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Wang Lijuan L Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, PR China. Electronic address: - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dioscin on the absorption of methotrexate (MTX) and clarify the molecular mechanism involved in vivo and in vitro. Dioscin increased MTX chemosensitivity and transepithelial flux in the absorptive direction, significantly inhibiting multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein ...
Gao Xiaoling X Department of Pharmaceutics and Medicinal Chemistry, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific , Stockton, CA , USA - - 2014
Abstract Objectives: To characterize the expression of Pgp and CYP3A4 along the oral-gastrointestinal (GI) tract for understanding the potential roles of CY3A4 and Pgp in oral mucosal drug delivery. Design: Porcine buccal mucosa, sublingual mucosa, esophagus and jejunum, ileum and colon tissues were used for studying the mRNA and protein ...
Pan Xiaoyue - - 2013
We have previously shown that Clock, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and nocturnin are involved in the circadian regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. Here, we clarified the role of apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV) in the diurnal regulation of plasma lipids and intestinal lipid absorption in mice. Plasma triglyceride in ApoAIV-/- mice ...
Marbaniang Carmelita N - - 2012
The protein-gene pairs ArgP-argO of Escherichia coli and LysG-lysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum are orthologous, with the first member of each pair being a LysR-type transcriptional regulator and the second its target gene encoding a basic amino acid exporter. Whereas LysE is an exporter of arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) whose ...
Kanakkanthara Arun - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that act as expression regulators of genes involved in diverse cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Abnormal expression of miRNAs can have profound effects on cellular function, and miRNAs are implicated in tumourigenesis either as oncogenes or tumour suppressors. Deregulated miRNAs have ...
Kulkarni Ritwij - - 2012
The strong epidemiological association between cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and respiratory tract infections is conventionally attributed to immunosuppressive and irritant effects of CS on human cells. Since pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus are members of the normal microbiota and reside in close proximity to human nasopharyngeal cells, we hypothesized ...
Kalvakolanu Dhananjaya V - - 2012
IFNG/IFNγ plays a critical role in driving innate and acquired defenses against infectious pathogens. The death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), originally identified as an activator of IFNG-induced cell death, controls autophagy. Previously, we have shown that transcription factor CEBPB (C/EBP-β) regulates IFNG-induced expression of Dapk1 through a CRE/ATF motif in ...
Liu Zhuyun - - 2012
Bacterial pathogens use cell surface-associated adhesion molecules to promote host attachment and colonization, and the ability to modulate adhesion expression is critical to pathogen success. Here, we show that the human-specific pathogen the group A Streptococcus (GAS) uses a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) to regulate the expression of adhesive pili. ...
Lasa Iñigo - - 2012
Analysis of bacterial transcriptomes have shown the existence of a genome-wide process of overlapping transcription due to the presence of antisense RNAs, as well as mRNAs that overlapped in their entire length or in some portion of the 5'- and 3'-UTR regions. The biological advantages of such overlapping transcription are ...
Xu Xiao-Xia - - 2012
Hyalophora gloveri gloverin is a glycine-rich and heat stable antimicrobial protein with activity mainly against Escherichia coli. However, Spodoptera exigua gloverin is active against a Gram-positive bacterium but inactive against E. coli. In this study, we investigated expression profile, binding ability and antimicrobial activity of Manduca sexta gloverin (MsGlv). Msglv ...
Lau Calvin Ho-Fung - - 2012
Pan-aminoglycoside-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants expressing the mexXY components of the aminoglycoside-accommodating MexXY-OprM multidrug efflux system but lacking mutations in the mexZ gene encoding a repressor of this efflux system and in the mexXY promoter have been reported (S. Fraud and K. Poole, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55:1068-1074, 2011). Genome sequencing of ...
Monticelli Silvia - - 2012
The transcription factor Aiolos is upregulated in T lymphocytes in a manner dependent on the transcription factors STAT3 and AhR and leads to epigenetic silencing of the gene encoding interleukin 2. This acts as a cell-intrinsic safeguard mechanism for the differentiation of helper T cells into the TH17 subset.
Ma Li - - 2012
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the quorum-sensing (QS) system is closely related to biofilm formation. We previously demonstrated that 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide (AL-1) has synergistic effects on antibiofilm and antivirulence factors (pyocyanin and exopolysaccharide) of P. aeruginosa when combined with conventional antibiotics, while it has little inhibitory effect on its growth. However, its ...
Govindarajan Sutharsan - - 2012
For many years the bacterial cells were regarded as tiny vessels lacking internal organization. This view, which stemmed from the scarcity of membrane-bounded organelles, has changed considerably in recent years, mainly due to advancements in imaging capabilities. Consequently, despite the rareness of conventional organelles, bacteria are now known to have ...
Choi Younho - - 2012
Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and meningitis in premature infants. The genetic basis of C. sakazakii virulence is poorly understood. In this study, the putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) gene (ESA_01081 homolog) was characterized as a possible regulator for C. sakazakii pathogenesis. An ...
Dutt Shriparna - - 2012
In the present study, expression patterns of two different wheat cystatins (WCs) were studied under the influence of jasmonate signaling in triggering resistance against Karnal bunt (KB). Cystatins are cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI) constituting a multigene family which regulate the activity of endo- and/or exogenous cysteine proteinases (CP). Two wheat ...
Oh S - - 2012
AIMS: Indole is a signaling molecule, produced by a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria both in nature as well as clinical environments. Here, we explored the effect of bacterial indole and one of its main derivatives on the virulence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. METHODS AND RESULTS: We ...
Liao Julie - - 2012
Biofilms are composed of surface-attached microbial communities. A hallmark of biofilms is their profound tolerance of antimicrobial agents. While biofilm drug tolerance has been considered to be multifactorial, our findings indicate, instead, that bacteria within biofilms employ a classical regulatory mechanism to resist the action of antimicrobial agents. Here we ...
Park Young Ho - - 2012
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. The simple extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain proteins have been implicated in disease resistance. Rice leucine-rich repeat protein (OsLRP), a rice simple eLRR domain protein, is induced by pathogens, phytohormones, and salt. To see whether OsLRP ...
Brouwers Erin - - 2012
The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is a 35 kb pathogenicity island involved in attaching and effacing Escherichia coli enteric infection. The LEE is organized into five large transcriptional operons (LEE1-LEE5) and a few bi and monocistronic instances. The LEE5 operon co-transcribes three genes, tir-cesT-eae, although cesT can be transcribed ...
Yamamoto Takenobu - - 2012
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI-A rightward transcripts designated BARTs or CSTs have been demonstrated to contain several splicing forms in EBV-infected cells. To date, however, little is known about the actual full-length splicing form and its functions. In the present study, we have proved that 6 forms of BARTs were present ...
Ilboudo Hamidou - - 2012
Most African trypanosome species are sensitive to trypanolytic factors (TLFs) present in human serum. Trypanosome lysis was demonstrated to be associated with apolipoprotein L-I (APOL1). Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense, the two human infective trypanosome species, have both developed distinct resistance mechanisms to APOL1 mediated lysis. Whereas ...
Benson Meredith A - - 2012
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen that is capable of infecting a wide range of host tissues. This bacterium is able to evade the host immune response by utilizing a repertoire of virulence factors. These factors are tightly regulated by various two-component systems (TCS) and transcription factors. Previous studies ...
Slobodskaya Olga - - 2012
CEACAM1 is the sole known receptor of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) A59, but the available, often qualitative, data about CEACAM1 expression does not explain MHV organ tropism. Ceacam1 transcripts undergo alternative splicing resulting in multiple isoforms, including secreted CEACAM1 isoforms that can neutralize the virus. We determined the quantities of ...
Fischer Malaika - - 2012
Phytoestrogens, such as the soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein, are suggested to beneficially affect lipid metabolism in humans and thereby contribute to healthy ageing. New evidences show that phytoestrogens might slow ageing processes also by affecting immune processes. We tested in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the effects of 17β-estradiol, genistein, ...
Téllez-Pérez Ana Dolores - - 2012
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory functions regulating the expression of host defense genes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on S. aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and antimicrobial peptide (AP) mRNA expression. Cholecalciferol (1-200nM) did not affect S. aureus growth ...
Kim Soo-Kyoung - - 2012
Bidirectional activation of transcription is a peculiar regulation mode of gene expression. In this study, we show that genes involved in the metabolism of anthranilate, a precursor of biosynthesis of tryptophan and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) are regulated by this bidirectional activation of transcription. Anthranilate is degraded by anthranilate dioxygenase ...
Waditee-Sirisattha Rungaroon - - 2012
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase ( SHMT ) is a key enzyme in cellular one-carbon pathway and has been studied in many living organisms from bacteria to higher plants and mammals. However, biochemical and molecular characterization of SHMT from photoautotrophic microorganisms remains a challenge. Here, we isolated the SHMT gene from a halotolerant ...
Chunhua Mu - - 2012
LytM is one kind of autolysin expressed in Staphylococcus aureus. It can hydrolyze peptide bond of pentaglycine, which is the component of cell wall. Until now, the regulation on the expression of LytM is still unclear. Here, we found that the level of LytM in the RNAIII mutant was increased. ...
Borges Aline - - 2012
Common bean, one of the most important legumes for human consumption, may have drastic reduction in yield due to anthracnose, a disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Rapid induction of the plant defense mechanisms is essential to establish an incompatible interaction with this pathogenic fungus. In this study, we ...
Kawakita Yuichiro - - 2012
To investigate the mechanism of activation of the genes for resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family members MexE, MexF, and OprN for multidrug resistance (MDR), we mutagenized aefR and mexT, the potential regulators of mexEF/oprN transcription in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 (Pta 6605). AefR is a member of the TetR transcription factors, ...
Swain Banikalyan - - 2012
Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR), and is a member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family. It senses a wide range of bacteria and viruses or their products, and plays a key role in inducing innate immunity. In this report, NOD1 gene was ...
Vila Jordi - - 2012
Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent bacteria implicated in biofilm formation, which is a dynamic process whose first step consists in bacteria adhesion to surfaces through type 1 fimbriae. Salicylate induces a number of morphological and physiological alterations in bacteria including the activation of the transcriptional regulator MarA. ...
Smith Alanna - - 2012
The Ag(I) ion has well established anti-bacterial and antifungal properties. Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to MIC(80) AgNO(3) (3 μg/ml) lead to an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase at 30 min but activity declined by 60 min. In addition, exposure of cells to this metal ion for 1 h ...
Cooper Morris D MD Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, Southern Illinois University, Springfield, IL, - - 2012
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is an innate immune peptide present on the genitourinary tract mucosa that has antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the interaction of SLPI with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ELISA and far-Western blots were used to analyze binding of SLPI to gonococci. The binding site for SLPI ...
Miyazaki Haruko - - 2012
The relationship between bacterial infection and collagen production was investigated using human fibroblasts transfected with the promoter of COL1A2, which encodes the α1 chain of human type I collagen, linked to a luciferase reporter. The cells were then used to assess the gene promoter activity of COL1A2 following bacterial stimulation. ...
Sineva Elena - - 2012
The capacity of pathogens to respond to environmental signals, such as iron concentration, is key to bacterial survival and establishment of a successful infection. Bacillus cereus is a widely distributed bacterium with distinct pathogenic properties. Hemolysin II (HlyII) is one of its pore-forming cytotoxins and has been shown to be ...
Liang Haihua - - 2012
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has at least three quorum-sensing (QS) systems, including the acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-mediated las and rhl systems, as well as the 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolone (AHQ) signal-based system. A group of key regulators of these QS systems have been identified, such as qteE, vqsM, vqsR, and vfr. However, the ...
Damron F Heath - - 2012
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a significant opportunistic pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis. In addition, it can chronically colonize the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Overproduction of the exopolysaccharide called alginate provides P. aeruginosa with a selective advantage and facilitates survival ...
Liu Yuan - - 2012
A new isoform of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (PtALF5) was cloned from eyestalk cDNA library of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The full-length cDNA of PtALF5 was 1045 bp encoding 120 amino acids. PtALF5 shared lower amino acid similarity with other ALFs, yet it contained the conserved LPS-binding domain and was clearly member of ...
Heroven Ann Kathrin - - 2012
This review emphasizes the function and regulation of the Csr regulatory system in the human enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and compares its features with the homologous Csr/Rsm systems of related pathogens. The Csr/Rsm systems of eubacteria form a complex regulatory network in which redundant non-translated Csr/Rsm-RNAs bind the RNA-binding protein CsrA/RsmA, ...
Nothnick Warren - - 2012
Proper development and function of the female reproductive tract is essential for successful reproduction. Regulation of the differentiated functions of the organs which make up the female reproductive tract is well established to occur at multiple levels including transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. MicroRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation has emerged as ...
Lim Sangyong - - 2012
In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, many of the genes required for intestinal penetration and invasion of host cells are encoded within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1). The expression of invF, which is a positive transcriptional activator of SPI1, is controlled by HilA-dependent (invF-1) and HilC/D-dependent (invF-2) promoters. Transcriptional analysis ...
Loveday Emma-Kate - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress the expression levels of genes by binding to mRNA transcripts, acting as master regulators of cellular processes. Differential expression of miRNAs has been linked to virus-associated diseases involving members of the Hepacivirus, Herpesvirus, and Retrovirus families. In contrast, limited biological and molecular information has been reported on ...
Lehti Timo A - - 2012
Flagella provide advantages to Escherichia coli by facilitating taxis towards nutrients and away from unfavourable niches. On the other hand, flagellation is an energy sink to the bacterial cell, and flagella also stimulate host innate inflammatory responses against infecting bacteria. The flagellar assembly pathway is ordered and under a complex ...
Birkenbihl Rainer P - - 2012
The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor WRKY33 is essential for defense toward the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Here, we aimed at identifying early transcriptional responses mediated by WRKY33. Global expression profiling on susceptible wrky33 and resistant wild-type plants uncovered massive differential transcriptional reprogramming upon B. cinerea infection. Subsequent detailed kinetic ...
Hu Yu - - 2012
Abstract Thermonuclease is known as a specific virulence factor in Staphylococcus aureus. It is widely used as a genetic marker for detection of S. aureus in various types of food. Previous studies have revealed the existence of two functional thermostable nucleases encoded by two different genes (nuc1 and nuc2) in ...
Papenfort Kai - - 2012
SgrS RNA is a model for the large class of Hfq-associated small RNAs that act to posttranscriptionally regulate bacterial mRNAs. The function of SgrS is well-characterized in nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, where it was originally shown to counteract glucose-phosphate stress by acting as a repressor of the ptsG mRNA, which encodes ...
Shivaprasad Padubidri V PV Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United - - 2012
Analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) small RNA data sets revealed the presence of a regulatory cascade affecting disease resistance. The initiators of the cascade are microRNA members of an unusually diverse superfamily in which miR482 and miR2118 are prominent members. Members of this superfamily are variable in sequence and abundance ...
Rai Rikky - - 2012
In Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice, a secreted fatty acid signaling molecule known as Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) is required for virulence and growth on low iron medium. To identify other virulence associated traits that are regulated by DSF in this pathogen, we have performed ...
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