Republic of China - - 2014
The C-terminal fragments-25(CTF25) of TDP-43 is a fragment of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), which is involved in RNA metabolism, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal development and stress granules. Not until recently did evidence suggested that CTF25 might play an important role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. However, mechanical ...
Sosanya Natasha M NM Center for Learning and Memory, Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin; Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at - - 2014
Changes in ion channel expression are implicated in the etiology of epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to long-term aberrant expression of ion channels are not well understood. The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates activity-dependent protein synthesis in neurons. mTOR is overactive in ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >