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Vencken Sebastian S Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9, - - 2015
Several experimental methods exist to explore the microRNA (miRNA) regulome. These methods almost exclusively focus on multiple targets bound to a single, or perhaps a few miRNAs of interest. Here, we describe a microRNA capture affinity technology (miR-CATCH) which uses an affinity capture oligonucleotide to co-purify a single target messenger ...
Hu Dong Gui DG Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Flinders University School of Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre , Bedford Park, SA , - - 2014
Abstract Glucuronidation is an important metabolic pathway for many small endogenous and exogenous lipophilic compounds, including bilirubin, steroid hormones, bile acids, carcinogens and therapeutic drugs. Glucuronidation is primarily catalyzed by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A and two subfamilies, including nine functional UGT1A enzymes (1A1, 1A3-1A10) and 10 functional UGT2 enzymes (2A1, ...
Hart Gerald W GW Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States - - 2014
The dynamic cycling of N-acetylglucosamine (termed O-GlcNAcylation) on serine or threonine residues of nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins serves as a nutrient sensor, both independently and also via its interplay with other post-translational modifications, to regulate signaling, transcription and cell physiology. Emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of this ubiquitous post-translational modification ...
Long Mark D MD Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm & Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY, 14263, - - 2014
Following the elucidation of the human genome and components of the epigenome, it is timely to revisit what is known of vitamin D receptor (VDR) function. Early transcriptomic studies using microarray approaches focused on the protein coding mRNA that were regulated by the VDR, usually following treatment with ligand. These ...
Petrilli Raquel - - 2014
Antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODNs) are short, single-stranded DNA molecules designed to bind specifically to a target messenger RNA (mRNA) and down-regulate gene expression. Despite being a promising class of therapeutics for a variety of diseases, they face major hurdles limiting their clinical application, including low intracellular delivery and poor in vivo ...
Brüning Ansgar A Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Molecular Biology Laboratory, University Hospital Munich, Maistrasse 11, 80337, Munich, Germany, - - 2014
The family of metastasis-associated (MTA) genes is a small group of transcriptional co-regulators which are involved in various physiological functions, ranging from lymphopoietic cell differentiation to the development and maintenance of epithelial cell adhesions. By recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to specific promoter sequences, MTA proteins can function both as transcriptional repressors ...
Wei Jiali J School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, P.R. - - 2014
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non‑coding RNAs involved in multiple biological pathways by regulating post‑transcriptional gene expression. Previously, autophagy has been reported to suppress the progression of non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, how miRNAs regulate autophagy in NSCLC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the autophagy gene, autophagy‑related 2B ...
Kosztyu Petr P Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, Olomouc, 77515, Czech - - 2014
Increased expression of the ABCB1 gene in cancer cells is usually connected with occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and poor prognosis. However, the correlation between ABCB1 expression and MDR phenotype is difficult to prove in clinical samples. Most of the researchers believe that these difficulties are due to the poor ...
Tuure L L The Immunopharmacology Research Group, University of Tampere School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital , Tampere , - - 2014
Objectives: Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is a terminal enzyme in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its expression is upregulated during inflammation. mPGES-1 is considered as a potential drug target for the treatment of arthritis to reduce adverse effects related to the current non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our ...
Standaert Laura L Center for the Biology of Disease, Laboratory for Molecular Cancer Biology, VIB, Leuven 3000, Belgium Center for Human Genetics, Laboratory for Molecular Cancer Biology, KULeuven, Leuven 3000, - - 2014
The lncRNA Neat1 is an essential architectural component of paraspeckle nuclear bodies. Although cell-based studies identified Neat1-paraspeckles as key regulators of gene expression through retention of hyperdited mRNAs and/or transcription factors, it is unclear under which specific physiological conditions paraspeckles are formed in vivo and whether they have any biological ...
Zhao Lianggong L The Second Clinical Medical College of Lanzhou University, 82 Cuiying Men, Lanzhou 730030, PR China; Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, PR - - 2014
Radix Hedysari polysaccharides (HPS) is the principal active fraction of Radix Hedysari (RH). The information about HPS3d, the main fraction of HPS3, and its effect on bone is still unknown. In the present study, the purified HPS3d was obtained by anion-exchange column. It consisted of 94.38% polysaccharide, 3.40% protein and ...
Tay Hock L HL Priority Research Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle , Newcastle 2308 , - - 2014
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that bind to multiple target mRNAs to control gene expression post-transcriptionally by inhibiting translation. In mammalian cells, microRNAs play important roles in a diverse array of cellular processes (e.g. cell proliferation and differentiation). However, alterations in their levels may compromise cellular function, predisposing to disease. ...
Hardman Jonathan A JA 1] The Centre for Dermatology Research, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK [2] Doctoral Training Centre in Integrative Systems Biology, Manchester Institute of biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
While the regulation of pigmentation is well-characterized it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). Since human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated ...
Aras Siddhesh S Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 - - 2014
Our understanding of stress-associated regulatory mechanisms for mitochondria remains incomplete. We now report a new regulator of mitochondrial metabolism, the coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing protein 2 (CHCHD2) which, based on the functionality described here, is renamed MNRR1 (Mitochondria Nuclear Retrograde Regulator 1). It functions in a novel way by acting in two ...
Kojima Shihoko - - 2014
In order to maintain daily cycles, the circadian clock must tightly regulate the rhythms of thousands of mRNAs and proteins with the correct period, phase, and amplitude to ultimately drive the wide range of rhythmic biological processes. Recent genomic approaches have revolutionized our view of circadian gene expression and highlighted ...
Gustafson Chelsea L - - 2014
Mammalian circadian timekeeping arises from a transcription-based feedback loop driven by a set of dedicated clock proteins. At its core, the heterodimeric transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 activates expression of Period, Cryptochrome and Rev-Erb genes, which feed back to repress transcription and create oscillations in gene expression that confer circadian timing cues ...
Hapangama D K DK Department of Women's and Children's Health, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool L8 7SS, UK - - 2014
The endometrium is the primary target organ for the 'female' sex steroid hormone estrogen, which exerts effects in the endometrium via two main classical estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, ERα and ERβ. The main function of the endometrium, embryo implantation, appears unperturbed in ERβ knockout mice, which has led researchers to ...
Hu Yang - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs and leading to either translation repression or RNA degradation. miRNAs have fundamental effects in the regulation of intracellular processes, and their importance during malignant transformation and metastasis is becoming increasingly well understood. The epithelial-mesenchymal ...
Muyal Jai Prakash JP School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University , Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh , India - - 2014
Abstract Context: Pulmonary emphysema is resulted due to destruction of the structure of the alveoli. Recently, exogenous recombinant human Keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has been reported to induce the regeneration of gas exchange structures. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are so far unknown. Objective: The objective of this ...
Wang Xuming X Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, P.R. - - 2014
An increasing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as additional therapeutic tools, in skeletal diseases. Recent studies have established the pathophysiological role of miR‑214, using human osteoporotic bone specimens. However, miR‑214 expression levels and the underlying regulatory mechanism in human osteosarcoma remain ...
Yu Zhongsheng Z State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road 15, Beijing, 100101, - - 2014
More and more studies have shown chromatin remodelers and histone modifiers play essential roles in regulating developmental patterns by organizing specific chromosomal architecture to establish programmed transcriptional profiles, with implications that histone chaperones execute a coordinating role in these processes. Chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1), an evolutionarily conserved three-subunit protein complex, ...
Hershkovitz-Rokah Oshrat O Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Beilinson Hospital, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, - - 2014
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disorder of hematopoietic stem cell carrying the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome and an oncogenic BCR-ABL fusion gene. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the BCR-ABL kinase are the treatment of choice for CML patients. Imatinib was the first TKI used in clinical practice with excellent results. ...
Gadupudi Gopi G Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242; Department of Occupational & Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, - - 2014
Emerging evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are involved in the development of diabetes. Dysfunctional adipocytes play a significant role in initiating insulin resistance. Preadipocytes make up a large portion of adipose tissue and are necessary for the generation of functional mature adipocytes through adipogenesis. ...
Gu Chen C Department of Biological Engineering and Center for Environmental Health Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United - - 2014
The regulation of gene expression in response to stress is an essential cellular protection mechanism. Recent advances in tRNA modification analysis and genome-based codon bias analytics have facilitated studies that lead to a novel model for translational control, with translation elongation dynamically regulated during stress responses. Stress-induced increases in specific ...
Li Yue Y Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. yueli@cs.toronto.edu - - 2014
Transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) can jointly regulate transcriptional networks in the form of recurrent circuits or motifs. A motif can be divided into a feedforward loop (FFL) and a feedback loop (FBL). Incoherent FFLs have been the recent focus due to their potential to dampen gene expression noise ...
Liu Zhi-Ping - - 2014
Respiratory epithelial cells are the primary target of influenza virus infection in human. However, the molecular mechanisms of airway epithelial cell responses to viral infection are not fully understood. Revealing genome-wide transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory relationships can further advance our understanding of this problem, which motivates the development of novel ...
Sucharov Carmen C CC University of Colorado, Denver Department of Medicine/Division of Cardiology. Electronic address: - - 2014
miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression through interaction with the 3'UTR of target mRNAs. The role of miRNAs has been extensively studied in adult human and animal models of heart disease. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the most common form of severe congenital heart disease and is an ...
Avitabile Concetta - - 2014
ncRNAs are emerging as key regulators of physiological and pathological processes and therefore have been identified as pharmacological targets and as markers for some diseases. Oligonucleotide analogues represent so far the most widely employed tool for the modulation of the expression of ncRNAs. In this perspective we briefly describe most ...
Pawellek Andrea A University of Dundee, United - - 2014
Eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing is an essential step in gene expression for all genes that contain introns. In contrast with transcription and translation, few well-characterized chemical inhibitors are available with which to dissect the splicing process, particularly in cells. Therefore, the identification of specific, small molecules that either inhibit, or modify, ...
Dehghanian Fariba F Division of Genetics, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2014
VEGF-A is a critical growth factor in tumor growth and progression. Two families of VEGF-A isoforms are produced through alternative splicing including VEGFxxx pro-angiogenic and VEGFxxxb anti-angiogenic isoforms. VEGF111b is a new member of the VEGFxxxb family that is induced by mitomycin C and doesn't express in normal conditions. The ...
Zhang Kunshan - - 2014
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate embryonic development and cell fate decision in various ways, such as modulation of chromatin modification and post-transcription regulation of gene expression. However, the profiles and roles of lncRNAs in early mammalian development have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we reported a comprehensive analysis of mouse ...
Rubio Claudia A - - 2014
BackgroundProtein synthesis is tightly regulated and alterations to translation are characteristic of many cancers. Translation regulation is largely exerted at initiation through the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F). eIF4F is pivotal for oncogenic signaling as it integrates mitogenic signals to amplify production of pro-growth and pro-survival factors. Convergence of ...
Fukao Akira A Laboratory of Hygienic Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8603, - - 2014
In animals, key functions of microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) are translational repression and deadenylation followed by mRNA decay. While miRISC represses translation initiation, it is poorly understood how miRISC exerts this function. Here we assessed the effect of miRISC on synergistic recruitment of translation initiation factors to target mRNAs by ...
Lei San-Lin SL Department of General Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, P.R. - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRs) function as key regulators of gene expression and their deregulation is associated with the carcinogenesis of various cancers. In the present study, the aim was to validate the potential roles and regulatory mechanisms of miR-708 and miR-31 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. miR-708 and miR-31 were found to ...
Zhang Huan-Tian HT Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and the Purdue University Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; Institute of Orthopedic Diseases and Department of Orthopedics of The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, People's Republic of - - 2014
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) symmetrically methylates arginine residues of histones and non-histone protein substrates and regulates a variety of cellular processes through epigenetic control of target gene expression or post-translational modification of signaling molecules. Recent evidence suggests that PRMT5 may function as an oncogene and its overexpression contributes to ...
Quintana Anita M AM Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mutations in HCFC1 (MIM300019), have been recently associated with cblX (MIM309541), an X-linked, recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including craniofacial abnormalities. HCFC1 is a transcriptional co-regulator that modulates the expression of numerous downstream target genes including MMACHC, but it is not clear how these HCFC1 targets play a ...
Wu Hao - - 2014
BackgroundRecent studies have linked chemotherapy resistance to the altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). Thus, miRNA-based approaches to modulating sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) may overcome chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether miR-136 could modulates glioma cell sensitivity to TMZ.MethodsThe proliferation of glioma U251 cell line was ...
Van Lint Sandra S Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Medical School of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Jette, - - 2014
About 25 years ago, mRNA became a tool of interest in anticancer vaccination approaches. However, due to its rapid degradation in situ, direct application of mRNA was confronted with considerable skepticism during its early use. Consequently, mRNA was for a long time mainly used for the ex vivo transfection of ...
Gray G Kenneth GK Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, 1900 University Blvd, THT 926A, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0006, - - 2014
Since we last addressed the roles of NF-κB and JAK/STAT3 signaling in glioblastoma (GBM) 5 years ago, tremendous strides have been made in the understanding of these two pathways in glioma biology. Contributing to prosurvival mechanisms, cancer stem cell maintenance and treatment resistance, both NF-κB and STAT3 have been characterized ...
Goyama S S Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2014
The transcription factor RUNX1 is a master regulator of hematopoiesis. Disruption of RUNX1 activity has been implicated in the development of hematopoietic neoplasms. Recent studies also highlight the importance of RUNX1 in solid tumors both as a tumor promoter and a suppressor. Given its central role in cancer development, RUNX1 ...
Aalberg Haugen Inger M IM Department of zoology, Stockholm university, Se-10691, stockholm, - - 2014
1.Seasonal phenotypic plasticity entails differential trait expression depending on the time of season. The facultative induction of winter diapause in temperate insects is a developmental switch mechanism often leading to differential expression in life-history traits. However, when there is a latitudinal shift from a bivoltine to univoltine life-cycle, selection for ...
Liao Guoning G Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, - - 2014
Cell migration plays an important role in many normal and pathological functions such as development, wound healing, immune defense, and tumor metastasis. Polarized migrating cells exhibit asymmetric distribution of many cytoskeletal proteins, which is believed to be critical for establishing and maintaining cell polarity and directional cell migration. To target ...
Weaver Ian C G IC Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Life Science Research Institute, 1348 Summer Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H - - 2014
Variations in maternal care in the rat influence the epigenetic state and transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in the hippocampus. The mechanisms underlying this maternal effect remained to be defined, including the nature of the relevant maternally regulated intracellular signalling pathways. We show here that increased maternal licking/grooming ...
Liu Jing-Jing JJ Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, P.R. - - 2014
MicroRNA-101 (miR-101) is frequently downregulated in various cancers. To date, the regulatory networks of miR-101 remain obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-101 was mainly transcribed from human miR-101-2 and mouse miR-101bgene loci. Subsequent analyses revealed that activator protein-1 (AP-1) directly binded to the -17.4 to -16.4 k region upstream ...
Guiro J J Institute of Biosciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, - - 2014
The 164 bp U1 small nuclear (sn) RNA is one of the most abundant noncoding (nc) RNA in human cells, estimated to be in the region of 10(6) copies/cell. Although best known for its role in pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing events, research over the past 20 years has revealed diverse ...
Batsché Eric E Institut Pasteur, Dpt Biologie du Développement et Cellules Souches, Unité de Régulation Epigénétique, 75015 Paris, France; URA2578, - - 2014
Alternative splicing of precursor RNAs is an important process in multicellular species because it impacts several aspects of gene expression: from the increase of protein repertoire to the level of expression. A large body of evidences demonstrates that factors regulating chromatin and transcription impact the outcomes of alternative splicing. Argonaute ...
Eichhorn Stephen W SW Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate target mRNAs through a combination of translational repression and mRNA destabilization, with mRNA destabilization dominating at steady state in the few contexts examined globally. Here, we extend the global steady-state measurements to additional mammalian contexts and find that regardless of the miRNA, cell type, growth condition, or ...
Georg Jens J University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, D-79104 Freiburg, - - 2014
Little is known so far about RNA regulators of photosynthesis in plants, algae, or cyanobacteria. The small RNA PsrR1 (formerly SyR1) has been discovered in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and appears to be widely conserved within the cyanobacterial phylum. Expression of PsrR1 is induced shortly after a shift from moderate ...
Singh Noopur N Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow 226015, UP, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
microRNA is known to play an important role in growth and development of the plants and also in environmental stress. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a well known herb for its medicinal properties. In this study, we used in-silico approaches to identify miRNAs and their targets regulating different functions in O. ...
Trujillo Joyce J Facultad de Química, Department of Biology, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F., - - 2014
Curcumin, a phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa, is commonly used in Asia as a spice and pigment and has several biological functions, particularly antioxidant properties. It has been reported that curcumin exhibits bifunctional antioxidant properties related to its capability to react directly with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also ...
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